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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Cereal Crops Research

2005 Annual Report

1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter?

The mission of the Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory (WQL), Fargo, ND is to: evaluate experimental lines and new cultivars of wheat for processing and end use quality; develop new and improved objective test methods for measuring quality; and gain a better understanding of the interaction effects of the biochemical constituents that impact end product quality as prescribed by consumer preferences. The commercial value of wheat is affected primarily by environmental conditions during growth, harvest, and storage and by genetic characteristics such as agronomic performance, disease resistance, and end use quality factors. Breeders, in cooperation with plant pathologists, develop new wheat cultivars that have improved agronomic and disease resistance traits in order to overcome the effects of environmental conditions. Breeders’ experimental lines of wheat need to be evaluated for processing and end use quality traits before being released for commercial production in order to maximize their market potential. The WQL evaluates over 2500 samples (breeders’ experimental lines and commercial cultivars) of spring and durum wheat per year according to over 40 quality standard measurements, which include properties related to milling and flour/semolina yield, flour/semolina quality, protein and starch quality and quantity, dough/frozen dough characteristics, gluten strength, baking performance, and pasta/noodle processing. The approach is to utilize and develop new objective laboratory milling and analytical methods to evaluate significant processing and quality traits that are important to breeders, producers, and end-users.

The quality of new wheat cultivars has improved, or at least maintained status quo, because of wheat breeding efforts over many years. However, certain environmental factors tend to exacerbate overall end-use quality. In the mid 1990’s and most recently in 2005, Fusarium head blight (scab) severely affected milling, baking, and pasta quality in wheat. Economic losses were estimated at over one billion dollars in the spring wheat region. The development of scab resistant cultivars that have acceptable milling and end product quality traits is needed. Commercial farm production, food safety, and world marketing efforts are severely impacted when disease is prevalent in wheat. Currently, the U.S. exports at least 50% of spring wheat and 40% of durum wheat production to other countries. Loss of overseas export markets will negatively impact U.S. farm production and domestic supplies. The WQL serves as a link between breeders and commercial processors to provide relative assurance that newly released cultivars of wheat meet industry standards for milling, baking, and pasta quality. The primary thrust of this research directly relates to NP306: Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, and specifically to Component 1: Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement.

2.List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan.
Evaluate the processing and end use traits of breeders’ experimental lines of hard red spring and durum wheat, relative to physical and biochemical attributes and genotypic and environmental influences.

Identify the physical and biochemical properties of individual flour mill streams that contribute the greatest end use value when blended as a means to enhance the flour blending process in commercial mills.

Evaluate the influence of pasta processing on the carbohydrate components of semolina, extruded dough, and spaghetti.

Identify and characterize unique traits of waxy HRS and durum wheat and determine how these wheat genotypes affect milling and baking.

4a.What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year?
Germplasm Release: Growers and the milling and baking industries require continual improvement of wheat varieties to meet their evolving needs. The WQL tested and analyzed the quality traits of advanced experimental lines of HRS wheat that could potentially be released for commercial production. Eight breeders’ advanced HRS wheat lines were tested for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and bread baking properties. Ten independent laboratories were provided flour for bake evaluations from which the data were analyzed and published by the WQL and presented at the annual meeting of the Wheat Quality Council. The impact lies in the release of a new HRS wheat cultivar (ND 747, var. Glenn), which will generate substantial income for commercial growers.

4b.List other significant accomplishments, if any.

4c.List any significant activities that support special target populations.

4d.Progress report.

5.Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact.
The WQL cooperated with wheat breeders, plant pathologists, agronomists, the Wheat Quality Council, and personnel from State agricultural experiment stations in the development of improved germplasm and release of over 40 new commercial cultivars of hard red spring wheat and 10 cultivars of durum wheat over the past 15 years. Because of genetic and environmental influences, the development of new wheat cultivars is essential to commercial production practices, the U.S. economy, and market competition among major wheat exporters of the world. The actual impact of a new commercial wheat cultivar is variable, but estimates suggest new annual income in the millions of dollars. The WQL participated in the Overseas Varietal Analysis program sponsored by U.S. Wheat Associates in efforts to enhance overseas marketability of U.S. wheat. The WQL contributed substantial time and effort on the annual evaluation of pre-released experimental lines of spring wheat for the Wheat Quality Council, which serves commercial milling and baking industries in testing and identifying potentially new cultivars from all classes of wheat.

The primary thrust of this research directly relates to NP306: Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, and specifically to Component 1: Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement. Accomplishments also relate to ARS Strategic Plan Goal 1: Enhance economic opportunities for agricultural producers, Objective 1.1: Provide the science-based knowledge and technologies to generate new or improved high quality, value-added products and processes to expand domestic and foreign markets for agricultural commodities, and Performance Measure 1.1.2.

6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Transfer of information on the quality of spring and durum wheat experimental lines and named cultivars from the 2004 crop year to wheat breeders, producers, flour millers, commercial bakers, State Wheat Commissions, Wheat Quality Council, U.S. Wheat Associates and corresponding foreign offices, and grain trade.

Transfer of laboratory and commercial technology on experimental milling and bread baking processes to scientists and technical staff at the Science and Technology Academy of State Administration of Grain, Beijing, China.

Transfer of commercial technology on durum wheat products to scientists and university students at the Third Food Science International Symposium, Tianjin, China.

7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Hareland, G. A. Wheat Quality Council Hard Spring Wheat 2004 Crop Report. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee Report. (2005) pp. 1-104.

Review Publications
Hareland, G.A. 2004. Durum wheat products. 3rd Food Science International Symposium(FSIS)[abstract] October 23-26, 2004, China Food Publishing Co. Ltd. pp. 26.

Delwiche, S.R., Hareland, G.A. 2004. Detection of scab damaged hard red spring wheat kernels by near-infrared reflectance. Cereal Chemistry. Vol.81(5):643-649.

Anderson, J.A., Busch, R.H., Mcvey, D.V., Kolmer, J.A., Linkert, J.V., Wiersma, J.V., Dill-Macky, R., Wiersma, J.M., Hareland, G.A. 2005. Registration of 'Oklee' wheat. Crop Science. Vol. 45:784-785.

Gu, X.-Y., Kianian, S.F., Hareland, G.A., Hoffer, B.L., Foley, M.E. 2005. Genetic analysis of adaptive syndromes interrelated with seed dormancy in weedy rice (Oryza sativa). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 110:1108-1118.

Mohamed, A., Grant, L.A. 2004. The effect of jet-cooked wheat gluten/lecithin blends on corn starch retrogradation. (Abstract) Corn Utilization Conference Proceedings. 2004 CDROM.

Matkovic, K., Chakraborty, M., Grant, L.A., Yalla, F., Manthey, F. Effects of waxy wheat flour blends on bread baking and staling properties.. American Association of Cereal Chemists Program Book pg. 130 #257

Last Modified: 4/17/2014
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