2006 Annual Report
1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
CRIS #5442-43440-008-00D is aligned with National Program (NP) #306 Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products (70%), and specifically to Component 1: Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement; and to NP #301 Plant, Microbial, and Insect Genetic Resources, Genomics and Genetic Improvement (30%). The mission of the Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory (WQL), Fargo, ND is to: evaluate experimental lines and new cultivars of wheat for processing and end use quality; develop new and improved objective test methods for measuring quality; and gain a better understanding of the interaction effects of the biochemical constituents that impact end product quality as prescribed by consumer preferences. The commercial value of wheat is affected primarily by environmental conditions during growth, harvest, and storage and by genetic characteristics such as agronomic performance, disease resistance, and end use quality factors. Breeders, in cooperation with plant pathologists, develop new wheat cultivars that have improved agronomic and disease resistance traits in order to overcome the effects of environmental conditions. Breeders' experimental lines of wheat need to be evaluated for processing and end use quality traits before being released for commercial production in order to maximize their market potential. The WQL evaluates over 2500 samples (breeders' experimental lines and commercial cultivars) of spring and durum wheat per year according to over 40 quality standard measurements, which include properties related to milling and flour/semolina yield, flour/semolina quality, protein and starch quality and quantity, dough/frozen dough characteristics, gluten strength, baking performance, and pasta/noodle processing. The approach is to utilize and develop new objective laboratory milling and analytical methods to evaluate significant processing and quality traits that are important to breeders, producers, and end-users.
The quality of new wheat cultivars has improved, or at least maintained status quo, because of wheat breeding efforts over many years. However, certain environmental factors tend to exacerbate overall end-use quality. In the mid 1990's and most recently in 2005, Fusarium head blight (scab) severely affected milling, baking, and pasta quality in wheat. Economic losses were estimated at over one billion dollars in the spring wheat region. The development of scab resistant cultivars that have acceptable milling and end product quality traits is needed. Commercial farm production, food safety, and world marketing efforts are severely impacted when disease is prevalent in wheat. Currently, the U.S. exports at least 50% of spring wheat and 40% of durum wheat production to other countries. Loss of overseas export markets will negatively impact U.S. farm production and domestic supplies. The WQL serves as a link between breeders and commercial processors to provide relative assurance that newly released cultivars of wheat meet industry standards for milling, baking, and pasta quality.
2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Complete and publish test results of the 2006 HRS wheat lines that are submitted by the Wheat Quality Council.
Complete testing of 2006 commerical cultivars and experimental lines of HR wheat that are submitted by the U.S. Wheat Associates for the Overseas Varietal Analysis trials.
Complete testing of 2006 HRS and durum wheat samples that are submitted by Federal, State and private wheat breeders.
Three HRS wheat commerical cultivars with different dough mixing properties will be obtained from the 2005/2006 crop years and evaluated for kernel, milling, flour, dough rheology, and baking properties.
Complete and publish test results of the 2007 HRS wheat lines that are submitted by the Wheat Quality Council.
Complete testing of 2007 commerical cultivars and experimental lines of HR wheat that are submitted by the U.S. Wheat Associates for the Overseas Varietal Analysis trials.
Complete testing of 2007 HRS and durum wheat samples that are submitted by Federal, State and private wheat breeders.
Complete identification of physical and biochemical properties of individual flour millstreams.
Complete and publish test results of the 2008 HRS wheat lines that are submitted by the Wheat Quality Council.
Complete testing of 2008 commerical cultivars and experimental lines of HR wheat that are submitted by the U.S. Wheat Associates for the Overseas Varietal Analysis trials.
Complete testing of 2008 HRS and durum wheat samples that are submitted by Federal, State and private wheat breeders.
