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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PREPARATION, PROPERTIES, AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF STARCH-LIPID COMPOSITIONS PREPARED BY STEAM JET COOKING
2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
The objective of this project is to create new applications and investigate component interactions and processing methods for jet-cooked starch-lipid composites. This processing method represents a platform technology which has been patented and is being licensed by field of use to numerous companies. A broad variety of starches and flours can be combined with a wide range of fats, oils, and other hydrophobic substances to create specific formulations for different food and industrial applications. Further research on applications as well as physical and chemical characteristics of starch-lipid composites is necessary to increase the volume and diversity of consumer products which consist of or incorporate the composites in liquid, gel, or powdered form.

Under the existing project, cooperation with licensees and Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners will continue. We will also seek additional end-use applications for FanteskTM and will cooperate with the private sector to expand existing markets. Basic research studies on FanteskTM will also continue in order to better understand structure/property relationships and to correlate product properties with processing parameters such as polysaccharide variety, type of lipid or oil used, and conditions used for steam jet cooking. Effects of added proteins and natural gums on product properties will also be studied, and efforts will be made to determine the amounts of these additives incorporated into the starch layer at the oil/water interface. Products will be characterized using research tools such as light and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC).

This research falls under National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, Component 2 - New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products. The project focuses primarily on Problem Area 2a - New Product Technology, and Problem Area 2c - New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks.

Farmers will benefit from the expansion of markets for agricultural commodities. Skin care products, pharmaceuticals and improved food products will be purchased by the general public. The oil drilling industry will be the major customer for the water-based lubricant technology. New and expanded markets for cereal grains will reduce federal outlays for surplus commodity support and will improve the profitability of American agriculture. Multi-billion bushel carry-overs of corn each year will provide a vast source of raw material. Development of quality low-fat food products will provide health benefits by supplying alternatives to higher-fat foods which promote obesity. Commercialization of starch-based lubricant formulations will benefit the environment by reducing the use of toxic emulsifiers.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
OBJECTIVE 1: Carry out basic research studies to determine the process variables and mechanisms of interactions that influence the properties of FanteskTM compositions. a. The effect of substituting cereal flour for starch, and the effect of adding dairy products and minor amounts of polysaccharides gums to FanteskTM formulations. 2006: Prepare FanteskTM samples using cereal flour and dairy products. Determine interactions of oil droplets with protein and starch components. 2007: Determine protein content of starch shells that surround oil droplets. 2008: Investigate phase separation of oil in jet cooked starch/pectin and starch/xanthan formulations. 2009: Determine location and size distribution of oil droplets in starch, pectin and xanthan phases. Determine reasons for increased oil-holding capacity of pectin-containing mixtures. Determine the pectin and xanthan content of starch shells.

b. The effects of varying the ratio of starch and lipid. 2006: Determine maximum amount of lipid that can be held in FanteskTM products without separation and coalescence of oil droplets. Determine the effect of starch concentration on lipid-holding ability. 2007: Determine amounts of lipid that can be held when pectin is added to starch in varying amounts. 2008: Compare oil-holding abilities of starch and cereal flour, with and without pectin. Compare lipids with different chemical composition, e.g., vegetable oil vs. mineral oil. 2009: Develop practical methods for preparing high-oil FanteskTM products. Investigate end-use applications.

c. The effects of varying conditions used in the jet cooking process to improve energy efficiency. 2006: Determine optimal steam usage for current jet cooking equipment. 2007: Determine the effect of processing conditions on FanteskTM physical properties such as droplet size and starch shell formation. 2008: Examine mechanical mixing techniques to be incorporated into existing process. 2009: Investigate other processes such as autoclaving for FanteskTM production.

d. Studies on model systems to determine the mechanisms of interaction between the various components. 2006: Add monoglycerides in varying amounts to vegetable oils used for FanteskTM preparation. Determine effect on size distribution of lipid droplets. 2007: Examine starch shells that surround lipid droplets. Determine rheology and gelling properties of FanteskTM products. 2008: Prepare FanteskTM products using high molecular weight fatty acids as the lipid component. Determine physical properties of products. 2009: Investigate end-use applications.

OBJECTIVE 2: Cooperate with licensees and CRADA partners to investigate specific combinations of ingredients designed to provide new applications. a. Food ingredients, particularly to deliver flavors and improve the sensory qualities of breaded seafood and chicken, low-fat ground meat products, baked goods, beverages, and dairy products. 2006: Prepare FanteskTM in the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR) pilot plant for test-marketing in breaded food products and low-fat ground meat products. 2007: Assist licensees in their efforts to locate facilities for large-scale manufacture. 2008: Investigate the use of FanteskTM in low-fat baked goods and dairy products. 2009: Investigate new uses of FanteskTM in poultry and seafood products.

b. Water-based lubricants, particularly for oil drilling applications and metal-working fluids. 2006: Work with company to carry out large-scale tests of FanteskTM in oil drilling muds. 2007: Cooperate with toll producer to optimize large-scale manufacture of FanteskTM for industrial purposes. 2008: Study lubrication mechanisms and develop methods for laboratory testing of a variety of lubricant systems. 2009: Identify additional CRADA partners for commercialization of water-based lubricant systems.

