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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PROCESSING AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENT OF FOODS TO PREVENT OBESITY RELATED AND OTHER DEGENERATIVE DISEASES

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

2005 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter?
About 9% of Americans over the age of 20 and 19% of Americans over the age of 60 are type II diabetics. Type II diabetes is usually preceded by overweight or obesity and insulin resistance. During insulin resistance the normal utilization of glucose by muscle, liver and other tissues is impaired and glucose builds up in the blood stream resulting in the increased production and excretion of insulin. Eventually, the cells producing insulin die and diabetes occurs. The research seeks to prevent adult onset diabetes that results after death of the insulin producing cells occurs, by developing new food ingredients and processes that prevent insulin resistance, the period prior to overt diabetes when actual tissue damage takes place. The project has identified at least one food component, soluble fiber, which dramatically prevents insulin resistance in a novel animal model. The project also plans to evaluate small molecules that may increase insulin sensitivity and the role of antioxidants in reducing the damage to tissues during the insulin resistance phase. The financial burden of obesity and diabetes is over $100 billion dollars annually.

The research to be undertaken falls under National Program 306 - Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, and contributes to National Program 107 - Human Nutrition and are described in the National Program Action Plan. Specifically these are: Problem Area 1C, Factors and Processes that Affect Quality (NP306). Identify, isolate, and characterize food components that prevent insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity and/or cardiovascular disease. Problem Area 2A, New Product Technology (NP306). Optimize the use of agricultural commodities and co-products, and to use new knowledge to develop alternative food products to prevent diet-related premature degenerative diseases. Problem Area 2B, New Uses for Agricultural By-Products (NP306). Identify good sources of functional phytonutrients including dietary fiber, phenolics, antioxidants, and other components that have been reported to be useful in preventing chronic and degenerative diseases in low value agricultural co-products. Program Area 6A, Biological Activity of Food Components (NP107). Evaluate the effect of antioxidants to prevent or reduce tissue damage in our insulin resistance animal model. Program Area 6B, Health Effects of Food, Components (NP107). Identify, isolate and characterize food components that prevent insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity and/or cardiovascular disease. Program Area 6C, Mechanism(s) of Action. Investigate the molecular and genetic mechanisms using microarray and other molecular biological techniques involved in the generation of the insulin resistant state in fat fed hamsters and the prevention of this state by soluble fiber or unsaturated fats. Program Area 7B, Conducting Appropriate Animal and Human Trials to Understand Nutrient Bioavailability. Following evaluation in animal models and the development of consumer acceptable foods that prevent insulin resistance we will evaluate these foods in humans.

Agriculture and public health will benefit from the conversion of co-products currently relegated to feed into food ingredients that prevent insulin resistance and type II diabetes or reduce the risk of type II diabetes. New ingredients should generate new products and food processes to incorporate these ingredients into healthful foods.


2.List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan.
FY 2004 Fiber concentration and polymer properties to insulin resistance in animal model. Physical characterization of polymer properties: viscosity, solubilization, interaction with bile acids. Microarray analysis of tissues from dietary induced insulin resistance. Microarray data analysis of tomato lycopene pathways. Extrusion of starch and fiber to develop novel dietary fibers. Bile acid binding in vitro and in humans.

FY 2005 Role of saturated and polyunsaturated fat in insulin resistance. Incorporate extruded starch and fiber into food products. Evaluate small molecules that improve insulin sensitivity in animal model. Submit protocol for study of insulin resistance in human subjects. Continue microarray analysis of metabolic pathways to prevent insulin resistance.

FY 2006 Mechanism-glycemic effect or gastric emptying of soluble fibers. Continue physical characterization of polymer properties: viscosity, solubilization, interaction with bile acids. Continue studies of small molecules with insulin sensitivity properties. Recruit subjects for human study.

FY 2007 Continue physical characterization of polymer properties: viscosity, solubilization, interaction with bile acids. Optimize polymer properties and bioavailability to prevent insulin resistance. Human study to prevent insulin resistance and analysis of data.

FY 2008 Prevention of tissue damage in insulin-resistant animals by antioxidants. Continue food development incorporating insulin resistance-preventing components or processes.


