2006 Annual Report
1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
Global competition is making it increasingly important for the U.S. rice industry to maximize the value of all products generated in rice milling. Value-added product development offers an avenue for achieving maximum value for rice co-products (by-products). Through basic and applied research we are.
1)obtaining a fuller understanding of the nutritional and functional properties of rice co-products and their components;.
2)identifying specific performance required of products that can be met by rice co-products and their components; and.
3)developing efficient, innovative technologies for converting rice co-products and their components into high-value, high-demand products. Value-added products will expand existing and create new markets for rice and its co-products and stimulate increased production of rice in the U.S. Value-added products from defatted rice bran are needed to drive the market for the production of high-value rice bran oil in the U.S. Adding value to broken kernels used in flour will lead to additional economic benefits by allowing production programs to aim at maximizing total yield (whole and broken) instead of milling yield (whole). Value-added rice products with specific nutritional attributes (e.g. low-oil uptake, cholesterol-lowering) will provide nutritional and health benefits to the U.S. consumer. Being hypoallergenic and gluten-free, products developed from rice will be of particular benefit for persons suffering from Celiac disease, chronic diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and other chronic diseases. This project addresses NP 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, and is directed at component New Processes, New Uses, and Value-added Food and Biobased Products.
2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Objective 1: Develop technologies for health-beneficial products from rice bran and hulls.
Sub-Objective 1.1: Develop process for protein concentrates/isolates.
FY 2005: Complete construction of jet cooker and preliminary studies.
FY 2006: Complete determination of effects of processing variables on fraction composition and functionality.
FY 2007: Complete refining of various components with optimization.
FY 2008: Complete scale-up with commercial partner.
FY 2009: Commercialization of the process.
Sub-Objective 1.2: Develop rice wax applications.
FY 2005: Complete recovery and characterization of rice wax and policosanols (potentially cholesterol lowering compounds) from differing sources.
FY 2006: Complete hamster feeding studies and antioxidant studies.
FY 2007: Complete preliminary development of processes for value-added wax products.
FY 2008: Complete characterization of prototype products and optimization of developed processes.
FY 2009: Complete scale-up with commercial partner.
Sub-Objective 1.3: Determine antioxidant properties of rice bran and hulls.
FY 2005: Complete analysis of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) extracts for activity.
FY 2006: Complete studies incorporating extracts into model foods.
FY 2007: Complete scale-up of applications.
FY 2008: Complete transfer of technology.
Objective 2: Develop technologies for rice-sweet potato products.
Sub-Objective 2.1: Determine interactions of rice and sweet potato components in food systems in terms of pasting, rheological, functional, and nutritional properties under various processing conditions.
FY 2005: Complete characterization of composition of sweet potato and rice ingredients.
FY 2006: Complete determination of interactions of rice and sweet potato components in terms of pasting, rheological, functional, and nutritional properties.
Sub-Objective 2.2: Promote the use and add value to rice and sweet potato by using these ingredients to develop technologies for gluten-free food products with enhanced nutritional and unique functional properties.
FY 2007: Complete initial development of processes for prototype sweet potato-rice products.
FY 2008: Complete development of processes for novel prototype sweet potato-rice products.
FY 2009: Complete transfer of technology.
4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
MODIFIED RICE STARCH. Starch annealing, a heat treatment in excessive amounts of water at temperatures below where the starch gels, is a useful tool to gain better control of the functional properties of starch. In this research, rice starches were modified by annealing and and the modified products were characterized. It was found that the modification improved the cooking properties of the starch by causing the starch to gel over a more narrow temperature range. Such a modification will be useful for the food industry. Rice starch, which is hypoallergenic and gluten-free, has numerous applications as a food ingredient. This research aligns with National Program 306 component, New Processes, New Uses, and Value-added Food and Biobased Products and addresses Problem Area 2 a. New Product Technology.
