2007 Annual Report
DHA, but not EPA prevented the insulin resistance induced by CLA. Supplementing Mouse diets with t10, c12-CLA (0.5 % for 8 wks) caused a 4-5 fold increase in liver fat (fatty liver) and 9-10 fold increase in circulating insulin (insulin resistance). Concomitant supplementation with either EPA or DHA along with CLA prevented the development of fatty liver, but only DHA prevented the development of insulin resistance. Increased intake of trans fatty acids, particularly t10, c12-CLA may be contributing to the increased incidence of fatty liver and type 2 diabetes. Both EPA and DHA lower plasma triglycerides and prevent the development of fatty liver; only DHA prevents insulin resistance and reduces blood pressure and heart rate. Similar and distinct health effects of EPA and DHA should be considered to obtain specific health benefits. National Program 107, Human Nutrition, Component V: Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods. No Problem Statements listed for NP107 Components.
Polyphenols inhibit TLR-4 induced inflammation in vitro. Scientists in Davis, CA found that several plant polyphenols (resveratrol, EGCG, curcumin) inhibited TLR4-induced inflammation in cultured cells. These results suggest that signaling molecules in TLR signaling pathways may be attractive targets for preventive strategy for many inflammatory chronic diseases. National Program 107, Human Nutrition, Component V: Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods. No Problem Statements listed for NP107 Components.
Effect of citrus limonoids on blood lipids and inflammation. Researchers at WHNRC, Davis, CA intended to start citrus limonoids study in hypercholesterolemic men (not listed in this CRIS), but because of the delay in the purification of the limonoids, we were not able to start it during last year. Held several meetings and conference calls with our sponsors (Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness) and our collaborators (Dr Breksa at WRRC) to solve the problems. Now have enough material for 10 subjects and are currently recruiting subjects for this study. National Program 107, Human Nutrition, Component V: Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods. No Problem Statements listed for NP107 Components.
Preparation of mice over expressing TLR-4. We have conducted experiments to over express TLR-4 in breast, adipose and prostate tissues. Scientists at WHNRC in Davis, CA are currently analyzing the expression of the TLR-4 protein in these tissue. These animals will be used to study the role of this gene in the cancers specific to these tissues. National Program 107, Human Nutrition, Component 5, Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods.No Problem Statements listed for NP107 Components.
Sung, Y., He, G., Hwang, D.H., Fishcher, S.M. Overexpression of the prostaglandin e2 receptor ep2 results in enhanced skin tumor development. Oncogene (2006) 25, 5507-5516.
Youn, H.S., Lee, J.Y., Saotoh, S.I., Miyake, K., Kang, K.W., Choi, Y., Hwang, D.H. 2006. Suppression of myd88- and trif-dependent signaling pathways of toll-like receptor by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a polyphenol component of green tea. Biochemical Pharmacology; Elsevier 72 (2006) 850-859.
Rasooly, R., Kelley, D.S., Greg, J., Mackey, B.E. Dietary t10, c-12-conjugated linoleic acid reduces the expression of fatty acid oxidation and drug detoxification enzymes in mouse liver. Journal of Nutrition. 97:58-66, 2007.
Lee, J., Hwang, D.H. The modulation of inflammatory gene expression by lipids: mediation through toll-like receptors. Review Article. 2006. Molecules and Cells, Vol.21,No.2,pp.174-185.
Youn, H.S., Lee, J.Y., Saitoh, S.I., Miyake, K., Hwang, D.H. 2006. AURANOFIN, AS AN ANTI-RHEUMATIC GOLD COMPOUND SUPPRESSES LPS-INDUCED HOMODIMERIZATION OF TLR4. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communication. 350 (2006) 866-871.