Location: Processed Foods Research
2006 Annual Report
The research to be undertaken falls under National Program 306 - Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, and contributes to National Program 107 - Human Nutrition and are described in the National Program Action Plan. Specifically these are:
Problem Area 1C, Factors and Processes that Affect Quality (NP306). Identify, isolate, and characterize food components that prevent insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity and/or cardiovascular disease.
Problem Area 2A, New Product Technology (NP306). Optimize the use of agricultural commodities and co-products, and to use new knowledge to develop alternative food products to prevent diet-related premature degenerative diseases.
Problem Area 2B, New Uses for Agricultural By-Products (NP306). Identify good sources of functional phytonutrients including dietary fiber, phenolics, antioxidants, and other components that have been reported to be useful in preventing chronic and degenerative diseases in low value agricultural co-products.
FY 2005 Role of saturated and polyunsaturated fat in insulin resistance. Incorporate extruded starch and fiber into food products. Evaluate small molecules that improve insulin sensitivity in animal model. Submit protocol for study of insulin resistance in human subjects. Continue microarray analysis of metabolic pathways to prevent insulin resistance.
FY 2006 Mechanism-glycemic effect or gastric emptying of soluble fibers. Continue physical characterization of polymer properties: viscosity, solubilization, interaction with bile acids. Continue studies of small molecules with insulin sensitivity properties. Recruit subjects for human study.
FY 2007 Continue physical characterization of polymer properties: viscosity, solubilization, interaction with bile acids. Optimize polymer properties and bioavailability to prevent insulin resistance. Human study to prevent insulin resistance and analysis of data.
FY 2008–2009 Prevention of tissue damage in insulin-resistant animals by antioxidants. Continue food development incorporating insulin resistance-preventing components or processes.
Fiber Chemistry for Prevention of Diabetes. Obesity and type II diabetes are epidemic in the U.S. and pose both health and economic burdens. Under a CRADA with an industrial partner, 5325-41440-004-03T, entitled "Improvements in Plasma Lipids by Soluble Methyl-Substituted Cellulose", researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, evaluated the effects of polymer chemistry and size on physiological functions in test animals. Several polymers were found to have positive effects and three patent applications were filed. In the future these polymers could be added as food ingredients to reduce the incidence of obesity and associated diseases, providing an alternative to pharmaceuticals to prevent dietary-related metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. This research supports Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306 by increasing understanding of ways to prevent type II diabetes through diet.
Rice Drying to Improve Quality. New drying methods are needed for drying and disinfestation of patty rice to replace the planned decommissioning of currently licensed pesticides. Under a trust agreement, 5325-41440-004-08T, entitled "Rice Utilization and Product Development" funded by a commodity organization, researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, collaborated with the University of California, Davis to study different conditions of infrared and radio frequency heating treatments for drying and disinfestation of high quality patty rice. Results showed that both infrared and radio frequency have promise for this application. This research will improve the quality of rice, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.
Healthy, High Fiber Noodles. Obesity and type II diabetes are epidemic in the U.S. Control of blood sugar is essential to diabetics and soluble fibers are very effective in this regard. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, developed a healthy noodle by incorporating a modified cellulose-based soluble fiber into the noodles through a trust agreement with a commodity organization, 5325-41440-004-07N, entitled "Low Glycemic Pastas and Noodles Containing Soluble Fibers". Processing variables, fiber loss during cooking and final sensory properties were determined. The incorporation of soluble fibers in pastas, noodles and other manufactured carbohydrate-containing foods is needed to provide consumers with alternatives to traditional carbohydrate foods to improve human health, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306. Rice Bran Prevents Colon Cancer. Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer death and chronic disease. Under a trust agreement with a commodity organization cooperator, 5325-41440-004-04T, entitled "Colonic Health Improvement of Rice Bran", researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, performed a feeding study on the effects of full fat, defatted, and phytase-treated rice bran on colon health in test animals. Results suggested that rice bran reduces the amount of marker associated with colon cancer in the upper colon. Use of rice bran in foods to promote health and prevent colon cancer will improve consumer health and add value to rice bran, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.
Cereal Bran Prevents Colon Cancer. Consumption of cereal brans can reduce the risk of colon cancer, a major cause of cancer death and chronic disease. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, completed an animal feeding study of barley with genetically low levels of phytate and the tissues were analyzed for markers of colon cancer under a specific cooperative agreement with a University partner 5325-41440-004-05S, "Improving Colonic Health by Processed Cereal Bran". Results suggest an inverse correlation between phytate and a marker for colon cancer. Barley and other cereal brans are ingredients in breakfast cereals, muffins, breads and other manufactured foods. This research investigated ways that processing can enhance the beneficial properties of fiber in the bran, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.
