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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PROCESSING AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENT OF FOODS TO PREVENT OBESITY RELATED AND OTHER DEGENERATIVE DISEASES

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
About 9% of Americans over the age of 20 and 19% of Americans over the age of 60 are type II diabetics. Type II diabetes is usually preceded by overweight or obesity and insulin resistance. During insulin resistance the normal utilization of glucose by muscle, liver and other tissues is impaired and glucose builds up in the blood stream resulting in the increased production and excretion of insulin. Eventually, the cells producing insulin die and diabetes occurs. The research seeks to prevent adult onset diabetes that results after death of the insulin producing cells occurs, by developing new food ingredients and processes that prevent insulin resistance, the period prior to overt diabetes when actual tissue damage takes place. The project has identified at least one food component, soluble fiber, which dramatically prevents insulin resistance in a novel animal model. The project also plans to evaluate small molecules that may increase insulin sensitivity and the role of antioxidants in reducing the damage to tissues during the insulin resistance phase. The financial burden of obesity and diabetes is over $100 billion dollars annually.

The research to be undertaken falls under National Program 306 - Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, and contributes to National Program 107 - Human Nutrition and are described in the National Program Action Plan. Specifically these are:

Problem Area 1C, Factors and Processes that Affect Quality (NP306). Identify, isolate, and characterize food components that prevent insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity and/or cardiovascular disease.

Problem Area 2A, New Product Technology (NP306). Optimize the use of agricultural commodities and co-products, and to use new knowledge to develop alternative food products to prevent diet-related premature degenerative diseases.

Problem Area 2B, New Uses for Agricultural By-Products (NP306). Identify good sources of functional phytonutrients including dietary fiber, phenolics, antioxidants, and other components that have been reported to be useful in preventing chronic and degenerative diseases in low value agricultural co-products.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
FY 2004 Relate fiber concentration and polymer properties to insulin resistance in animal model. Physical characterization of polymer properties: viscosity, solubilization, interaction with bile acids. Microarray analysis of tissues from dietary induced insulin resistance. Microarray data analysis of tomato lycopene pathways. Extrusion of starch and fiber to develop novel dietary fibers. Bile acid binding in vitro and in humans.

FY 2005 Role of saturated and polyunsaturated fat in insulin resistance. Incorporate extruded starch and fiber into food products. Evaluate small molecules that improve insulin sensitivity in animal model. Submit protocol for study of insulin resistance in human subjects. Continue microarray analysis of metabolic pathways to prevent insulin resistance.

FY 2006 Mechanism-glycemic effect or gastric emptying of soluble fibers. Continue physical characterization of polymer properties: viscosity, solubilization, interaction with bile acids. Continue studies of small molecules with insulin sensitivity properties. Recruit subjects for human study.

FY 2007 Continue physical characterization of polymer properties: viscosity, solubilization, interaction with bile acids. Optimize polymer properties and bioavailability to prevent insulin resistance. Human study to prevent insulin resistance and analysis of data.

FY 2008–2009 Prevention of tissue damage in insulin-resistant animals by antioxidants. Continue food development incorporating insulin resistance-preventing components or processes.


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
Gene Expression and Marker Determination in Insulin Resistant Hamsters. Increased understanding of gene expression can help prevent insulin resistance and coincident tissue damage, as well as the onset of type II diabetes. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit at WRRC, Albany, CA, in collaboration with university researchers under SCA 5325-41440-004-10S, entitled "Gene Expression and Oxidative Stress in Normal and Insulin Resistant Hamsters", developed several new PCR primers for sequences of genes known to be biomarkers for oxidative stress in the Syrian hamster. Genes expressed during insulin resistance induced by high fat diets and markers of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress were determined to pinpoint metabolic pathways related to type II diabetes. This research supports Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306 by increasing understanding of ways to prevent type II diabetes through diet.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
Rice Starch Characterization. Characterization of rice starch can lead to an improved understanding of the functionality of rice starch in foods. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, collaborated with international University partners to characterize the molecular structure of rice starch using multi-angle laser light scattering detection. The large size and difficulty of solubilization of starch molecules have impeded previous research in this area. This research developed a systematic model of solubilizing rice starch molecules and characterizing their size and shape in support of Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306 in an effort to improve food product quality.

