2006 Annual Report
This project supports National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products and Departmental Goal 1 Enhance Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers, Objective: Provide the Science-Based Knowledge and Technologies To Generate New or Improved High Quality, Value-Added Products and Processes To Expand Domestic and Foreign Markets for Agricultural Commodities. This Project addresses ARS Strategic Plan Performance Measure 1.1.2., Provide higher quality, healthy foods that satisfy consumer needs in the United States and abroad.
This research addresses components 1 (Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement) and 2 (New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products) of ARS National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products; the primary focus is in problem areas 1c (Factors and Processes Affecting Quality), 2a (New product technology), and 2c (New and improved processes and feedstocks), and will develop new processes and uses for whey proteins and ultimately nonfat dried milk (NFDM) or fluid milk components.
The purpose of this research is to modify milk proteins, particularly whey proteins, using extrusion processes in a way that preserves nutritionally important minor components and improves their textural, rheological and viscoelastic properties. The specific objectives are: (1) Develop thermal and non-thermal extrusion-based processes that alter the structures of whey proteins (texturize), identify the process conditions, and develop models that relate the conditions to the quality attributes of texturized proteins. (2) Create co-products linking the texturized whey proteins with carbohydrate and protein polymers such as soy proteins to make health-enhancing products. Characterize the rheological and viscoelastic properties of the texturized whey protein co-products as specialized ingredients with improved quality and functionality.
New processes based on extrusion will help reduce surplus dairy proteins that are currently being handled as waste or animal feed, and will increase our understanding of modifying protein function through extrusion texturization. New extruded snacks, meat analogs, and multi-functioning texturized dairy co-products will be created.
Initiate work on developing model process parameters by characterizing product variables such as elasticity and gel strength.
Year 2 (FY2006): Continue work to determine thermal and non thermal extrusion parameters for optimal regions of modifying whey proteins and co-products (complete 50%).
Continue work on developing model process parameters by characterizing product variables (elasticity, gel strength), complete 50%.
Initiate work on characterizing changes in molecular structure.
Determine changes in physical and chemical composition and protein profiles.
Year 3 (FY2007): Complete work to determine thermal and non thermal extrusion parameters for optimal regions of modifying whey proteins and co-products.
Complete work on characterizing product variables such as elasticity and gel strength. Determine nutritive quality and protein digestibility. Develop response models linking process variables to product characteristics.
Year 4 (FY2008): Initiate work to develop extruded co-products with whey proteins, different grains, and other proteins to create prototype food systems.
Initiate work to develop viscoelastic models of co-products made with whey proteins, starches, and other protein combinations for new product application.
Year 5 (FY2009): Complete work to develop extruded co-products with whey proteins, different grains, and other proteins to create prototype food systems.
Complete work to develop viscoelastic models of co-products made with texturized whey proteins, starches, and other protein combinations for new product application.
This report serves to document research conducted under a grant from USDA Foreign Agriculture Service to develop health-enhancing snack products using extrusion technology. Additional details of this research can be found in the report of project 1935-41000-065-00D, New and Improved Processes for Texturizing Milk Components. We achieved the initial objective of developing partially cooked “half products” using low glycemic starches including cassava and whey proteins. Half products were developed using cassava, quinoa, cashew pulp, corn, and whey proteins.
These products satisfy the main objective of developing Protein-Enriched Low Glycemic Snack Products that Mitigate Childhood Obesity in US and Hidden Hunger in Brazil. By developing protein-enriched extruded half products using whey proteins to replace 30% of the starch, we can address obesity. We will determine the protocol to fortify the half products with minerals and vitamins which will address the hidden hunger aspect of this project. The half products are readily expanded by frying, baking in conventional oven, or the microwave. Conventional and microwave oven baked products are not as expanded as oil baked products, but are lower in calories. Ultimately, these snacks will be fortified with micronutrients such as iron, zinc, and vitamin A to combat hidden hunger; the high protein will help combat obesity and other associated health problems.
The potential use of cheese whey proteins in expanded snack products is limited by the negative effect of whey proteins on expansion. If whey proteins are not modified by processing prior to addition they cause the products to shrink and become tough instead of crunchy. We developed extruded products containing up to 35% whey proteins by allowing the whey proteins to expand and reducing the amount of water added during extrusion, and improved the crunchiness of products containing whey proteins.
Work was completed on a new process that combines whey protein concentrate and calcium caseinate into syrup-like composites for use in many food applications. One such application is the use of the dairy-based composites to coat dietary fibers, to create a barrier around the fiber, and to reduce their water holding capacity. An innovation disclosure was filled and patent was granted #6,610,347 B1.
Several texturized dairy proteins were created by extrusion cooling conditions; their new physical properties were determined using texture profile analyses. Because the protein structure remained intact after extrusion, several puffy and foamy structures were created, and these may be used in baked product applications.
The effect of blending whey protein isolates and starch with minimal shear and moderate temperature was determined using a torque Rheometer. This new technique predicts blend and mix properties of whey proteins with starch resulting in better networks for expandable products.
ARS processing technology for texturized whey proteins has been licensed. The formulation, processing requirements, and resulting about six commercial products undergoing marketing tests.
Food Production Daily.Com, March 2005. ARS targets waste reduction and biodegradability in food production.Onwulata, C.I., Tomasula, P.M. 2006. Processes for creating texturized whey protein products. Proceedings. 4th Internatl Whey Conference.
Onwulata, C.I., Liu, L.S., Finkenstadt, V.L., Willett, J.L. 2005. Extruded and injection molded biopolymers: properties of polylactic acid pla/sugar-beet pulp blends, and whey protein/corn gluten meal (cgm). UJNR Food & Agricultural Panel Proceedings. November 21-29,2005. Fuji,Japan. p.99-105.
Onwulata, C.I., Muir, Z.E., Tunick, M.H., Tomasula, P.M. 2005. Properties of dairy proteins and alginic acid gels. ACS National Meeting AGFD 0075.
Tunick, M.H., Onwulata, C.I. 2006. Texturization of whey proteins for use in fortified foods. ACS Spring Meeting Paper AGFD0013
Onwulata, C.I., Tomasula, P.M., Mulvaney, S.J., Bahar, S. 2005. Texturized whey protein (twp) applications. International Whey Conf. (IWC 2005). Book Chapter. "The Wonders of Whey:Catch the Power" p221-234.
Onwulata, C.I., Tomasula, P.M. 2005. Improving functionality of whey protein concentrates from different sources. Journal of Dairy Science. Vol. 1 (1) 1-8, 2006.