Rice Milling to Improve Quality. The rice industry requires new methods for measuring degree of milling of rice. The degree of milling is an indicator of how well rice is milled and is critical in determining the quality, functional properties and sensory attributes of rice. Under a reimbursable agreement, 5325-41440-004-09R, entitled "Assessing Rice Degree of Milling", the University of Arkansas, a commodity organization and researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, developed whole grain staining methods to locate lipids on the exterior of the grains. Month 0, year 1 samples were photographed for lipid content. Embedding and sectioning was continued for cross section details in support of Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.
Tomato Lycopene to Improve Health. Research on ways to increase the lycopene content in tomatoes is needed to improve the healthfulness of tomatoes for consumers and the food industry. Increased understanding of how the tomato system produces lycopene is needed to meet this goal. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, collaborated with an industrial partner through a trust agreement, 5325-41440-004-00T, entitled "Activated Lycopene Biosynthesis in Vitro-Grown Cherry Tomato and Calcyes", to obtain a genetic map of a particular tomato sepal that produces large amounts of lycopene at cool temperatures. Changes in gene expression during ripening were evaluated to determine which carotenoid biosynthesis genes were induced or suppressed during this process. This research provided information necessary to increase the healthfulness of tomatoes, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.
Blueberry Phytochemicals Lower Cholesterol. The incidence of cardiovascular disease continues to rise in the U.S. In collaboration with the ARS National Center for Toxicological Research, Mississippi, researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, used an animal model to study the effectiveness of blueberry phytochemicals in reducing plasma cholesterol in test animals. These compounds were shown to be very effective in reducing plasma cholesterol in animals and were identified by the researchers in Mississippi. The phytochemical identified is a natural product and may have fewer side effects than pharmaceuticals that are currently marketed to reduce cholesterol. These results may increase consumption and utilization of blueberries and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.
2. Yokoyama, W. Reducing insulin resistance in hamsters by barley feeding. Barley Pre-conference and Whole Grains Workshop. Minneapolis, MN. May 17, 2005. Log No. 178880.
3. Rimando, A.G., Yokoyama, W.H. Small Natural Product Molecules in Vaccinium Berries with Pharmacological Activity. Invited presentation at AACC Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, September 11-14, 2005. Log No. 178897.
4. Ishida, Betty K., Burri, Betty J., Chapman, Mary H., Neidlinger, (2005) “Assessing Bioavailability of Cis- vs Trans-Lycopene Isomers in Tangerine and Red Tomatoes,” (poster presentation). 14th International Carotenoid Symposium, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 17-22, 2005, p. 92. Log No. 179360.
5. Kahlon T. S. New Food Pyramid and Healthful Potential of Processed Wheat Bran. AACC International Nutrition Division Newsletter, Page 3, September, 2005. Invited presentation Nutrition Division Luncheon Sept. 14, 2005, Orlando, FL. Log No. 185380.
6. Kahlon, T. S., J. De J. Berrios, G.E. Smith and J. L. Pan. Hypocholesterolemic Properties of Food Fibers and Fractions. Dietary Fiber 2006, Multifunctional Complex of Components, June 12-14, 2006, Helsinki, Finland. Log No. 180164.
7. Yokoyama, W.H., Keagy, P. M., Knuckles, B.E., and Shao, Q. 2005. Bioactivity of beta-glucan compositions in hamsters. AACC Int’l Meeting, Orlando, FL. Sep 11-14, 2005. Log No. 186619.
8. Yokoyama, W.H., and Knuckles, B.E. Bioactivity of beta-glucan compositions in hamsters. ACS Annual meeting, Aug 28-Sep 1, 2005. Washington, DC. Log No. 181531.
9. Shao, Q., Wlaschin, K., Yokoyama, W.H., Nissom, P.M., Yap, M., Hu, W-S, and Lazo, G. R. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) prevents insulin resistance in hamsters fed high saturated fat diets through regulation of metabolic genes. ACS Annual meeting, San Diego, CA. Mar 13-17, 2005. Log No. 175149.
10. Yokoyama, W.H. and Shao, Q. Prevention of Insulin Resistance by Soluble Polymers and Phytochemicals. Worldnutra, Anaheim, CA. Oct 16-19. 2005.
