2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Use starch-lipid composites produced by steam jet cooking to create new products from bio-based resources. Determine the effect of process variables and mechanisms of interactions that influence the properties of starch-lipid composites. Cooperate with licensees and CRADA partners to investigate specific combinations of ingredients designed to provide new applications.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Investigate the properties of starch-lipid composites prepared using cereal flour instead of starch, mixtures of starch and polysaccharide gums, and dairy sources of lipids. Vary the starch/lipid ratio and determine the maximum lipid content possible. Vary process variables such as steam pressure, steam and slurry flow rates, temperature, and high-shear mixing before or after jet cooking and determine the effects on composite properties. Cooperate with CRADA partners to develop products based on starch/lipid composites in the areas of food products (meats, dairy products, baked good, etc.), water-based lubricants, cosmetics and drug delivery products, and industrial or environmental microbial delivery systems.
Commercialization efforts were emphasized and significant progress was made in prototype product formulation, and preliminary investigations with a new platform technology based on amylose helical inclusion complexes were initiated. (1) Starch-lipid composites formulated as fat replacer gels for low-fat hamburger and meatball applications were optimized for color and flavor attributes in cooperation with the licensee. Commercial production of the gel has begun and ground beef patties are being marketed. (2) A water-based spray lubricant for waffle iron application has been developed that matches the release performance of aerosol sprays. The cooperator has successfully scaled up production of the material in their facilities. Large quantities of the material will be produced for distribution and test marketing. (3) An antimicrobial hand lotion prototype was developed using a fragrance based on focus group results, and a manufacturing protocol was adapted by the cooperator. (4) A starch-oil composite formulated as an oil drilling lubricant delivery system was successfully tested by a commercial partner. Efforts are being made to license the technology for commercialization. (5) A jet-cooked composite of starch and butter was evaluated for the enhancement of low-fat baked goods by potential commercial partners and a research partner of the licensee. (6) Starch-soybean oil composites were tested as additives in concrete formulations by a commercial partner, and the desired increase in water repellency was observed. (7) Composites were made with waxy cornstarch and various food-grade essential oils reported to have antimicrobial properties. The composites were shown to effectively reduce or eliminate bacterial contamination in liquid cultures. Procedures are being developed to evaluate the efficacy of such starch-oil composites as coatings for fruits and vegetables to extend shelf life and reduce bacteria levels. (8) Carbon black was added to jet cooked dispersions of starch and sodium palmitate. The stability, particle size, viscosity, gelling properties, and other properties are being investigated for determination of suitability of the dispersions for printing inks and electrically conductive films and coatings. (9) Octadecyl acrylate was shown to form helical inclusion complexes with high amylose cornstarch in good yields. The physical properties of the complexes were examined and X-ray diffraction of the small particles obtained showed that this ligand formed helical inclusion complexes with amylose. The suitability of this material to be used as an agent for synthesizing starch graft copolymers more easily than established chemical methods is being investigated. (10) A nonionic surfactant (polyethylene glycol ester) was complexed with jet-cooked amylose and was found to form larger toroidal spherulites than have been seen before with other ligands. These developments both support existing product commercialization efforts or present new opportunities for future applications.
Delivery of antimicrobial essential oils using jet-cooked starch-oil composites: The microbial safety of fruits and vegetable in the marketplace is an increasing concern for food safety and consumer health. Harmful bacteria can be introduced to produce at many points in the harvesting, processing, and marketing phases of food production. Edible, food-grade starch oil composites were prepared using essential oils known to exhibit antimicrobial properties such as cinnamon, oregano, and garlic oils. We have demonstrated in liquid culture experiments that the encapsulation of the essential oils in such composites does not interfere with the antimicrobial efficacy of the oils. A procedure is being developed to test the application of the composites as a wet or dry antimicrobial film on various types of fruit and vegetable products.
Carbon black dispersions based on amylose-sodium palmitate complexes: Whereas previous research has shown that carbon black particles could serve as the hydrophobic phase in jet-cooked starch-lipid composites, the use of amylose-sodium palmitate complexes produced by steam jet cooking provide an opportunity to expand the range of potential applications. Stable carbon black dispersions can be readily prepared, and the dispersion properties can be modified by changes in pH, amylose concentration, and carbon black/amylose complex ratios. The dispersions can also be dried to form flexible films. Experiments are being conducted to determine the electrical conductivity of films and coatings prepared by various methods. This research will enable the use of starch and starch-based amylose inclusion complexes to replace the less environmentally friendly chemical surfactants currently used for many carbon black applications.
Starch-oil composite gel fat replacer for ground meat applications: Commercialization of this technology has been achieved with large scale production of a fat replacer gel and sales of reduced fat ground beef patties by a commercial partner and licensee. Recently the color and flavor attributes of the gel were improved by adding clean label colorants and flavors. Use of the gels allows the conversion of 93-95% lean beef, which tends to yield a chewy and dry cooked patty, to a low-fat alternative with consistently observed tenderness, juiciness, and flavor (delivered in the lipid phase of the gel). Similar results of this technology were also demonstrated in meatballs and pork sausages. The company plans to expand the marketing of the low-fat patties to large volume institutional customers as well as broaden the product line to include emulsified meat products such as frankfurters and lunch meats. The availability of this technology that delivers significant fat (and calorie) reduction while enhancing product quality will ultimately enable progress in addressing consumer obesity and increasing acceptance of healthier alternatives to traditionally high fat foods.
Fanta, G.F., Felker, F.C., Byars, J.A., Kenar, J.A., Shogren, R.L. 2009. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking. Starch/Starke. 61(2009):590-600.
Fanta, G.F., Kenar, J.A., Byars, J.A., Felker, F.C., Shogren, R.L. 2010. Properties of Aqueous Dispersions of Amylose-Sodium Palmitate Complexes Prepared by Jet Cooking. Carbohydrate Polymers. 81(3):645-651.
Kenar, J.A. 2010. Latent Heat Characteristics of Biobased Oleochemical Carbonates as Novel Phase Change Materials. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 94(10):1697-1703.