Fiber Chemistry for Prevention of Diabetes. Obesity and type II diabetes are epidemic in the U.S. and pose both health and economic burdens. Under a CRADA with an industrial partner, 5325-41440-004-03T, entitled "Improvements in Plasma Lipids by Soluble Methyl-Substituted Cellulose", researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, evaluated the effects of polymer chemistry and size on physiological functions in test animals. Several polymers were found to have positive effects and three patent applications were filed. In the future these polymers could be added as food ingredients to reduce the incidence of obesity and associated diseases, providing an alternative to pharmaceuticals to prevent dietary-related metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. This research supports Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306 by increasing understanding of ways to prevent type II diabetes through diet.

Rice Drying to Improve Quality. New drying methods are needed for drying and disinfestation of patty rice to replace the planned decommissioning of currently licensed pesticides. Under a trust agreement, 5325-41440-004-08T, entitled "Rice Utilization and Product Development" funded by a commodity organization, researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, collaborated with the University of California, Davis to study different conditions of infrared and radio frequency heating treatments for drying and disinfestation of high quality patty rice. Results showed that both infrared and radio frequency have promise for this application. This research will improve the quality of rice, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.

Healthy, High Fiber Noodles. Obesity and type II diabetes are epidemic in the U.S. Control of blood sugar is essential to diabetics and soluble fibers are very effective in this regard. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, developed a healthy noodle by incorporating a modified cellulose-based soluble fiber into the noodles through a trust agreement with a commodity organization, 5325-41440-004-07N, entitled "Low Glycemic Pastas and Noodles Containing Soluble Fibers". Processing variables, fiber loss during cooking and final sensory properties were determined. The incorporation of soluble fibers in pastas, noodles and other manufactured carbohydrate-containing foods is needed to provide consumers with alternatives to traditional carbohydrate foods to improve human health, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306. Rice Bran Prevents Colon Cancer. Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer death and chronic disease. Under a trust agreement with a commodity organization cooperator, 5325-41440-004-04T, entitled "Colonic Health Improvement of Rice Bran", researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, performed a feeding study on the effects of full fat, defatted, and phytase-treated rice bran on colon health in test animals. Results suggested that rice bran reduces the amount of marker associated with colon cancer in the upper colon. Use of rice bran in foods to promote health and prevent colon cancer will improve consumer health and add value to rice bran, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.

Cereal Bran Prevents Colon Cancer. Consumption of cereal brans can reduce the risk of colon cancer, a major cause of cancer death and chronic disease. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, completed an animal feeding study of barley with genetically low levels of phytate and the tissues were analyzed for markers of colon cancer under a specific cooperative agreement with a University partner 5325-41440-004-05S, "Improving Colonic Health by Processed Cereal Bran". Results suggest an inverse correlation between phytate and a marker for colon cancer. Barley and other cereal brans are ingredients in breakfast cereals, muffins, breads and other manufactured foods. This research investigated ways that processing can enhance the beneficial properties of fiber in the bran, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.

Rice Milling to Improve Quality. The rice industry requires new methods for measuring degree of milling of rice. The degree of milling is an indicator of how well rice is milled and is critical in determining the quality, functional properties and sensory attributes of rice. Under a reimbursable agreement, 5325-41440-004-09R, entitled "Assessing Rice Degree of Milling", the University of Arkansas, a commodity organization and researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, developed whole grain staining methods to locate lipids on the exterior of the grains. Month 0, year 1 samples were photographed for lipid content. Embedding and sectioning was continued for cross section details in support of Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
None.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
Cholesterol-Lowering Potential of Soy and Legume Proteins. Soybean is a major agricultural commodity and more research is needed on its use in food products to improve human health and nutrition. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, evaluated the cholesterol-lowering properties of various processed soybean hydrolysates using a hypercholesterolemic hamster model through a trust agreement with an industrial partner, 5325-41440-004-06T, entitled "Cholesterol-Lowering Properties of Processed Soy and Other Legume Proteins". The less soluble peptide fractions were associated with hypercholesterolemic activity. Food processing and the protein's primary structure may be important factors in determining soy protein's cholesterol-lowering potential. This research could identify ways that food processing can modify soy protein structure or composition to prevent cardiovascular disease, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.

