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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

2008 Annual Report

1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Develop processed foods that prevent insulin resistance, obesity related and chronic diseases, and assess their effectiveness in animal models. Process and/or genetically enhance grains, legumes and fruits, and their under-valued co-products to increase the concentration or bioactivity of dietary fiber, antioxidants or other components that prevent obesity and related chronic diseases.

1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The insulin resistance will be induced in the Syrian hamster model. Soluble fiber and unsaturated fats prevent insulin resistance in this model. The physical properties of fiber, the physiological, digestion and metabolic analysis of other nutrition components will be determined. Antioxidant components of plant foods will be incorporated into processed foods and their ability to suppress markers of chronic disease will be evaluated in animal models and human subjects. Similar characteristics will be evaluated by human panels. Formerly 5325-41440-003-00D and 5325-21430-009-00D(5/04).

3.Progress Report
This project supports NP306: Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, Problem Area 2b. New Uses for Agricultural By-products, and NP107: Human Nutrition, Problem Area 6. Prevention of Obesity and Disease: Relationship between Diet, Genetics, and Lifestyle. We showed that soluble dietary fibers increase the excretion of lipids and saturated fats in the feces. Further analysis of the fats showed that the fats were dietary triglycerides, and their hydrolysis products: diacylglycerides, monoacylglycerides and free fatty acids. These results suggest that soluble dietary fibers interfere with the ability of enzymes that breakdown dietary fat to the extent that some fats and their hydrolysis products pass through the small intestine unabsorbed, and pass into the colon and are excreted in the feces. This may be the reason for the previous observation by this project that soluble fiber prevents the undesirable deposition of fat in the liver, pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart muscle and other organs. The excretion of saturated fats, a form of fat that increases LDL cholesterol was an important observation. The excretion of saturated fats may also explain our previous observations that LDL cholesterol or bad cholesterol is reduced by fiber feeding. We have shown that LDL is reduced and that the liver LDL receptor is increased by fiber feeding. Other researchers have shown that dietary saturated fatty acids decrease the LDL receptor and thus increase plasma LDL. The excretion of saturated fats may be the underlying cause of the changes in the LDL receptor and ultimately the reduction of LDL in the plasma. Increased lipid excretion may also explain some of the weight loss despite higher feed intake in male hamsters.

1. Extraction of carotene from vegetable byproducts by green solvent. Tomato and carrot skins are a source of value added phytochemicals such as carotene. ARS scientists in the Processes Foods Research Unit in Albany, CA optimized the conditions and developed a method to extract carotenes from tomatoes and carrots with ethyl lactate, a biodegradable solvent. The Institute of Medicine recommends the intake of carotenes for their health promoting properties. Extraction of carotene increases the value of vegetable processing and this extraction method could lead to improvements in human health. This accomplishment furthers the goals of National Program 306: COMPONENT 1. Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement and COMPONENT 2. New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products, Problem Area 2a. New Product Technology

2. Whole grain breads from oat and barley. High levels of plasma cholesterol are linked to disease and dietary components that lower cholesterol are needed. ARS scientists in the Processed Foods Research Unit in Albany, CA developed breads from 100% oat and barley flour that lower plasma cholesterol in an animal model. All oat, barley and other non-wheat grains lack the gas trapping agent gluten and do not produce good bread. Soluble cellulose was used to replace gluten and was also the active agent to reduce plasma cholesterol. Whole grain intake has been associated with improved health. This research supports NP306, Component I, Problem Statment a: Definition and Basis for Quality; and NP107, Component V, Component VI, and Component VII.

3. Soluble cellulose prevents absorption of saturated fats. Saturated fats are a risk factor for heart disease, which is an important health risk in the United States, and there is need to better undertand and control it. Soluble celluloses fed to test animals by ARS scientists in the Processed Foods Research Unit in Albany, CA on fast foods high in total fat and saturated fats resulted in lower plasma cholesterol, lower liver cholesterol and lower body weights in some cases. The underlying mechanism may be the excretion of more fat and in particular saturated fats. Soluble celluloses improves the healthfulness of foods by preventing the absorption of saturated fats. This research supports NP306, Component I, Problem a: Definition and Basis for Quality; and NP107, Component V, Component VI, and Component VII.

