2006 Annual Report
Sorghum has potential for several uses including a source of renewable bio-industrial products such as ethanol, lactic acid, and biodegradable films and packaging. Sorghum also represents a safe food for people who cannot eat wheat. However, several obstacles must be overcome in order to increase the utilization of sorghum. While some research directed at using sorghum in food products and industrial products (such as biodegradable films) has been carried out, comparatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between sorghum biochemistry and end-use quality and utilization.
This project will focus on the relationships between sorghum biomolecules and end-use quality and utilization of sorghum. Understanding these relationships will identify the components of sorghum that are responsible for end-use quality. Knowledge of these relationships will also allow for new uses of sorghum to be developed.
This project addresses USDA-ARS National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products. The vision of this National Program is to “provide knowledge and innovative technologies that lead to new and expanded market opportunities for United States agriculture.” The proposed research project supports this vision by providing the technology to produce high quality wheat-free food products from sorghum and fits under NP 306’s research component “new processes, new uses, and value-added foods and biobased products.” Production of high quality sorghum food products would represent a new market for sorghum; a market the National Grain Sorghum Producers Assoc. has estimated at $50 million/year. Worldwide, ~40% of sorghum is used for human food. Since the U.S. annually exports 30-50% of its sorghum crop, technology that can improve the quality of sorghum based food products could lead to new and expanded export markets for U. S. sorghum and at the same time provide a healthy cereal food product for persons unable to eat wheat.
2. Differences in protein content and composition of isolated hard and soft endosperm fractions will be determined.
3. Sample sets to be used for relating processing quality to protein content and composition will be collected.
4. Samples varying in pericarp color, presence of testa layer, plant color, and other kernel attributes for analysis of grain color compounds, phenolics, and other small molecules will be collected.
5. Techniques for extracting and analyzing sorghum color compounds by HPLC and HPLC-MS will be developed.
Years 2 and 3 (FY 2006 & 2007) 1. Multi-instrument SKCS comparisons and calibrations with researchers in Kansas, Nebraska, and Texas will be completed.
2. The effect of environment on protein content and composition of isolated hard and soft endosperm fractions will be determined.
3. Wet milling, dry milling, extrusion and fermentation quality of selected sorghum lines will be conducted.
4. Color compounds, phenolics, and other small molecules in sorghum from weathered and sound grain; evaluate grains for markers of insect and fungal damage; infestation will be characterized and cataloged.
Years 4 and 5 (FY 2008 & 2009) 1. Exotic germplasm will be evaluated for desirable processing traits (e.g. ethanol yield).
2. GxE stability of processing quality in sorghum lines showing desirable processing traits will be evaluated.
3. Impact of compounds found in sorghum grains as a result of weathering, mold, insects, or fungal invasion on food and processing quality will be determined.
4. Processing methods to reduce or eliminate impact of environmental damage will be investigated.
Objective 2: Identify sorghum biochemical components related to food functionality and bio-industrial uses such as ethanol production. Use knowledge of these components to improve the quality and yields of bio-industrial materials and the quality and functionality of sorghum flour which will facilitate development of new, high quality foods, especially for the gluten free food market.
Year 1 (FY2005) 1. Improved techniques for extracting and analyzing sorghum proteins will be developed.
2. Methods for extracting and purifying sorghum proteins for industrial and food applications will be determined.
3. Formulations for the production of wheat free sorghum foods from batter type systems will be optimized.
Years 2 and 3 (FY2006 & 2007) 1. Optimization of batter type product formulations for production of wheat free sorghum based foods will be continued.
2. Visco-elastic dough formation in artificial sorghum protein-starch dough systems will be investigated and changes to sorghum proteins during mixing will be elucidated and compared to wheat proteins during mixing.
3. Methods for disruption of sorghum protein bodies in sorghum flour to free proteins for interaction during mixing will be developed.
4. Starch and protein content and composition from diverse sorghum lines will be determined and related to ethanol and lactic acid yields. Years 4 and 5 (FY2008 & 2009) 1. The extent of protein-protein interaction and protein-starch interaction in artificial sorghum dough systems will be determined.
2. Methods for the use of reduction-oxidation systems to form a visco-elastic dough directly from sorghum flour will be developed.
3. Sorghum proteins and starch will be modified to improve functionality in food.
4. Pre-treatment methods for altering protein and starch composition in sorghum for improved ethanol and lactic acid yields will be developed.
Corredor, D.Y., Bean, S.R., Schober, T.J., and Wang, D. 2006. Effect of decorticating sorghum on ethanol production and composition of DDGS. Cereal Chem. 83(1): 17-21.
Schober, T.J., Bean, S.R., and Kuhn, M. 2005. Protein composition and fundamental rheological properties of spelt cultivars as a model of gluten quality. Abstract No. 242 Page 145 in: Program Book of the 90th Annual Meeting of the AACC. [Abstract]
Corredor, D.Y., Bean, S.R., Schober, T.J., and Wang, D. 2005. Effect of decorticating sorghum on ethanol production and composition of distiller’s dry grain with solubles (DDGS). Abstract No. 274 Page 154 in: Program Book of the 90th Annual Meeting of the AACC. [Abstract]
Seitz, L.M. 2005. 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and other phenolic compounds in grain from sorghum sister lines with white, red, and yellow pericarp. Abstract No. 270 in: 2005 AACC Annual Meeting Program Book. p.153. Meeting Abstract.
Bean, S., Ioerger, B.P., Park, S.H., Singh, H. 2006. Interaction between sorghum protein extraction and precipitation conditions on the yield, purity, and composition of purified protein fractions. Cereal Chem. 83:99-107.
Wang, D., Wu, X., Bean, S., Wilson, J.P. 2006. Ethanol production from pearl millet by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cereal Chemistry 83:127-131.
Zhan, X., Wang, D., Bean, S., Mo, X., Sun, X.S., Boyle, D. 2006. Evaluation of ethanol production from extrusion-cooked sorghum flour. Industrial Crops and Products. 23:304-310.