Tomato Lycopene to Improve Health. Research on ways to increase the lycopene content in tomatoes is needed to improve the healthfulness of tomatoes for consumers and the food industry. Increased understanding of how the tomato system produces lycopene is needed to meet this goal. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, collaborated with an industrial partner through a trust agreement, 5325-41440-004-00T, entitled "Activated Lycopene Biosynthesis in Vitro-Grown Cherry Tomato and Calcyes", to obtain a genetic map of a particular tomato sepal that produces large amounts of lycopene at cool temperatures. Changes in gene expression during ripening were evaluated to determine which carotenoid biosynthesis genes were induced or suppressed during this process. This research provided information necessary to increase the healthfulness of tomatoes, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.

Blueberry Phytochemicals Lower Cholesterol. The incidence of cardiovascular disease continues to rise in the U.S. In collaboration with the ARS National Center for Toxicological Research, Mississippi, researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, used an animal model to study the effectiveness of blueberry phytochemicals in reducing plasma cholesterol in test animals. These compounds were shown to be very effective in reducing plasma cholesterol in animals and were identified by the researchers in Mississippi. The phytochemical identified is a natural product and may have fewer side effects than pharmaceuticals that are currently marketed to reduce cholesterol. These results may increase consumption and utilization of blueberries and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, supporting Problem Areas 1C and 2B of NP 306.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Under a CRADA with an industrial collaborator three patent applications and a disclosure have been filed. The application of this technology by the food industry is anticipated in FY2007. ARS research in food applications will enable this technology to be integrated into target processed foods.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
1. For Soluble fiber and diabetes full page advertisement in 2005 in Scientific American Nov, Fortune Oct, Time Oct, US News & World Report Oct, New York Times Oct 4th, Money Magazine Nov, National Journal Oct 1st, and Washington Post Sep 27th.

2. Yokoyama, W. Reducing insulin resistance in hamsters by barley feeding. Barley Pre-conference and Whole Grains Workshop. Minneapolis, MN. May 17, 2005. Log No. 178880.

3. Rimando, A.G., Yokoyama, W.H. Small Natural Product Molecules in Vaccinium Berries with Pharmacological Activity. Invited presentation at AACC Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, September 11-14, 2005. Log No. 178897.

4. Ishida, Betty K., Burri, Betty J., Chapman, Mary H., Neidlinger, (2005) “Assessing Bioavailability of Cis- vs Trans-Lycopene Isomers in Tangerine and Red Tomatoes,” (poster presentation). 14th International Carotenoid Symposium, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 17-22, 2005, p. 92. Log No. 179360.

5. Kahlon T. S. New Food Pyramid and Healthful Potential of Processed Wheat Bran. AACC International Nutrition Division Newsletter, Page 3, September, 2005. Invited presentation Nutrition Division Luncheon Sept. 14, 2005, Orlando, FL. Log No. 185380.

6. Kahlon, T. S., J. De J. Berrios, G.E. Smith and J. L. Pan. Hypocholesterolemic Properties of Food Fibers and Fractions. Dietary Fiber 2006, Multifunctional Complex of Components, June 12-14, 2006, Helsinki, Finland. Log No. 180164.

7. Yokoyama, W.H., Keagy, P. M., Knuckles, B.E., and Shao, Q. 2005. Bioactivity of beta-glucan compositions in hamsters. AACC Int’l Meeting, Orlando, FL. Sep 11-14, 2005. Log No. 186619.

8. Yokoyama, W.H., and Knuckles, B.E. Bioactivity of beta-glucan compositions in hamsters. ACS Annual meeting, Aug 28-Sep 1, 2005. Washington, DC. Log No. 181531.

9. Shao, Q., Wlaschin, K., Yokoyama, W.H., Nissom, P.M., Yap, M., Hu, W-S, and Lazo, G. R. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) prevents insulin resistance in hamsters fed high saturated fat diets through regulation of metabolic genes. ACS Annual meeting, San Diego, CA. Mar 13-17, 2005. Log No. 175149.

10. Yokoyama, W.H. and Shao, Q. Prevention of Insulin Resistance by Soluble Polymers and Phytochemicals. Worldnutra, Anaheim, CA. Oct 16-19. 2005.

11. Yokoyama, W.H. Methylcellulose foods to improve human health and prevent disease. Dow Chemical, Co., Midland, MI. Oct 26-29, 2005.

12. Yokoyama, W.H., and Knuckles, B.E. 2005. Bioactivity of beta-glucan compositions in hamsters. American Chemical Society, Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Jan 22-25, 2006. Log No. 192298.

