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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

2007 Annual Report

1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Use starch-lipid composites produced by steam jet cooking to create new products from bio-based resources. Determine the effect of process variables and mechanisms of interactions that influence the properties of starch-lipid composites. Cooperate with licensees and CRADA partners to investigate specific combinations of ingredients designed to provide new applications.

1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Investigate the properties of starch-lipid composites prepared using cereal flour instead of starch, mixtures of starch and polysaccharide gums, and dairy sources of lipids. Vary the starch/lipid ratio and determine the maximum lipid content possible. Vary process variables such as steam pressure, steam and slurry flow rates, temperature, and high-shear mixing before or after jet cooking and determine the effects on composite properties. Cooperate with CRADA partners to develop products based on starch/lipid composites in the areas of food products (meats, dairy products, baked good, etc.), water-based lubricants, cosmetics and drug delivery products, and industrial or environmental microbial delivery systems.

3.Progress Report

High-oil FanteskTM products. FanteskTM products with greatly increased oil-holding capacities were prepared by including fatty acids in the formulation (to complex the amylose component of starch) and by substituting cereal flour for starch. This accomplishment addresses the goals stated in Objectives 1a and 1b and will expand the number of end-use applications for products prepared by the FanteskTM process. The location and size of the oil droplets was determined. The oil droplets in FanteskTM prepared from cereal flour were mainly located in the protein phase of the jet-cooked aqueous dispersion. The micrometer-sized spherulites formed from amylose and fatty acids behaved in a similar manner to trap large numbers of oil droplets.

Use of FanteskTM in food products. In cooperation with licensee and CRADA partner, aqueous gels prepared by the FanteskTM process were prepared and evaluated for their ability to deliver oil-soluble flavorings and enhance the sensory properties (e.g., juiciness and tenderness) in low-fat ground meat products. Ground beef patties with improved flavor, tenderness and juiciness were obtained when FanteskTM gels were added, and efforts are being made to market these products. Experimental yogurt samples were prepared by replacing a portion of the milk solids with FanteskTM. The rate of fermentation of the experimental yogurts was similar to the fermentation rate when no FanteskTM was added. The higher initial viscosity obtained with FanteskTM addition did not affect the yogurt gel structure. The addition of FanteskTM at a level of 3% strengthened the gel, and no syneresis was observed in samples stored for three weeks at 4 deg C. This accomplishment addresses the goals stated in Objective 2a.

Use of FanteskTM products as lubricants. This accomplishment addresses the goals stated in Objectives 1b and 2b. In cooperation with licensee and CRADA partner, high-oil FanteskTM formulations (starch:oil weight ratio of 50:200) were prepared by jet cooking aqueous dispersions of starch, oleic acid and soybean oil. The aqueous dispersions obtained were evaluated as spray-on lubricants for food-related applications (e.g., non-stick lubricant/release agents for waffle irons). Efforts are currently being made to market these products. A spray procedure was used to apply FanteskTM formulations to metal surfaces to obtain bio-based dry films that would act as lubricants for metal-forming applications. The spray-applied FanteskTM dried quickly and left a thin coating on the metal surface that provided good lubrication.

Use of FanteskTM to deliver active agents to the skin surface. A FanteskTM-based aqueous sunscreen was developed by jet cooking starch with SoyScreenTM (a natural product made from soybean oil and ferulic acid) as the active oil component. The resulting FanteskTM composite had superior UV absorbing ability relative to SoyScreenTM alone. Also, the starch component allows the oil to be dispersed into water without the need for surfactants or emulsifiers. This will permit the use of SoyScreen(TM) to be expanded into the agricultural industry where it can be formulated into water-based sprays. These factors will expand the uses of FanteskTM and SoyScreenTM. Another licensee is currently marketing antibacterial hand cleaners and lotions prepared by the FanteskTM process. These products are used primarily by the food service industry and by health care and law enforcement personnel. This accomplishment addresses the goals stated in Objective 2c.

Rapid Determination of the oil content of FanteskTM products. An analytical technique based on pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was developed to rapidly and accurately determine the amount of oil in FanteskTM composites. This technique avoids the more time-consuming and laborious methods currently utilized, and more accurately determines the amount of oil present. This methodology can be extended to food products containing FanteskTM and provides a good way to monitor quality and consistency between batches of FanteskTM supplied to our CRADA partners. This accomplishment addresses the goals stated in Objectives 2a-c.

The above accomplishments fall under National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, Component 2 - New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products. The primary focus is on Problem Area 2a - New Product Technology, and Problem Area 2c - New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks.

6.Technology Transfer

Number of new CRADAs and MTAs3
Number of active CRADAs and MTAs3
Number of patent applications filed4
Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings4
Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences2

Review Publications
Kenar, J.A. 2007. Functionalization of oleyl carbonate by epoxidation. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 84(5):457-461.

Compton, D.L., Kenar, J.A., Laszlo, J.A., Felker, F.C. 2007. Starch-encapsulated, soy-based ultraviolet-absorbing composites with feruloylated monoacyl- and diacylglycerol lipids. Industrial Crops and Products. 25(1):17-23.

Kenar, J.A. 2007. Direct determination of the lipid content in starch-lipid composites by time-domain NMR. Industrial Crops and Products. 26(1):77-84.

Kenar, J.A., Knothe, G.H., Gunstone, F.D. 2007. Chemical properties. In: Gunstone, F.D., Hardwood, J.L., Dijksta, A.J., editors. Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, 3rd edition, Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group LLC. p. 535-590.

Last Modified: 4/25/2014
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