c. Water-based hand creams, barrier creams, skin lotions, and drug delivery systems. 2006: Work with licensee to set up manufacturing facility for antimicrobial lotions. 2007: Determine lipid droplet size and physical properties of products. 2008: Prepare experimental lotions and creams for laboratory testing. 2009: Prepare and test FanteskTM products as agents for delivering pharmaceuticals to the skin surface and internal drug delivery.

d. Microbial carrier or delivery systems for industrial fermentation, bioremediation, soil amendment, and biological control. 2006: Identify candidate microorganisms, obtain cultures, develop formulations and characterize microbial growth. 2007: Test stability and dispersability of FanteskTM-based microbial cultures, examine methods for testing efficacy in laboratory and field trials. 2008: Identify CRADA partners for specific bioremediation, soil amendment, and biocontrol applications. 2009: Develop large scale processing methods for commercial production of microbial products.


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
A FanteskTM-based fat substitute is close to commercialization. This research falls under National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, Component 2 - New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products. The project focuses primarily on Problem Area 2a - New Product Technology, and Problem Area 2c - New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks. The FanteskTM process was used to prepare a starch-lipid gel that can be reduced in particle size and then blended into low-fat ground meat products, such as beef or turkey. The resulting meat products are healthier for the consumer because of their lower fat content; however, their tenderness, juiciness and flavor are similar to those of higher fat products. Our CRADA partner and licensee is currently working with a manufacturer to produce commercial quantities of the FanteskTM product. They will market the new product under the trade name NutriGras. The product line is being expanded to include ground pork and poultry products.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
A FanteskTM-based antimicrobial hand lotion is close to commercialization. This research falls under National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, Component 2 - New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products. The project focuses primarily on Problem Area 2a - New Product Technology, and Problem Area 2c - New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks. In cooperation with CRADA partner and licensee, an antibacterial, FanteskTM-based hand lotion has been developed. Unlike other antibacterial lotions, the oil component in the FanteskTM lotion causes it to retain its antibacterial properties, even after several hand washings. This property will help alleviate the spread of disease by human contact. NCAUR scientists are cooperating with a company in Peoria, IL, to set up a manufacturing facility for toll-producing the FanteskTM lotion.

The study of low-fat yogurt that was begun last year was completed. FanteskTM, prepared from waxy starch and butter, was added to yogurt formulations in varying amounts, and the rheological properties of the mixtures were determined. Addition of FanteskTM did not interfere with formation of the yogurt gel.

High amylose cornstarch was jet cooked in the presence of sufficient palmitic acid to complex all of the amylose present in the starch sample, and the yield of spherulites formed on slow cooling was determined. Spherulite yields of 55-60% were obtained by this procedure. Spherulite morphology depended upon the rate of cooling and also upon whether or not the dispersions were stirred during the cooling period. Rapid cooling produced spherulites with diameters in the 500 nanometer size range. These spherulites represent a new opportunity for commercialization of excess-steam jet-cooked cornstarch.

A spraying procedure was used to deposit thin coatings of a starch-containing formulation onto water repellent plastic surfaces to make the surfaces more receptive to aqueous solutions. Absorption of water-based dyes and inks, reduced electrostatic charging, and compatibility with biological fluids are enhanced when plastic surfaces are made water-compatible. This work has resulted in 3 new U. S. Patent Applications.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
The dependence of oil droplet size in FanteskTM dispersions on the amount of oil in the formulation, the jet cooking and cooling conditions, and the presence of other polysaccharide components were examined. These results will help to understand the process of droplet formation and to control droplet size distribution. A rapid, non-invasive analytical method based on time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance was developed to determine the amounts of oil and moisture in FanteskTM products. This technique can be extended to food products containing FanteskTM and will be a useful analytical tool to better understand how FanteskTM influences the quality of these products. Research was carried out with different starches and carbon blacks to better characterize starch-carbon black composites prepared by the FanteskTM process. The composites are water dispersible, and films prepared from these materials are electrically conductive. Research related to conductivity was carried out in collaboration with NCAUR Project 3620-41000-108-00 (V. Finkenstadt). Starch-wax composites were prepared by the FanteskTM process for testing as phase change materials. Initial experiments showed that the wax component does not separate appreciably from the FanteskTM composite when the wax is melted. Experiments are in progress to maximize the amount of wax that can be held in FanteskTM composites without separation.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
The accomplishments listed below are linked to the search for new processes, new uses and value added products, which is one of the components of National Program 306. The accomplishments fall under Component 2 (New Processes, New uses and Value added Foods and Biobased Products). The accomplishments focus primarily on Problem Area 2a (New Product Technology) and they are also pertinent to Problem Area 2c (New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks). These accomplishments will result in technology that will lead to a broad range of new products from some of the most undervalued products of American agriculture, i.e., starch and seed oils.

