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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENHANCE HARD SPRING AND DURUM WHEAT QUALITY AND UTILIZATION

Location: Cereal Crops Research

2008 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Evaluate the processing and end-use quality of hard red spring and durum wheat as a function of genetics and environment; investigate similarities and differences in quality traits and gluten strength properties among flour mill streams that affect patent flour; evaluate the influence of pasta processing on the carbohydrate components of semolina, extruded dough, and spaghetti; and identify and characterize unique traits of waxy HRS and durum wheat and determine how these traits affect milling and baking.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Evaluate the quality of spring and durum wheat cultivars that will be submitted by Federal, State, and private breeders, and special interest groups. Wheat samples will be obtained from early-generation and advanced breeding lines, including commercial cultivars as controls that typify various breeding programs. Compare the physical and biochemical quality traits among individual flour mill streams/cv/rep that impact dough and bread baking quality in order to identify mill streams that can be used to make superior blends of patent flour. Examine the physical and chemical changes taking place in the starch and other carbohydrate components during milling, pasta processing, and spaghetti drying and cooking. Condition waxy HRS and durum wheat lines and cultivars of non-waxy HRS, durum, and soft white wheat for milling and adjust the milling conditions to optimize product yield. Determine the effect of 0% to 30% waxy HRS or durum wheat flour on staling properties of bagels under controlled storage studies.


3.Progress Report
We analyzed the physical and biochemical quality traits of over 4000 samples of hard spring and durum wheat that were submitted by private and public wheat breeders who were involved in improving wheat germplasm and by scientists/graduate students who were involved in gene mapping to identify chromosome regions harboring genes that influence end-quality traits. In cooperation with the Wheat Quality Council (WQC), we evaluated twelve experimental lines of hard spring wheat that were grown at up to 5 locations along with the check cultivar, Glenn. We tested each line for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and baking quality traits; coordinated the baking quality test results from 9 independent public and private testing labs; and analyzed the data and published the results that were presented and discussed at the annual meeting of the WQC. Interaction with the WQC provides a mechanism for industry feedback on milling and baking quality traits of advanced experimental lines of wheat that are considered for release into commercial production. Five of the 12 experimental lines from the 2007 crop were either released or were considered for future release. Flour starch extraction and protein molecular weight distribution analysis was conducted. Starch characteristics show significant associations with wheat end-use quality, but starch extraction from flour requires improvements due to incomplete extraction and degradation. Methanol refluxing and potassium hydroxide and urea solution were tested for the extraction of starch from wheat flours. Extracted starches were characterized by size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC), which separated extracted starches into amylose and amylopectin peaks. Relationships of extracted starches with flour pasting characteristics were also investigated. Variations in wheat protein molecular weight distribution significantly affect wheat end-use quality and were analyzed by SE-HPLC. A narrow bore SE-HPLC column was tested for rapid analysis of wheat protein molecular weight distribution for employment in the prediction of mixing and baking characteristics of hard spring wheat varieties. Relationships of protein molecular weight distribution and wheat quality factors were also investigated in cooperation with the Wheat Quality Lab at Oregon State Univ (noodle color characteristics and soft wheat quality factors), the Spring Wheat Quality Lab at NDSU (effects of refrigeration on dough), and the Grain Marketing Research Center (uniformity). Protein SE-HPLC analysis is also in progress for Langdon durum–wild emmer wheat chromosome substitution lines and a mapping population from the Univ of Minnesota for a study of the underlying genetics of quality and to assist selection of high quality lines. Investigation of structural changes in arabinoxylans during dough refrigeration is in progress in cooperation with the Spring Wheat Quality Lab at NDSU. This research aligns with NP 306 Component 1, Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement, Problem Area 1A: Definition and Basis for Quality, Problem Area 1B: Methods to Evaluate and Predict Quality, and Problem Area 1C: Factors and Processes That Affect Quality.


4.Accomplishments
1. Development of improved wheat germplasm. Wheat producers, milling and baking industries, and overseas customers require continual improvement in the quality of wheat to meet their evolving needs. The Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory (WQL) contributed wheat end use quality data that helped lead to the development of improved wheat germplasm and subsequent release of new cultivars of spring, winter, and durum wheat bred for commercial production. The WQL provided over 40 different tests related to the physical and biochemical quality traits of the wheat kernel and related milling performance, flour, semolina, dough, baking, and spaghetti processing on over 4000 samples of hard spring, hard winter, and durum wheat lines that were submitted by wheat breeders and cooperating scientists. The impact lies in the release or potential release of 5 experimental lines of spring wheat in 2007/2008 and the commercial release of the cultivars ‘Briggs’ and ‘Ada’ in 2007. This research aligns with NP306 Component 1: Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement, Problem Area 1a. Definition and Basis for Quality.