11. Yokoyama, W.H. Methylcellulose foods to improve human health and prevent disease. Dow Chemical, Co., Midland, MI. Oct 26-29, 2005.
12. Yokoyama, W.H., and Knuckles, B.E. 2005. Bioactivity of beta-glucan compositions in hamsters. American Chemical Society, Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Jan 22-25, 2006. Log No. 192298.
13. Turowski, M.J., Lynch, S., Wood, D.F., Yokoyama, W.H. 2006. Plasma cholesterol lowering in hypercholesterolemic hamsters by soluble modified cellulose. Teflon beads as a reference standard for dietary fiber studies. Dietary Fiber 2006, Helsinki, Finland, Jun 12-14, 2006. Log No. 186600.
14. Turowski, M.J., Harfmann, R. G., Deshmukh, B. K., Conklin, J.R., Keller, J., Lynch, S., Yokoyama, W.H. 2006. Soluble methylcellulose food gums as source of dietary fiber with health benefits and an analytical method for their determination in foods. Dietary Fiber 2006, Helsinki, Finland, Jun 12-14, 2006. Log No. 186599.
15. Yokoyama, W. Studies on Dietary Phytochemicals that Reduce Plasma and Liver Lipids using Syrian Hamsters. University Mississippi, Oxford, MI. Feb 16, 2006.
16. Imam, S., Chiou, B-S, Yokoyama, W.H., S.K. Lynch. 2005. Extrusion of Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with and Without Starch into Edible Flexible Gels. Invention Report – Docket No. 0145.05.
17. Ishida, B.K., Chapman, M.H., Randhava, R. A New Environmentally Friendly Method for Lycopene Extraction from Tomato for Food Use. ACS Annual Mtg, 8/28-9/1/05, Washington, DC. Log No. 181515.
18. Bartley, G.E., Ishida, B.K., Zhu, T., Ono, M. Microarray Analysis of Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes During Cool Temperature Lycopene Production in Tomato Sepals. 2nd Int’l Congress on Antioxidant and Methods, 6/22-6/25/05, Washington, DC. Log No. 181516.
19. Ishida, B.K., Burri, B.J., Chapman, M.H. Assessing Bioavailability of Cis- Trans-Lycopene Isomers in Humans Fed Tomato-Based Sauces. WorldNutra Conference 2005, 10/16-10/19/05, Anaheim, CA. Log No. 184321.
20. Yokoyama, W.H., Knuckles, B.E. Bioactivity of Beta-Glucan Compositions In Hamster. 2006 ACS Western Regional Mtg, 1/22-1/25/06, Anaheim, CA. Log No. 192298.Davis, P., Valacchi, G., Pagnin, E., Shao, Q., Gross, H.B., Calo, L., Yokoyama, W.H. 2006. Walnuts Reduce Aortic ET-1 mRNA Levels in Hamsters Fed a High Fat, Atherogenic Diet. Journal of Nutrition. 0022-3166/06:428-432.
Ishida, B.K., Burri, B.J., Chiu, M.M. Assessing bioavailability of cis- and trans-lycopene isomers in humans fed tomato-based sauces. Int'l Conference & Exhibition of Nutraceuticals & Functional Foods Proceedings. Oct 16-19, 2005. Anaheim, CA. p. 1-6.
Zhong, F., Yokoyama, W.H., Wang, Q., Shoemaker, C.F. 2006. Rice Starch, Amylopectin, and Amylose: Molecular Weight and Solubility in Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Based Solvents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 10.1021:A-G.
Yokoyama, W.H., Shao, Q. January-February 2006. Soluble fibers prevent insulin resistance in hamsters fed high saturated fat diets. Cereal Foods World. 51:16-18.
Yokoyama, W.H., Conklin, J., Lynch, S., Turowski, M. 2006. Uses of water-soluble cellulose ethers - patent #64347 Serial No. 60/711,182. 2/3/06. Yokoyama, W.H., Conklin, J., Lynch, S., Turowski, M. 2006. Uses of water-soluble cellulose ethers - #64347a Serial No. 60/711,473. 2/3/06. Rimando, A.M., Feller, D., Yokoyama, W.H. 2006. Pterostilbene as a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform. Patent No. 11/207,038. 2/24/06.
Yokoyama, W.H., Shao, Q., Lynch, S., Turowski, M. 2005. Preventing or reducing oxidative stress or oxidative cell injury. Patent No. 11/289,914. 12/1/05.