13. Turowski, M.J., Lynch, S., Wood, D.F., Yokoyama, W.H. 2006. Plasma cholesterol lowering in hypercholesterolemic hamsters by soluble modified cellulose. Teflon beads as a reference standard for dietary fiber studies. Dietary Fiber 2006, Helsinki, Finland, Jun 12-14, 2006. Log No. 186600.

14. Turowski, M.J., Harfmann, R. G., Deshmukh, B. K., Conklin, J.R., Keller, J., Lynch, S., Yokoyama, W.H. 2006. Soluble methylcellulose food gums as source of dietary fiber with health benefits and an analytical method for their determination in foods. Dietary Fiber 2006, Helsinki, Finland, Jun 12-14, 2006. Log No. 186599.

15. Yokoyama, W. Studies on Dietary Phytochemicals that Reduce Plasma and Liver Lipids using Syrian Hamsters. University Mississippi, Oxford, MI. Feb 16, 2006.

16. Imam, S., Chiou, B-S, Yokoyama, W.H., S.K. Lynch. 2005. Extrusion of Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with and Without Starch into Edible Flexible Gels. Invention Report – Docket No. 0145.05.

17. Ishida, B.K., Chapman, M.H., Randhava, R. A New Environmentally Friendly Method for Lycopene Extraction from Tomato for Food Use. ACS Annual Mtg, 8/28-9/1/05, Washington, DC. Log No. 181515.

18. Bartley, G.E., Ishida, B.K., Zhu, T., Ono, M. Microarray Analysis of Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes During Cool Temperature Lycopene Production in Tomato Sepals. 2nd Int’l Congress on Antioxidant and Methods, 6/22-6/25/05, Washington, DC. Log No. 181516.

19. Ishida, B.K., Burri, B.J., Chapman, M.H. Assessing Bioavailability of Cis- Trans-Lycopene Isomers in Humans Fed Tomato-Based Sauces. WorldNutra Conference 2005, 10/16-10/19/05, Anaheim, CA. Log No. 184321.

20. Yokoyama, W.H., Knuckles, B.E. Bioactivity of Beta-Glucan Compositions In Hamster. 2006 ACS Western Regional Mtg, 1/22-1/25/06, Anaheim, CA. Log No. 192298.


Review Publications
Kahlon, T.S. May-June 2006. The New Food Guide Pyramid: Recommendations on Grains, Fruits, and Vegetables. Cereal Foods World. 51(3):104-107.

Davis, P., Valacchi, G., Pagnin, E., Shao, Q., Gross, H.B., Calo, L., Yokoyama, W.H. 2006. Walnuts Reduce Aortic ET-1 mRNA Levels in Hamsters Fed a High Fat, Atherogenic Diet. Journal of Nutrition. 0022-3166/06:428-432.

Ishida, B.K., Burri, B.J., Chiu, M.M. Assessing bioavailability of cis- and trans-lycopene isomers in humans fed tomato-based sauces. Int'l Conference & Exhibition of Nutraceuticals & Functional Foods Proceedings. Oct 16-19, 2005. Anaheim, CA. p. 1-6.

Zhong, F., Yokoyama, W.H., Wang, Q., Shoemaker, C.F. 2006. Rice Starch, Amylopectin, and Amylose: Molecular Weight and Solubility in Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Based Solvents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 10.1021:A-G.

Yokoyama, W.H., Shao, Q. January-February 2006. Soluble fibers prevent insulin resistance in hamsters fed high saturated fat diets. Cereal Foods World. 51:16-18.

Yokoyama, W.H., Conklin, J., Lynch, S., Turowski, M. 2006. Uses of water-soluble cellulose ethers - patent #64347 Serial No. 60/711,182. 2/3/06.

Yokoyama, W.H., Conklin, J., Lynch, S., Turowski, M. 2006. Uses of water-soluble cellulose ethers - #64347a Serial No. 60/711,473. 2/3/06.

Rimando, A.M., Feller, D., Yokoyama, W.H. 2006. Pterostilbene as a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform. Patent No. 11/207,038. 2/24/06.

Yokoyama, W.H., Shao, Q., Lynch, S., Turowski, M. 2005. Preventing or reducing oxidative stress or oxidative cell injury. Patent No. 11/289,914. 12/1/05.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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