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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Cereal Crops Research

2009 Annual Report

1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Evaluate the processing and end-use quality of hard red spring and durum wheat as a function of genetics and environment; investigate similarities and differences in quality traits and gluten strength properties among flour mill streams that affect patent flour; evaluate the influence of pasta processing on the carbohydrate components of semolina, extruded dough, and spaghetti; and identify and characterize unique traits of waxy HRS and durum wheat and determine how these traits affect milling and baking.

1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Evaluate the quality of spring and durum wheat cultivars that will be submitted by Federal, State, and private breeders, and special interest groups. Wheat samples will be obtained from early-generation and advanced breeding lines, including commercial cultivars as controls that typify various breeding programs. Compare the physical and biochemical quality traits among individual flour mill streams/cv/rep that impact dough and bread baking quality in order to identify mill streams that can be used to make superior blends of patent flour. Examine the physical and chemical changes taking place in the starch and other carbohydrate components during milling, pasta processing, and spaghetti drying and cooking. Condition waxy HRS and durum wheat lines and cultivars of non-waxy HRS, durum, and soft white wheat for milling and adjust the milling conditions to optimize product yield. Determine the effect of 0% to 30% waxy HRS or durum wheat flour on staling properties of bagels under controlled storage studies.

3.Progress Report
The Hard Red Spring Wheat Quality Laboratory (WQL) analyzed the physical and biochemical quality traits on over 4000 samples of hard spring and durum wheat that were submitted by private and public wheat breeders who were involved in improving wheat germplasm and by scientists/graduate students who were involved in gene mapping to identify chromosome regions harboring genes that influence end-quality traits. The WQL, in cooperation with the Wheat Quality Council (WQC), evaluated eleven experimental lines of hard spring wheat that were grown at up to 5 locations along with the check cultivar, Glenn. The WQL tested each line for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and baking quality traits; coordinated the baking quality test results from 9 independent public and private testing laboratories; and analyzed the data and published the results that were presented and discussed at the annual meeting of the WQC in 2009. WQL interaction with the WQC serves to provide industry feedback on milling and baking quality traits of advanced experimental lines of wheat that are considered for release into commercial production. Seven of the 11 experimental lines from the 2008 crop were released for commercial production. In replicated field trials, two different sulfur fertilizer treatments were applied to soil on which the hard spring wheat cultivar Glenn was sown. The effects of sulfur fertilizer on bread baking characteristics of patent flour and millstream (three break and three reduction) flours were determined on the milled wheat. Dough, mixing, and bread making characteristics were analyzed, including nitrogen and sulfur content and protein size distribution to investigate their associations with quality traits. Changes in protein molecular weight distribution (MWD) and the possible relationships with rheological properties of dough during refrigerated storage were investigated in cooperation with the Spring Wheat Quality Laboratory at North Dakota State University. Protein MWD was analyzed for a mapping population of hard spring wheat that consisted of 139 lines grown at three MN locations in cooperation with wheat breeders from the University of Minnesota. Protein fractions that had significant associations with mixing and bread making characteristics were identified and the data will be further employed for genetic mapping. Research was conducted to investigate variation of kernel protein composition within individual hard spring wheat cultivars in cooperation with the Engineering Research Unit, Grain Marketing Research Center, USDA-ARS at Manhattan KS. Wheat kernels from 10 hard spring wheat cultivars grown at two locations in ND were individually fractionated into three groups according to single kernel protein content using a Single Kernel Near Infrared Sorter. The protein MWD data of the kernel fractions is currently being analyzed to investigate intra-varietal variation of protein composition. Protein MWD analysis was conducted on Langdon durum–wild emmer wheat chromosome substitution lines and the obtained data will be analyzed to identify variations in proteins.

