2007 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Develop pest management technologies that reduce the dependence on conventional synthetic pesticides by integrating new biocontrol and alternative and environmentally benign insect control programs into the tree fruit production systems. Develop knowledge and strategies to improve nutrient and water use efficiencies of production systems. Characterize the physiological basis of environmental and genotypic interactions for fruit bud initiation and root plasticity. Develop systems that integrate traditional management of the tree and soil with novel techniques to manage fruit, shoot and root growth and minimize pest damage. Develop automation systems for production and post harvest practices of deciduous tree fruits to improve fruit quality, labor productivity, and reduce costs.
Reason for the FY07 ($5,000) fund transfers from 0500-00044-016-00D is to evaluate visually integrated behavioral control traps being developed for the apple maggot fly against tephritid flies of economic importance in Hawaii, including Oriental fruit fly and melon fly. This research will minimize arthropod stress to enhance fruit productivity and quality.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Orchard management practices will be altered to increase biological and bio-based control of pests and ensure sustainable production. Particle film and other developing technologies will be incorporated into production system to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and mitigate the effects of environmental stresses. Natural products will be evaluated for pest control. Establish an insect rearing facility for natural and beneficial insect predators. Develop means of dispersing beneficial insects. Study insect behavior to develop attract and kill strategies, biological control, and the use of natural environmentally benign substances for integration into an orchard ecosystem. Different green and organic mulches will enhance the habitat for predatory and parasitic arthropods, manage weeds, modify root growth and distribution, and improve nutrient and water use efficiency, and fruit quality. Sod, shading, and reflective ground covers will be used to regulate carbon allocation to fruit bud development. Root distribution and morphology, phytohormone levels, and response to competition will be measured in apple and peach cultivars. Carbon allocation will be modeled in fruit bud and root tissues. Senor and sensor systems will be developed to determine fruit location in a canopy and differentiate fruit quality. Fruit quality is defined as either maturity or defect aspects. Developed sensors will be utilized in automated harvesting and post harvest sorting systems that will lead to consistent and uniform fruit quality and will allow to improve labor productivity and reduce costs.
1931-21000-015-03R - Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement with USDA, CSREES, NRI. Biological control increased in apple trees near nectar sources. Progress is monitored through phone calls. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-03R.
1931-21000-015-06S - Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement with Shepherd University. Biological control insects lived longer when fed peach extrafloral nectar. Progress is monitored through monthly meetings. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-06S.
1931-21000-015-07S - Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement with Cornell University. Insect resistance was identified in Malus sp. Progress is monitored through email and phone calls. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-07S.
1931-21000-015-08R - Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement with Virginia Tech University. Trapping dogwood borer did not reduce apple damage. Progress is monitored through phone calls, email, and site visits. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-08R.
1931-21000-015-09T - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the BASF Corportation. Particle films improved plant productivity by reducing plant temperature. Progress was monitored through phone calls. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-09T.
1931-21000-015-11N - Scientific research on this project has been completed and is awaiting "Final Reports from the Cooperator". The sweet cherry harvester was moderately successful in removing fruit. Progress was monitored through phone calls. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-11N.
1931-21000-015-12N - Scientific research on this project has been completed and is awaiting "Final Reports from the Cooperator". The harvester and tree architecture were incompatible. Progress was monitored through phone calls. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-12N.
1931-21000-015-15N - Non-funded Cooperative Agreement with IRDA, St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada. Plum curculio volatiles were analyzed to confirm the presence of pheromone compounds. Progress is monitored through phone calls and emails. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-15N.
1931-21000-015-16S - Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement with the University of Washington. A simulation model demonstrated the beneficial effect of reduced leaf temperature to increase photosynthesis. Progress was monitored through phone calls. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-16S.
1931-21000-015-18N - Non-funded Cooperative Agreement with Penn State University.
Reduced labor needs were evaluated. Progress is monitored through email and phone calls. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1931-21000-015-18N.
For a complete report on the progress of these subordinate projects, see the corresponding annual report.
