2005 Annual Report
This project supports National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products and Departmental Goal 1 Enhance Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers , Objective: Provide the Science-Based Knowledge and Technologies To Generate New or Improved High Quality, Value-Added Products and Processes To Expand Domestic and Foreign Markets for Agricultural Commodities. This Project addresses ARS Strategic Plan Performance Measure 1.1.2., Provide higher quality, healthy foods that satisfy consumer needs in the United States and abroad.
This research addresses components 1 (Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement) and 2 (New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products) of ARS National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products; the primary focus is in problem areas 1c (Factors and Processes Affecting Quality), 2a (New product technology), and 2c (New and improved processes and feedstocks), and will develop new processes and uses for whey proteins and ultimately nonfat dried milk (NFDM) or fluid milk components.
The purpose of this research is to modify milk proteins, particularly whey proteins, using extrusion processes in a way that preserves nutritionally important minor components and improves their textural, rheological and viscoelastic properties. The specific objectives are: (1) Develop thermal and non-thermal extrusion-based processes that alter the structures of whey proteins (texturize), identify the process conditions, and develop models that relate the conditions to the quality attributes of texturized proteins. (2) Create co-products linking the texturized whey proteins with carbohydrate and protein polymers such as soy proteins to make health-enhancing products. Characterize the rheological and viscoelastic properties of the texturized whey protein co-products as specialized ingredients with improved quality and functionality.
New processes based on extrusion will help reduce surplus dairy proteins that are currently being handled as waste or animal feed, and will increase our understanding of modifying protein function through extrusion texturization. New extruded snacks, meat analogs, and multi-functioning texturized dairy co-products will be created.
Year 2 (FY2006): Continue work to determine thermal and non thermal extrusion parameters for optimal regions of modifying whey proteins and co-products (complete 50%). Continue work on developing model process parameters by characterizing product variables (elasticity, gel strength), complete 50%. Initiate work on characterizing changes in molecular structure. Determine changes in physical and chemical composition and protein profiles.
Year 3 (FY2007): Complete work to determine thermal and non thermal extrusion parameters for optimal regions of modifying whey proteins and co-products. Complete work on characterizing product variables such as elasticity and gel strength. Determine nutritive quality and protein digestibility. Develop response models linking process variables to product characteristics.
Year 4 (FY2008): Initiate work to develop extruded co-products with whey proteins, different grains, and other proteins to create prototype food systems. Initiate work to develop viscoelastic models of co-products made with whey proteins, starches, and other protein combinations for new product application.
Year 5 (FY2009): Complete work to develop extruded co-products with whey proteins, different grains, and other proteins to create prototype food systems. Complete work to develop viscoelastic models of co-products made with texturized whey proteins, starches, and other protein combinations for new product application.
1935-41000-065-02S-This report serves to document research conducted under an SCA between ARS and Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Texturized whey proteins were produced under controlled degree of denaturation by manipulating extrusion conditions. These proteins were then linked with food gums and were used to create value-added low-glycemic gummy bear type confectionery products. The effect of adding texturized whey protein to a high solids (sucrose-corn syrup) pectin co-solute system on the rheological (and textural properties) was determined by evaluating the mechanical spectra for soft glassy materials. The physical properties of the elastic network or bulk (undiluted) linear entangled polymers, in the moderate frequency range, and G-G crossover points at higher frequency indicated elastic effects. The results are high-solids confectionery gels that may replace sugars as confectionery ingredients, forming low caloric reduced-sugar products.
1935-41000-065-03R: This report serves to document research conducted under a grant from USDA Foreign Agriculture Service to develop health-enhancing snack products using extrusion technology. The main objective is to develop Protein-Enriched Low Glycemic Snack Products that Mitigate Childhood Obesity and Hidden Hunger. We are accomplishing this by developing protein-enriched extruded snack products using milk components, particularly, whey proteins. We are establishing rheological properties of blends of low glycemic starches including cassava, and whey proteins. We are incorporating cashew pulp as alternate dietary fiber source in extruded snacks. Results show synergistic effect with blending cassava and whey proteins that will produce a more expanded product. The healthy snacks will be fortified with micronutrients such as iron, zinc, and vitamin A. Protein-rich extruded snack products developed will help combat obesity and other associated health problems.
The potential use of cheese whey proteins in expanded snack products is limited by the negative effect of whey proteins on expansion. If whey proteins are not modified by processing prior to addition they cause the products to shrink and become tough instead of crunchy. We developed extruded products containing up to 35% whey proteins by allowing the whey proteins to expand and reducing the amount of water added during extrusion, and improved the crunchiness of products containing whey proteins. This research addresses Action Plan Component 2. New Processes, New Uses and Value – Added Foods, and Biobased Products. Problem Areas 2a. New Product Technology and 2c. New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks. Work was completed on a new process that combines whey protein concentrate and calcium caseinate into syrup-like composites for use in many food applications. One such application is the use of the dairy-based composites to coat dietary fibers, to create a barrier around the fiber, and to reduce their water holding capacity. An innovation disclosure was filled and patent was granted #6,610,347 B1. This research addresses Action Plan Component 2. New Processes, New Uses and Value – Added Foods, and Biobased Products. Problem Areas 2a. New Product Technology and 2c. New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks.
Several texturized dairy proteins were created by extrusion cooling conditions; their new physical properties were determined using texture profile analyses. Because the protein structure remained intact after extrusion, several puffy and foamy structures were created, and these may be used in baked product applications. This research addresses Action Plan Component 2. New Processes, New Uses and Value – Added Foods, and Biobased Products. Problem Areas 2a. New Product Technology and 2c. New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks.
ARS processing technology for texturized whey proteins has been licensed. The formulation, processing requirements, and resulting products were commercially tested and are ready for marketing.
Men's Health Magazine, March 2004. USDA’S ARS whey protein Technology.
Onwulata, C.I., Tomasula, P.M. 2005. Use of texturized whey proteins in expanded snacks. (abstract). 2nd International Symposium on Spray Drying. Paper No. 65-a.
Liu, L.S., Onwulata, C.I., Fishman, M.L., Savary, B.J., Hicks, K.B. Evaluation of sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) biodegradable composites. UJNR Food & Agricultural Panel Proceedings. 2004. p.80-90.
Liu, Z., Akin, D.E., Barton Ii, F.E., Onwulata, C.I., Erhan, S.Z. 2004. Preparation of soy-based composites reinforced with protein coated flax fiber. UJNR Food & Agricultural Panel Proceedings. p. 134.
Tunick, M.H., Onwulata, C.I., Tomasula, P.M. 2005. Rheological properties of extruded milk powders. Abstract. American Chemical Society. Paper No. AGFD075.
Nalesnik, C.A., Onwulata, C.I. 2005. Drying kinetics of extruded dairy proteins. (abstract). AOCS Ann. Mtg. & Expo. Paper No. 53.