4. Improved Rice Milling Appraisal. The current method of milled rice yield and value appraisal was developed 50 years ago and can not accurately measure rice milling quality. ARS scientist in the Processed Foods Research Unit in Albany, CA worked with the grain inspection service and the packers and stockyard administration to develop a more accurate method of yield appraisal. After carefully studying the relationship among the milling temperature and conditions and milled rice quality, such as total and head rice yields and degree of milling, it has been concluded that milling temperature is a significant factor affecting the quality appraisal of rice. As a result, a new rice milling procedure, which significantly improved the consistency and accuracy of rice sample milling was implemented by the USDA GIPSA in October 2007. This research has solved a serious problem that rice industry is currently facing with regards to quality evaluation of rice at sales. This research will promote brown rice consumption with high nutrition value. This supports NP 306, Component 2, Problem c.

5. Ultrasonic treatment to reduce brown rice cooking time. Brown rice has significantly higher nutrition value than white milled rice but significantly longer cooking times often discourage its consumption. There is a need to develop new processing methods to shorten the cooking time or brown rice while maintaning the integrity and nutritional value of brown rice. The researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, collaborated with the University of California, Davis to study using different ultrasonic treatment conditions to improve the cooking characteristics of brown rice. Results showed that ultrasonic treatment can significantly reduce the required cooking time and an invention disclosure has been filed and approved by USDA. This research will promote brown rice consumption with high nutrition value. This research supports NP 306, Component 1, Problem C and Component 2, Problem A.

5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations

6.Technology Transfer

Number of Active CRADAs1
Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings15
Number of Newspaper Articles and Other Presentations for Non-Science Audiences4

Review Publications
Hong, Y., Turowski, M., Lin, J.T., Yokoyama, W.H. 2007. Simultaneous Characterization of Bile Acid, Sterols, and Determination of Acyglycerides in Feces from Soluble Cellulose-Fed Hamsters using HPLC with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection and APCI-MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55:9759-9757.

Kahlon, T.S., Chiu, M.M., Chapman, M.H. 2008. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves In Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Collard Greens, Kale, Mustard Greens, Broccoli, Green Bell Pepper and Cabbage. Nutrition Research. 28:351-357.

Failla, M.L., Chitchumroonchokchai, C., Ishida, B.K. 2008. In Vitro Micellarization and Intestinal Cell Uptake of cis Isomers of Lycopene Exceed Those of All-trans Lycopene. Journal of Nutrition. 138:482-486.

Burri, B.J., Chapman, M.H., Neidlinger, T.R., Seo, J., Ishida, B.K. 2008. Tangerine tomatoes increase total and tetra-cis-lycopene isomer concentrations more than red tomatoes in healthy adult humans. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. DOI: 10.1080/09637480701782084, 1-16, iFirst article.

Pan, Z., Amaratunga, K., Thompson, J.F. 2007. Relationship between Rice Sample Milling Conditions and Milling Quality. Transactions of the ASABE. 50(4):1307-1313.

Lagunas-Solar, M.C., Pan, Z., Zeng, N.X., Truong Tin, D., Khir, R., Amaratunga, K. 2007. Application of Radiofrequency Power for Non-Chemical Disinfestation of Rough Rice with Full Retention of Quality Attributes. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 23(5):647-654.

Pan, Z., Khir, R., Godfrey, L., Lewis, R., Thompson, J.F., Salim, A. 2008. Feasibility of Simultaneous Rough Rice Drying and Disinfestations by Infrared Radiation Heating and Rice Milling Quality. Journal of Food Engineering. 84:469-479.

Gressley, T.F., Reynal, S.M., Olmos Colmenero, J.J., Broderick, G.A., Armentano, L.E. 2006. Development of a tool to insert abomasal infusion lines into dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 89:3965-3967.

Ishida, B.K., Roberts, J.S., Chapman, M.H., Burri, B.J. 2007. PROCESSING TANGERINE TOMATOES: EFFECTS ON LYCOPENE-ISOMER CONCENTRATION AND PROFILE. Journal of Food Science. Vol.72, Nr.6; C307-C312, 2007.

Kahlon, T.S., Chiu, M.M., Chapman, M.H. 2007. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Beets, Eggplant, Asparagus, Carrots, Green Beans and Cauliflower. Nutrition Research. 27:750-755.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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