4a.What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year?
Type II diabetes is a major health care issue in the U.S. and development of new food ingredients that prevent insulin resistance can help prevent the incidence of type II diabetes. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA discovered that soluble fibers reduce oxidative damage using an insulin resistance animal model. In addition, fibers previously thought to be inactive were found to have significant beneficial bioactivity. This research was partially conducted under a CRADA with an industrial partner and two patent disclosures have been filed. These results and this new fiber source will provide an alternative to pharmaceuticals to prevent dietary-related metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes.


4b.List other significant accomplishments, if any.
The incidence of cardiovascular disease continues to rise in the U.S. In collaboration with the ARS National Center for Toxicological Research, Mississippi, researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, used an animal model to study the effectiveness of blueberry phytochemicals in reducing plasma cholesterol in test animals. These compounds were shown to be very effective in reducing plasma cholesterol in animals and were identified by the researchers in Mississippi. The phytochemical identified is a natural product and may have fewer side effects than pharmaceuticals that are currently marketed to reduce cholesterol. These results may increase consumption and utilization of blueberries and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer death and chronic disease. Under a trust agreement with a commodity organization cooperator, 5325-41440-004-04T, entitled Colonic Health Improvement of Rice Bran, researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA performed a feeding study on the effects of full fat, defatted, and phytase-treated rice bran on colon health in test animals. Results suggested that rice bran reduces the amount of marker associated with colon cancer in the upper colon. Use of rice bran in foods to promote health and prevent colon cancer will improve consumer health and add value to rice bran.

Consumption of cereal brans can reduce the risk of colon cancer, a major cause of cancer death and chronic disease. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA completed an animal feeding study of barley with genetically low levels of phytate and the tissues were analyzed for markers of colon cancer under a specific cooperative agreement with a University partner (5325-41440-004-05S, Improving Colonic Health by Processed Cereal Bran). Results suggest an inverse correlation between phytate and a marker for colon cancer. Barley and other cereal brans are ingredients in breakfast cereals, muffins, breads and other manufactured foods. This research investigated ways that processing can enhance the beneficial properties of fiber in the bran.

Soybean is a major agricultural commodity and more research is needed on its use in food products to improve human health and nutrition. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA evaluated the cholesterol lowering properties of various processed soybean hydrolysates using a hypercholesterolemic hamster model through a trust agreement with an industrial partner, 5325-41440-004-06T, entitled Cholesterol Lowering Properties of Processed Soy and Other Legume Proteins. The less soluble peptide fractions were associated with hypercholesterolemic activity. Food processing and the protein's primary structure may be important factors in determining soy protein's cholesterol lowering potential. This research could identify ways that food processing can modify soy protein structure or composition to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Obesity and type II diabetes are epidemic in the U.S. Control of blood sugar is essential to diabetics and soluble fibers are very effective in this regard. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA developed a healthy noodle by incorporating a modified cellulose-based soluble fiber into the noodles through a trust agreement with a commodity organization, 5325-41440-004-07N, entitled Low Glycemic Pastas and Noodles Containing Soluble Fibers. Processing variables, fiber loss during cooking and final sensory properties were determined. The incorporation of soluble fibers in pastas, noodles and other manufactured carbohydrate-containing foods is needed to provide consumers with alternatives to traditional carbohydrate foods to improve human health.

New drying methods are needed for drying and disinfestation of patty rice to replace the planned decommissioning of currently licensed pesticides. Under a trust agreement, 5325-41440-004-08T, entitled "Rice Utillization and Product Development" funded by a commodity organization, researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, collaborated with the University of California, Davis to study different conditions of infrared and radio frequency heating treatments for drying and disinfestation of patty rice. Results showed that both infrared and radio frequency have promise for this application. This research will improve the quality of rice.

The rice industry requires new methods for measuring degree of milling of rice. The degree of milling is an indicator of how well rice is milled and is critical in determining the quality, functional properties and sensory attributes of rice. Under a reimbursable agreement, 5325-41440-004-09R, entitled Assessing Rice Degree of Milling, the University of Arkansas, a commodity organization and researchers in Albany, CA developed embedding and sectioning methods for lipid identification in rice grains. Rice grains from the 2004 harvest season, month 2 aging, were encased in paraffin for study by microscopy in order to begin collecting data on rice grains milled for 0, 10, 15, 20, and 40 sec. Currently the rice industry is using a variety of methods to measure degree of milling and this research will assist in the development of new standards for the rice industry.