1. Development of improved wheat germplasm. Wheat producers, milling and baking industries, and overseas customers require high standards in the quality of wheat to meet their evolving needs. The Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory (WQL) in Fargo, ND contributed wheat end-use quality data that helped lead to the development of improved wheat germplasm and subsequent release of new cultivars of spring, winter, and durum wheat bred for commercial production. The WQL provided over 40 different tests related to the physical and biochemical quality traits of the wheat kernel and related milling performance, flour, semolina, dough, baking, and spaghetti processing on over 4000 samples of hard spring, hard winter, and durum wheat lines that were submitted by public and private wheat breeders and cooperating scientists. The impact lies in the release of 7 experimental lines of spring wheat in 2008/2009, which included the cultivars RB07 and Clearfield.

2. Relationships of polymeric proteins with dough and bread-making quality in a recombinant inbred population of hard red spring wheat. Variation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) polymeric proteins is known to be associated with quality traits. The composition of polymeric proteins and their associations with dough mixing strength and bread-making characteristics were investigated in 139 inbred hard spring wheat lines grown at three locations through cooperation with wheat breeders from the University of Minnesota. Sodium dodecyl sulfate unextractable high molecular weight polymeric proteins were identified to contribute to enhancing mixing and breadmaking properties. The results of this research provide information on functional effects of polymeric proteins on flour bread making characteristics, and the information will assist evaluation of wheat breeding lines for improved bread making quality.

3. Rheological changes in refrigerated dough during storage in relation to proteins. Refrigerated dough is a flour-based, unbaked product that is stored between 4-7 ºC. Refrigerated storage results in dough deterioration over time, thus reducing bread making quality. Changes in rheological properties and associated proteins of dough during refrigerated storage were investigated in cooperation with the Spring Wheat Quality Laboratory at North Dakota State University. Results indicated that wheat cultivars showed differences in dough deterioration due to the hydrolysis of polymeric proteins and gliadins during refrigerated storage. This research will result in the selection of wheat cultivars that yield dough with improved tolerance to refrigerated storage and an understanding of the likely cause and effect of dough deterioration during refrigeration.

4. Structural changes of arabinoxylans and their relationships with syruping during refrigerated storage of dough. Degradation of Arabinoxylans (AXs) has a negative effect on dough quality, specifically causing release of water from dough (dough syruping) during refrigerated storage. Differences in decrease of molecular weight and the ratio of arabinose to xylose of AXs were observed during extended refrigerated storage among dough prepared from different wheat cultivars. Specifically, water unextractable-AXs, which have high water holding capacity, were observed to become soluble in water due to the decrease of arabinose to xylose ratio during extended refrigerated storage, which led to the ‘syruping’ condition of the refrigerated dough. This research provides wheat breeders with the knowledge needed to select and release cultivars with improved refrigerated dough quality.

5. The effect of spring wheat starch properties on flour tortilla quality. Starch properties affect the end use quality of products made from wheat flour. Flour from seven wheat cultivars with different starch composition was tested for starch properties to assess the impact on tortilla quality. Tortilla dough exhibited physical characteristics ranging from soft and dry to moist and sticky, while tortillas had unique handling and storage properties related to the starch composition. Results indicated that various low-amylose flour mixtures enhanced tortilla quality. This information provides wheat breeders with the knowledge needed for selecting cultivars with improved tortilla-making quality.

Review Publications
Ohm, J., Ross, A.S., Peterson, C.J., Morris, C.F. 2009. Relationships of Quality Characteristics with Size Exclusion HPLC Chromatogram of Protein Extract in Soft-White Winter Wheats. Cereal Chemistry 86:(2) 197-203

Simsek, S., Ohm, J. 2009. STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF ARABINOXYLANS IN REFRIGERATED DOUGH. Carbohydrate Polymers. 77: 87-94, 2009

Chung, O.K., Ohm, J., Ram, M.S., Park, S. 2009. Wheat Lipids. In: Khan, K. and Shewry, P.R., editors. Wheat Chemistry and Technology. 4th edition. St. Paul, Minnesota: AACC International, Inc. p. 363-390.

Rey, J.I., Hayes, P.M., Petrie, S., Corey, A., Flowers, M., Ohm, J., Rhinhart, K., Ross, A. 2009. Potential for Production of Dryland Barley for Human Food: Quality and Agronomic Performance of Spring Habit Germplasm in Oregon. Crop Science 49:347-355

Last Modified: 4/23/2014
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