2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Through basic and applied research, new technologies for converting rice bran, hulls, endosperm components, in situ and isolated, into high value, high demand products that incorporate their unique nutritional and functional properties will be developed targeting the following objectives:.
1)develop technologies for health-beneficial products from rice bran and hulls; and.
2)develop technologies for rice-sweet potato products.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Physical and chemical methodologies will be employed for converting rice bran, rice hulls and their components into value-added products. Anticipated new processes and value-added products are:.
1)efficient, environmentally-friendly processes for extraction of protein from full-fat and defatted rice bran for infant formulations, nutritional supplements, and food ingredients;.
2)rice wax, bran, and hull fractions with desirable functional and health-beneficial properties (e.g., cholesterol-lowering, anti-oxidative); and.
3)gluten-free rice and rice -sweet potato products with enhanced nutritional (e.g., vitamin- and antioxidant-rich, cholesterol-lowering) and unique functional (e.g., low oil-uptake) properties.
This is the final report for the project 6435-41000-092-00D terminated June 30, 2010. The following summarizes the progress/accomplishments over the 5 year life of the project: Economical, Environmentally-Friendly Process for Rice Starch. The patented and licensed process uses high pressure supplied by a microfluidizer (homogenizer) to separate the starch from the protein. This technology has the potential of reducing imports of rice starch and increasing profits for the U.S. rice industry.
Quick-cooking Brown Rice. The patented dry instantization process reduces the cooking time of brown and wild rice from 45-50 minutes to that of white rice (20 min.). The process reduces the cost of processing to make instant rice, reduces environmental pollution, and makes nutritious brown rice more appealing to the consumer.
Rice-sweet Potato Pancakes. The textural and nutritional properties of the rice-sweet potato pancakes were comparable to wheat pancakes, except they had substantially higher contents of the nutrient beta-carotene. This development promotes the use of rice and sweet potato, and creates healthy food products that meet the needs of people who are sensitive to gluten.
Modified Rice Starch. Rice starches were subjected to heat and slow cooking, which improved the cooking properties of the starch by causing the starch to gel over a more narrow temperature range. Such a modification will be useful for the food industry.
Edible Rice Wax Films. Edible films were prepared using rice wax and pullulan (a good film making polysaccharide) as the main ingredients. The developed rice wax-based films have desirable water vapor permeability and will be useful as carriers of flavor and nutritional additives or as barriers for separation, protection and preservation purposes.
Low-oil Uptake Rice Batter. Research was extended to examine solvent effects (such as beer instead of water) on the oil-uptake and sensory properties of the batters when applied to “wet” (fish) and “dry” (onions) food surfaces. Research was also extended to develop batter products for pre-battered, frozen foods for food service and retail.
U.S. Rice Cultivars with Healthier Starch. Research completed in which U.S. rice cultivars were identified that are inherently high in health-promoting starch fractions (slowly digestible and resistant starch).
Rice with Healthier Starch. Altered parboiling process to enhance the nutritionally important slowly digestible and resistant-to-digestion starch composition.
Developing U.S. Rice Cultivars with Healthier Starch. Dietary starches can be classified into three major fractions according to digestibility: rapidly digestible (RDS), slowly digestible (SDS), and resistant starch (RS). SDS and RS have significant implications on human health, particularly glucose metabolism, diabetes management, colon cancer prevention, mental performance, and satiety. This research used advanced statistical and mathematical means to establish the association of the starch fractions with genetic markers, composition, and functional properties. Elucidation of these relationships aids breeders in developing cultivars with healthier rice starch profiles and will be useful for developing new rapid methods for predicting the nutritionally-important starch fraction composition of rice.
Low-oil Uptake Rice Batter Formulated with Beer. The use of beer in batter formulation, or beer-battering, has been popular in fried food recipes, but the topic is rarely reported in scientific journals or its benefit claims substantiated with reliable studies. We prepared and characterized rice and wheat batters with and without using beer to replace water in the formulation. We found that beer-battering caused a slight increase in the oil uptake, but substantial improvements in texture by making the fried batters softer and crispier. The effects are more pronounced for rice batters than wheat batters. The results provide needed clarification and understanding of the effects of beer-battering on the frying of food batters.
Patindol, J.A., Guraya, H.S., Champagne, E.T., Chen, M., Mcclung, A.M. 2010. Relationship of cooked rice nutritionally-important starch fractions with other physicochemical properties. Starch/Starke. 62:246-256.
Guraya, H.S., Lima, I.M., Champagne, E.T. 2010. Method of creating starch-like ultra-fine rice flour and effect of spray drying on lipid components. Starch/Starke. 62:173-180.