1. A company has licensed the FanteskTM technology to produce a water-resistant formulation for coating seeds to inhibit the penetration of water through the seed coat when the seeds are planted in early spring. This will allow farmers to plant earlier without the danger of the planted seeds deteriorating in the soil when soil temperatures are too low for germination. These seed coatings are being produced commercially. Since agricultural products are related to food production, this accomplishment is linked to the milestones for Objective 2a.

2. Liquid FanteskTM formulations were developed for delivering onion and garlic flavors in frozen, breaded shrimp. Superior flavor profiles were achieved with FanteskTM products as compared with other methods of flavor addition. Over 1,000 gallons of a flavoring formulation were prepared by the FanteskTM process in the NCAUR pilot plant for a test marketing study. Although there was good consumer acceptance of these shrimp products, the high price of shrimp and the lack of a large-scale production facility for FanteskTM caused our licensee to abandon its business venture. Despite this setback, this research effort proved the ability of FanteskTM products to deliver oil-soluble flavoring materials to food products. This accomplishment is linked to the milestones for Objective 2a.

3. A procedure based on jet cooking techniques developed for the FanteskTM process was used to deposit thin coatings of a starch-containing formulation onto the surfaces of water repellent plastics such as polyethylene. These coatings imparted water receptive properties to the plastic surfaces. Absorption of water-based dyes and inks, reduced electrostatic charging, and compatibility with aqueous reagents and biological fluids are some of the useful properties that are imparted to plastic materials when the surfaces are modified to make them water-compatible. This technology will be of interest to companies that produce plastic containers, wrapping materials for electronic components, and biomedical devices. An economical spraying procedure was developed for applying these formulations to plastic surfaces. Three patents are being filed to cover this new technology. This accomplishment is linked to the milestones for Objective 1c (Investigate other processes) and Objective 1d (Investigate end use applications).


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
1. CRADA and license with a food ingredient company to investigate the use of FanteskTM products to improve the tenderness, juiciness and flavor of low-fat ground meat products. FanteskTM products for addition to ground beef and turkey products will likely become available for consumers next year.

2. CRADA and license with a producer of antimicrobial hand creams and lotions. FanteskTM products have undergone successful clinical testing and have been test marketed. Products will likely become available for consumers next year.

3. License to a seed coating company to produce FanteskTM formulations designed to inhibit penetration of water through coated seeds when they are planted in early spring. Seeds coated with these formulations are being marketed to farmers.

4. CRADA with a company to research and market technologies for applying water-receptive starch coatings to plastic surfaces. Work under the CRADA has resulted in the filing of three U.S. patents. The technology has not yet been commercialized.

5. A CRADA is being negotiated with a company to develop FanteskTM products as lubricants for use in the food industry. This company also plans to toll-produce FanteskTM products for use in antibacterial creams and lotions.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
None.


Review Publications
Peterson, S.C., Fanta, G.F., Adlof, R.O., Felker, F.C. 2005. Identification of complexed native lipids in crystalline aggregates formed from jet cooked cornstarch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 61(2):162-167.

Byars, J.A. 2005. Control of droplet size distribution in starch-oil composites [abstract]. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meetings. p. 283.

Kenar, J.A., Tevis, I.D. 2005. Characterization of jet-cooked vegetable oils and fatty acid esters used to prepare starch oil composites [abstract]. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meetings. Paper No. P-281.

Kenar, J.A., Kurth, T., Felker, F.C., Biresaw, G. 2006. Sprayable water-based dry film lubricants from starch-oil composites [abstract]. Annual Meeting and Expo of the American Oil Chemists' Society. p. 76.

Kenar, J.A. 2006. Reaction chemistry of gossypol and its derivatives. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 83(4):269-302.

Sitzmann, M.E., Trivedi, N.J., Skahan, P.B., Kenar, J.A., Nock, L.A., Stern, A.G. 2006. Investigation of a n-butyl-n-(2-nitroxyethyl)nitramine (bunena) process: identification of process intermediates, by-products and reaction pathways. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics. 31(2):124-130.

Isbell, T., Green, L.A., Dekeyser, S.S., Manthey, L.K., Kenar, J.A., Cermak, S.C. 2006. Improvement in the gas chromatography resolution of petroselinate from oleate. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 83(5):429-434.

Winkler, J.K., Singh, M. 2006. The effect of starch type and oil content on oxidation of starch-soybean oil composites [abstract]. Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists. Paper No. 34-03.

Singh, M., Felker, F.C., Fanta, G.F. 2005. Influence of starch-lipid composites on chocolate chip cookies [abstract]. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meetings. Paper No. 135.

Shogren, R.L., Fanta, G.F., Felker, F.C. 2006. X-ray diffraction study of crystal transformations in spherulitic amylose/lipid complexes from jet-cooked starch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 64(3):444-451.

Byars, J.A., Fanta, G.F., Felker, F.C. 2006. The influence of oil on the properties of slowly-cooled jet-cooked normal corn starch dispersions. Carbohydrate Polymers. 63(3):316-322.

Kenar, J.A., Kurth, T. 2006. Dialkyl carbonates as lubricant additives [abstract]. Annual Meeting and Expo of the American Oil Chemists' Society. p. 74.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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