2007 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Develop processed foods that prevent insulin resistance, obesity related and chronic diseases, and assess their effectiveness in animal models. Process and/or genetically enhance grains, legumes and fruits, and their under-valued co-products to increase the concentration or bioactivity of dietary fiber, antioxidants or other components that prevent obesity and related chronic diseases.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The insulin resistance will be induced in the Syrian hamster model. Soluble fiber and unsaturated fats prevent insulin resistance in this model. The physical properties of fiber, the physiological, digestion and metabolic analysis of other nutrition components will be determined. Antioxidant components of plant foods will be incorporated into processed foods and their ability to suppress markers of chronic disease will be evaluated in animal models and human subjects. Similar characteristics will be evaluated by human panels. Formerly 5325-41440-003-00D and 5325-21430-009-00D(5/04).
Soluble modified celluloses prevent or reduce the severity of the physiological characteristics of obesity-related metabolic diseases, such as high blood cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin; high blood pressure and increased abdominal adiposity. We observed the excretion of triglycerides in an animal feeding study suggesting that these soluble fibers interfere with fat digestion. Animals fed a high fat diet with soluble cellulose had lower weight gain compared to animals fed insoluble cellulose although feed intake was the same. In order to understand the underlying causes of these observations, we have developed methods to characterize fecal lipids and determined the rheological properties of soluble celluloses as functions of molecular weight, concentration, temperature and ionic strength. Phytochemicals such as quercetin were also shown to reduce the effects of high fat diets in animal models. Whole grain breads made entirely from oat or barley flour and 3-5% soluble celluloses were developed. These breads contain twice the amount of soluble fibers that have been shown to reduce plasma cholesterol.
Inhibition of fat digestion by soluble modified celluloses. The consumption and intake of foods high in fat contributes to obesity and resulting metabolic diseases. Research conducted by the ARS scientists in the PFR Unit in Albany, CA shows that soluble modified celluloses fed with a high fat diet to test animals result in significant fat excretion and also suggests a decreased rate of fat absorption into the body. Reduction in the rate of fat absorption may be the mechanism to explain blood lipid reduction and other beneficial effects. Intake of dietary soluble modified celluloses has the potential of significantly improving the health status of the U.S. population. This research supports NP306, Component II, New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products, b) New Product Technology; and it also supports NP107, Component VI, Prevention of Obesity and Disease Relationship between Diet, Genetics, and Lifestyle.
Whole grain barley and oat bread development. Whole grain intake has been associated with improved health. Barley and oat foods have FDA-approved heart health claims. However, oat and barley do not have the wheat protein, gluten, necessary for bread formation. Scientists in the PFR Unit, Albany, CA have developed whole grain all barley or oat breads using soluble modified cellulose as a gluten substitute. In addition to replacing gluten, the soluble cellulose also reduces plasma cholesterol. Whole grain oat and barley breads have the potential of significantly improving the health status of the U.S. population. This research supports NP306, Component I, Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement, a) Definition and Basis for Quality; and it also supports NP107, Component V, Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods, Component VI, Prevention of Obesity and Disease Relationship between Diet, Genetics, and Lifestyle, and Component VII, Health Promoting Intervention Strategies for Targeted Populations.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
U.S. Grains Council Meeting in Taipei to increase the export of U.S. food barley to Taiwan.
|Number of new CRADAs and MTAs||1|
|Number of active CRADAs and MTAs||2|
|Number of invention disclosures submitted||3|
|Number of patent applications filed||3|
|Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings||16|
|Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences||1|
Kahlon, T.S., Chapman, M.H., Smith, G.E. 2007. In vitro binding of bile acids by spinach, kale, brussel sprouts, broccoli, mustard greens, green bell pepper, cabbage and collards. Food Chemistry. 100:1531-1536.
Kahlon, T.S., Chapman, M.H., Smith, G.E. 2007. In vitro binding of bile acids by okra, beets, asparagus, eggplant, turnips, green beans, carrots, and cauliflower. Food Chemistry 103:676-680.
Kahlon, T.S., Smith, G.E. 2007. In vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries (vaccinium spp), plums (prunus spp), prunes(prunus spp), strawberries (fragaria x ananassa), cherries(malpighia punicifolia), cranberries(vaccinium macrocarpon) and apples (malus sylvestris). Food Chemistry. 100:1182-1187.
Bartley, G.E., Ishida, B.K. 2007. Ethylene-sensitive and insensitive regulation of transcription factor expression during in-vitro tomato sepal ripening. Journal of Experimental Botany. 58(8):2043-2051.
Ibanez-Carranza, A.M., Wood, D.F., Yokoyama, W.H., Park, I.M., Tinoco, M.A., Hudson, C.A., McKenzie, K.S., Shoemaker, C.F. 2007. Viscoelastic Properties of Waxy and Non-Waxy Rice Flours, Their Fat and Protein-Free Starch, and the Microstructure of Their Cooked Kernels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55(16):6761-6771.
Valacchi, G., Vasu, V.T., Yokoyama, W., Corbacho, A.M., Phung, A., Lim, Y., Aung, H.H., Cross, C.E., Davis, P.A. 2007. Lung Vitamin E Transport Processes are Affected by Both Age and Environmental Oxidants in Mice. Journal of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 222(2):227-234.
Ishida, B.K., Roberts, J.S., Chapman, M.H., Burri, B.J. 2007. Processing Tangerine Tomatoes: Effects on Lycopene-Isomer Concentrations and Profile. Journal of Food Science. 72(6):C307-C312.
Kahlon, T.S., Smith, G.E. 2007. In vitro binding of bile acids by bananas, peaches, pineapple, grapes, pears, apricots and nectarines. Food Chemistry. 2007. 101(3):1046-1051.
Kahlon, T.S., Berrios, J.DeJ., Smith, G.E., Pan, J.L. 2006. In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Capacity of Milled Wheat Bran and Milled Extruded Wheat Bran at Five Specific Mechanical Energy Levels. Cereal Chemistry. 83(4):434-438.