2. Extraction of starches from wheat flours. Extraction of starch from wheat flour with high purity is very important for starch characterization. Methanol refluxing and potassium hydroxide and urea solution were tested to extract starch from wheat flours. The developed procedure resulted in greater starch extraction with higher purity than conventional dimethyl sulfoxide extraction, as evidenced by lower protein and arabinose content. The new starch extraction method will facilitate the characterization of flour starches using analytical instruments such as HPLC. This research aligns with NP 306 Component 1., Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement, Problem Area 1A: Definition and Basis for Quality, Problem Area 1B: Methods to Evaluate and Predict Quality, and Problem Area 1C: Factors and Processes That Affect Quality.

3. Analysis of protein molecular weight distribution using a narrow bore column. Development of a rapid analytical method to analyze molecular weight distribution of flour proteins is highly expected to enhance the characterization of protein for flour quality evaluation, specifically when the sample set is large. The suitability of a narrow-bore column (NBC) (300 x 4.5 mm i.d.) for the rapid analysis of unreduced proteins in flour by size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) and subsequent evaluation of flour quality was tested. A NBC separated proteins in 10 min at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, while a regular column (300 x 7.8 mm i.d.) took 30 min at the same flow rate. Chromatogram data from the NBC had higher or similar range of correlations with quality characteristics when compared with a regular column. Application of NBC technology will facilitate the determination of protein functionality of large sample sets for flour quality evaluation as well as decrease the consumption of organic solvents. This research aligns with NP 306 Component 1, Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement, Problem Area 1A: Definition and Basis for Quality, Problem Area 1B: Methods to Evaluate and Predict Quality, and Problem Area 1C: Factors and Processes That Affect Quality.

4. Wheat flour protein and color characteristics of noodle dough. Color of noodle dough is a very important attribute in Asian countries where a major portion of wheat is consumed for noodle production. This research was performed in cooperation with the Wheat Quality Laboratory at Oregon State University to investigate relationships of protein composition and noodle colors. High molecular weight glutenin subunit composition of wheat protein significantly affected all the measured noodle parameters, specifically for the noodle water absorption and redness of noodle dough. Protein molecular weight distribution was also found to affect noodle characteristics. Applying multivariate analyses to SE-HPLC data indicated that calibration models to predict fresh noodle dough redness and yellowness values could be derived. The results of this research will assist evaluation of noodle making quality of wheat breeding lines. This research aligns with NP 306 Component 1, Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement, Problem Area 1A: Definition and Basis for Quality, Problem Area 1B: Methods to Evaluate and Predict Quality, and Problem Area 1C: Factors and Processes That Affect Quality.

5. Quality characteristics and size exclusion HPLC of protein extracts from soft white winter wheat. A better understanding of the relationship between molecular weight distributions of unreduced grain proteins and end-use quality characteristics of soft white winter wheat, together with faster methods for evaluation, would facilitate development of varieties with better end-use quality. Research was conducted on these relationships in cooperation with the Wheat Quality Laboratory at Oregon State University and Western Wheat Quality Laboratory, USDA-ARS. Significant associations of molecular weight distributions of proteins were found with quality characteristics. Specifically, high molecular weight polymeric protein fractions were found to have detrimental effects on soft wheat quality. Prediction models were developed by the application of multivariate methods to the SE-HPLC data and they explained over 90 % of the variation in mixograph water absorption, and cookie diameter and thickness. The results indicate that protein SE-HPLC data can be employed in breeding programs and industry for the evaluation of soft wheat quality, including milling properties as well as mixing and baking characteristics. This research aligns with NP 306 Component 1., Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement, Problem Area 1A: Definition and Basis for Quality, Problem Area 1B: Methods to Evaluate and Predict Quality, and Problem Area 1C: Factors and Processes That Affect Quality.


5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
None


6.Technology Transfer

Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings1

Review Publications
Wang, Y.G., Khan, K., Hareland, G.A., Nygard, G. 2007. Distribtuion of Protein Composition in Bread Wheat Flour Mill Streams and Reltationship to Breadmaking Quality. Cereal Chemistry. 84:271-275.

Ohm, J., Ross, A., Peterson, J., Ong, Y. 2008. Relationship of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition and molecular weight distribution of wheat flour protein with water absorption and color characteristics of noodle dough. Cereal Chemistry. 85:(2)123-131

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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