4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
Clarification of the role of wheat gliadins and glutenins in the overall bread making process: We found glutenin protein composition was different among different millstreams, and that these differences affect functional properties of these flour millstreams. The accomplishment addressed significant differences in quantity and distribution of protein fractions in various flour mill streams, which reinforced earlier research on the important role that wheat gliadins and glutenins, major components of gluten, contribute to the functional basis of dough properties and bread making quality. Flour mill streams were obtained from three separate samples of the hard red winter wheat, Nekota, and proteins from each stream, including the patent flour, were fractionated by electrophoresis into gliadin, albumin+globulin, HMW-GS, LMW-GS, and residue protein; dough rheology properties were measured by the farinograph; and internal bread crumb characteristics were measured on baked bread samples using the C-CELL imaging system (research conducted jointly between the USDA/ARS Hard Red Spring & Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory and the Department of Cereal & Food Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo). This research provides commercial flour millers and bakers with knowledge that demonstrates how and why flour mill streams are different in terms of functional quality traits and how this knowledge can potentially be implemented when blending flour mill streams for the production of specific baked goods that require precise dough rheology characteristics. This research is aligned with NP306 Component 1: Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement: Problem Area 1a: Definition and Basis for Quality.
4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
Germplasm Release: Growers and the milling and baking industries require continual improvement of wheat varieties to meet their evolving needs. The WQL tested and analyzed the quality traits of advanced experimental lines of HRS wheat that were released for commercial production. Ten breeders' advanced HRS wheat lines were tested for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and bread baking properties. Ten independent laboratories were provided flour for bake evaluations from which the data were analyzed and published by the WQL and presented at the annual meeting of the Wheat Quality Council. The impact lies in the release of new HRS wheat cultivars (ND800, var. Howard; SD3687, var. Traverse; 98S0113-20, var. Kelby; CA-902-701, var. Rush; and MN95229-A, var. Ada), which will generate substantial incomes for commercial growers. This research aligns with NP306 Component 1: Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement.
4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
The primary thrust of this research directly relates to NP306: Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, and specifically to Component 1: Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement. Accomplishments also relate to ARS Strategic Plan Goal 1: Enhance economic opportunities for agricultural producers, Objective 1.1: Provide the science-based knowledge and technologies to generate new or improved high quality, value-added products and processes to expand domestic and foreign markets for agricultural commodities, and Performance Measure 1.1.2.
The WQL cooperated with wheat breeders, plant pathologists, agronomists, the Wheat Quality Council, and personnel from State agricultural experiment stations in the development of improved germplasm and release of over 40 new commercial cultivars of hard red spring wheat and 10 cultivars of durum wheat over the past 15 years. Because of genetic and environmental influences, the development of new wheat cultivars is essential to commercial production practices, the U.S. economy, and market competition among major wheat exporters of the world. The actual impact of a new commercial wheat cultivar is variable, but estimates suggest new annual income in the millions of dollars. The WQL participated in the Overseas Varietal Analysis program sponsored by U.S. Wheat Associates in efforts to enhance overseas marketability of U.S. wheat. The WQL contributed substantial time and effort on the annual evaluation of pre-released experimental lines of spring wheat for the Wheat Quality Council, which serves commercial milling and baking industries in testing and identifying potentially new cultivars from all classes of wheat.
6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Information on the quality of spring and durum wheat experimental lines and named cultivars from the 2005 crop year was transferred to wheat breeders, producers, flour millers, commercial bakers, North Dakota Farm Bureau, State Wheat Commissions, Wheat Quality Council, U.S. Wheat Associates and corresponding foreign offices, and grain trade.
7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Hareland, G. A. Wheat Quality Council Hard Spring Wheat 2004 Crop Report. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee Report. (2005) pp. 1-104.
Hareland, G. A. Wheat Grading/non-Grading Factors Affect Processing Quality. Presented at the North Dakota Farm Bureau Annual Convention, Bismarck, ND, November 2005.
Anderson, J.A., Busch, R.H., Mcvey, D.V., Kolmer, J.A., Linkert, G.L., Wiersma, J.V., Dill-Macky, R., Wiersma, J.J., Hareland, G.A. 2006. Registration of "ulen" wheat. Crop Science 46:979-980.
Wang, Y.G., Khan, K., Hareland, G.A., Nygard, G. 2006. Quantitative glutenin composition from gel electrophoresis of flour mill streams and relationship to breadmaking quality. Cereal Chemistry. 83(3):293-299.