Research on ways to increase the lycopene content in tomatoes is needed to improve the healthfulness of tomatoes for consumers and the food industry. Increased understanding of how the tomato system produces lycopene is needed to meet this goal. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA collaborated with an industrial partner through a trust agreement, 5325-41440-004-00T, entitled "Activated Lycopene Biosynthesis in Vitro-Grown Cherry Tomato and Calcyes", to obtain a genetic map of a particular tomato sepal that produces large amounts of lycopene at cool temperatures. Changes in gene expression during ripening were evaluated to determine which carotenoid biosynthesis genes were induced or suppressed during this process. This research provided information necessary to increase the healthfulness of tomatoes.

New drying methods are needed for drying and disinfestation of patty rice. Under a specific cooperative agreement, 5325-41440-004-00S, entitled "Improvement of Rice Quality and Safety" funded by a commodity organization, researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, collaborated with the University of California, Davis to study different conditions of infrared and radio frequency heating treatments for drying and disinfestation of patty rice. Results showed that both infrared and radio frequency have promise for this application. This research will improve the quality of rice.

Obesity and type II diabetes are epidemic in the U.S. and pose both health and economic burdens. Under a CRADA with an industrial partner, 5325-41440-004-03T, entitled "Improvements in Plasma Lipids by Soluble Methyl-Substituted Cellulose", researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit evaluated the effects of polymer chemistry and size on physiological functions in test animals. Several polymers were found to have positive effects and two patent disclosures were filed. In the future these polymers could be added as food ingredients to reduce the incidence of obesity and associated diseases.


4c.List any significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
None.


5.Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact.
Development of new food ingredients and processes that prevent insulin resistance and coincident tissue damage, can help prevent the onset of type II diabetes. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit at WRRC, Albany, CA discovered for the first time that soluble fibers can prevent insulin resistance using a unique animal model of dietary-induced insulin resistance. In collaboration with university researchers a partial hamster microarray chip was developed which allowed comparative analysis of tissues from hamsters that have become insulin resistant and those that have remained normal due to high fiber feeding. The genes expressed during insulin resistance induced by high fat diets will pinpoint metabolic pathways related to type II diabetes. This research added to our understanding of ways to prevent type II diabetes.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
A CRADA was negotiated this FY and the industrial partner has submitted a patent disclosure for a new discovery under the CRADA. ARS will also submit a disclosure for a new use of a product of the CRADA partner.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
TV & Internet: A presentation about soluble cellulose and oxidative damage at a American Chemical Society meeting in March was reported by national and international media including Fox News TV, Eyewitness News TV, BBC, and several hundred internet outlets.

Business Week Magazine, April 11, 2005. Foods with a Boost.

Yokoyama, W.H., Shao, Q., and others. Dietary soluble cellulose to prevent free tissue oxidative injury. Docket #0152.05. Invention Disclosure filed 7/28/05.

Shao, Q., Yokoyama, W., Baillie, R. and Watkins, S. Lipodomic Analysis and Insulin Resistance in Hamsters. Worldnutra Conference, San Francisco, CA. Nov. 8-10, 2004.

Yokoyama, W. Reducing insulin resistance in hamsters by barley feeding. Barley Preconference and Whole Grains Workshop. Minneapolis, MN. May 17, 2005. Log #178880.

Burri, Betty J., Ishida, Betty K., Chapman, Mary H., and Neidlinger, T.R. (2005) "Lycopene isomer concentrations in blood after feeding common red and Tangerine tomato-based chili to healthy adult humans", American Chemical Society, Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 12-17, 2005 (poster) AGFD Paper #118.

Rimando, A.G., Yokoyama, W.H. Small Natural Product Molecules in Vaccinium Berries with Pharmacological Activity. Invited presentation at AACC Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, September 11-14, 2005. Log #178897.

Wood, D.F., Siebenmorgen, T., Matsler, A., Bautista, R. Use of Microscopy to Quantify Lipid Locations on/in Rice Kernels. Presented at the University of Arkansas Rice Processing Program Industry Alliance Meeting, Fayetteville, AR., May 24-25, 2005.

Wood, D.F., Degree of Milling of Rice Microscopy & Imaging. Presented at the Rice Technical Workers Meeting, Fayetteville, AR., November 12, 2004.