4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
The research accomplishments described below align with National Program 306 component, "New Processes, New Uses, and Value-added Food and Biobased Products, and address Problem Area 2 a. New Product Technology. .
1)Research has been initiated to develop a high temperature-high pressure-moisture treatment for solubilization of rice bran protein for use in infant formulations and as a food ingredient. Over 90% of total bran protein was solubilized in preliminary studies. A company is pursuing a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to collaborate on this research project. .
2)A process was invented for sterilizing rice straw. Research is underway to make the process continuous and scale it up for a commercial operation. This process will allow the U.S. to export pathogen-free rice straw to Japan, who currently imports 2 million tons of forage other than that from rice. .
3)Formulations for rice bread using a home bread machine have been developed. The formulations will benefit those with Celiac and other intestinal diseases by allowing the consumer to readily and economically (ingredient cost $0.30) prepare gluten-free bread. A CRADA is being negotiated with a food company to pursue commercialization of the bread and other baked products. .
4)Acrylamide found in fried foods has also become a health concern because acrylamide could be carcinogenic. Flour components were found to play a role, not only in oil absorption, but also in acrylamide formation during frying. The results of this research are leading to the development of fried batters that are both low in oil and in acrylamide. This research was summarized in a publication. .
5)Okra was coated and deep-fat fried with invented rice batters (US Patent 6,224,921). The oil content of fried coating from rice batter was lowered by 51% as compared with traditional wheat batter. This technology is available for licensing. .
6)Current rice starch operations require extensive soaking of rice in dilute caustic solutions prior to separation of its starch and protein. These processes are water, energy, and time intensive and require costly wastewater treatment. Through a CRADA and Small Business Initiative Research (SBIR) grant, a process developed by a Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC) scientist was successfully scaled-up for commercial production of rice starch. The process uses high pressure supplied by a microfluidizer (homogenizer) to separate the starch from the protein. This technology has the potential of reducing imports of rice starch and increasing profits for the U.S. rice industry. .
7)Existing methods of instantizing rice require significant input of water and energy that, in turn, creates significant expense. A licensee of a technology invented by a SRRC scientist for quick-cooking brown and wild rice, has manufactured a continuous system for production of these products by two other licensees. The invented dry instantization process reduces the cooking time of brown and wild rice from 45-50 minutes to that of white rice (20 min.). The new process reduces the cost of processing to make instant rice, reduces environmental pollution, and makes nutritious brown rice more appealing to the consumer..
8)Celiac disease, which affects 0.5% of the world population, can only be treated by strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. Rice and sweet potato flours are gluten-free and could substitute for wheat flour in baked and fried products. However, rice and sweet potatoes, when used separately, have been shown to perform poorly in such products. ARS scientists prepared pancakes using different ratios of rice and sweet potato flours and analyzed these pancakes for their nutritional and taste properties. The textural and nutritional properties were comparable to wheat pancakes, except the rice-sweet potato pancakes had substantially higher contents of the nutrient beta-carotene. This development promotes the use of rice and sweet potato, creates healthy food products that meet the needs of people who are sensitive to gluten.
6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Commercialization of the rice starch and protein products was pursued with a CRADA partner through a Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Grant. A patent issued and the CRADA partner has been granted an exclusive license. A patent was issued on the rice batter technology and is available for licensing. A patent was issued on the quick-cooking brown rice process and three companies were granted licenses. A company has manufactured a system for commercial production. A CRADA is being negotiated with a food company to pursue development and commercialization of rice bread and other baked rice products.
7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Rice Bread Quality as Affected by Yeast and Bran, presented by R. S. Kadan at the 31st Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, Houston, TX, 2006.
Effects of Rice Composition on its Retrogradation, presented by R. S. Kadan at the Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, 2006.
Annealing Properties of Rice Starch, presented by F. Shih at the 31st Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, Woodland, TX, 2006.
Shih, F.F., Daigle, K.W., Truong, V. 2006. Physicochemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours. Journal of Food Quality. 29:97-107.