Review Publications
T.S. Kahlon, G.E. Smith. 2004. Health Benefits of Grain, Fruits and Vegetables and the USDA Food Guide Pyramid. 49:288-291.

Rimando, A.M., Rangaswamy, N., Feller, D.R., Yokoyama, W.H. 2005. Pterostilbene, a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform, lowers plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamster. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53:3403-3407.

Yokoyama, W.H., Xu, R., Walzem, R., German, B. 2005. Size-Exclusion Chromatography and Ultracentrifugation of Lipoproteins. Book Chapter. Chapter 17 - HPLC of Acyl Lipids. p. 521-534.

Ishida, B.K., Bartley, G.E. 2005. Carotenoids: Chemistry, Sources, and Physiology. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition. 2nd Edition. Vol 1. Chapter C. p. 330-338.

Amaratunga, K., Pan, Z., Zheng, X., Thompson, J.F. 2005. Comparison of Drying Characteristics and Quality of Rough Rice Dried with Infrared and Heated Air. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Meetings Papers. ASAE Paper No. 056005. p. 1-10. St. Joseph, MI.

Zheng, Y., Pan, Z., Zhang, R., Jenkins, B., Blunk, S. 2005. Properties of Medium-density Particleboard from Saline Athel Wood. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Meetings Papers. ASAE Paper No. 056128. p. 1-15. St. Joseph, MI.

Yokoyama, W.H., Knuckles, B.E. 2005. Multiple Detection (Light Scattering, Fluorescence, Refractive Index and UV) in Size-Exclusion Chromatography of Soluble Glucan Polymers. ACS Book Chapter 8:141-149.

Yokoyama, W.H. 2004. Plasma LDL cholesterol lowering by plant phytosterols in a hamster model. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 15(11):528-531.

Shao, Q., Wlaschin, K., Yokoyama, W.H., Nissom, P.M., Yap, M., Hu, W., Lazo, G.R. 2005. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) May Prevent Insulin Resistance in Hamsters Fed High Saturated Fat Diets through Regulating Metabolic Genes. Meeting Abstract Paper AGFD #103, ACS Cornucopia, 3/15/05, San Diego, CA.

Ishida, B.K., Bartley, G.E., Zhu, T., Ono, M. 2005. Cool Temperature-induced Lycopene Production in Sepals of VFNT Cherry Tomato Fruit Cultured in Vitro. Meeting Abstract Paper AGFD #12. ACS Cornucopia, 3/15/05, San Diego, CA.

Ishida, B.K., Bartley, G.E., Chapman, M.H. 2005. Effects of Processing on Lycopene-isomer Content of Tangerine Tomato. Meeting Abstract Paper AGFD #117, ACS Cornucopia, 3/15/05, San Diego, CA.

Bartley, G.E., Ishida, B.K., Zhu, T., Ono, M. 2005. Microarray Analysis of Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes During Cool Temperature Lycopene Production in Tomato Sepals. Meeting Abstract, p. 17, 2nd Int'l Congress on Antioxidant Methods, 6/22/05, Orlando, FL.

Ishida, B.K., Chapman, M.H. 2004. A Comparison of Carotenoid Content and Total Antioxidant Activity in Catsup from Several Commercial Sources in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Vol. 52. p. 8017-8020.

Kahlon, T.S., Smith, G.E., Shao, Q. In vitro binding of bile acids by kidney bean (phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (vigna mungo), bengal gram (cicer arietinum) and moth bean (phaseolus aconitifolins). Food Chemistry. 2005. 90:241-246.

Ishida, B.K., Chapman, M.H., Randhava, S.S., Randhava, S.S. 2005. Extraction of carotenoids from plant material. Patent Application Serial No. 60/640,029 Filed 12/28/2004.

Ishida, B.K., Burri, B.J., Chapman, M.H., Neidlinger, T.R. 2005. Assessing bioavailability of cis- vs trans-lycopene isomers in tangerine and red tomatoes. Meeting Abstract of the Papers. July 2005. 9:92.

Kahlon, T.S., Smith, G.E. 2005. Healthful properties of cereal fractions. Meeting Abstract Poster, Page 98, 50 Years ICC-Jubilee Conference "Cereals-the Future Challenge". July 2005. Vienna, Austria.

Last Modified: 4/16/2014
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