TITLE: A New Tool to Study the Behavior of the Plum Curculio. PROBLEM: The plum curculio is a serious direct pest of deciduous tree fruit crops in eastern North America and lures used to attract plum curculios to monitoring traps are ineffective. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: A specialized electroanntenograms technique which can be incorporated into a gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection system was developed for the plum curculio. It is based on a whole body mount and specialized electrode insertion technique to measure the strength of electrophysiological response to olfactory stimuli. IMPACT: This approach will allow attractive compounds to be conclusively identified and incorporated into lures used with monitoring traps. NATIONAL PROGRAM COMPONENT 1: Integrated Production Systems. NATIONAL PROBLEM STATEMENT B: Integrated Pest Management in National Program 305.
TITLE: Evaluation of Pest Susceptibility of Domestic and Exotic Malus Germplasm. PROBLEM: Insect resistance in apple cultivars is lacking and sources of insect resistance need to be identified for breeding programs. ACCOMPLISHMENT: Malus selections housed outside of USDA's core germplasm collection have been evaluated for resistance to attack from fruit feeding pests and none of the evaluated material is significantly resistant to attack from plum curculio adults. One selection ('E36-7'), released from the Purdue-Rutgers-Illinois breeding program was resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot for the majority of the growing season. Two exotic crabapple accessions appear to be resistant or partially resistant to larval feeding of oriental fruit moth and codling moth. Mechanisms of resistant were identified. IMPACT: This information will be used in future breeding programs to develop insect resistant apple cultivars that do not require insecticides. NATIONAL PROGRAM COMPONENT 1: Integrated Production Systems. NATIONAL PROGRAM PROBLEM STATEMENT B: Integrated Pest Management in National Program 305.
TITLE: Bloom Thinning Apple and Peach with an Essential Oil. PROBLEM: Most apple and peach trees set more fruit than the trees can carry to a marketable crop. Removal of some of the fruits at bloom time or soon after is essential yet hand thinning is expensive and chemical thinning postbloom can be unpredictable. A method of bloom thinning that would prove both highly effective and environmentally friendly is desirable. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: The essential oil, eugenol, and the commercial contact herbicide Matran 2EC (50 percent clove oil) produced significant thinning when applied at 4 percent (v/v) to 8 percent at the 80 percent to 100 percent full bloom stage. Fruit size was increased at the highest level of thinning. IMPACT: The results with an essential oil as a bloom thinner offer growers an alternative to hand thinning in peach and postbloom plant growth regulators in apple. NATIONAL PROGRAM COMPONENT 1: Integrated Production Systems. NATIONAL PROGRAM PROBLEM STATEMENT C: Sustainable Cropping Systems in National Program 305.
TITLE: New Tool to Improve Apple Quality. PROBLEM: Apple color and size are the key criteria of quality in the market yet quality is often limiting. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: The effect of a reflective aluminized plastic (RF) and a reflective particle film (RPF) applied between rows of mature apple trees on apple color and size was evaluated over a 3 year period. The RF treatment consistently improved apple red color, while the RPF consistently increased fruit size and improved apple red color in 2 of 3 years. IMPACT: This new management technique can be used to improve apple size and color in commercial orchards. NATIONAL PROGRAM COMPONENT 1: Integrated Production Systems. NATIONAL PROGRAM PROBLEM STATEMENT C: Sustainable Cropping Systems in National Program 305.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
|Number of active CRADAs and MTAs||1|
|Number of invention disclosures submitted||1|
|Number of patent applications filed||1|
|Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings||36|
|Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences||1|
Tworkoski, T., Miller, S.S. 2007. Rootstock effect on growth of apple scions with different growth habits. Scientia Horticulturae 111 p. 335-343.
Brown, M.W., Miller, S.S., Yoder, K. 2006. Stink bug (pentatomidae) feeding preferences among apple cultivars. Journal of American Pomological Society. 60(3): 144-148.
Miller, S.S. 2007. Prohexadione-calcium (Apogee) Reduces Both Shoot Growth and the Efficacy of GA4+7 (ProVide) Used to Suppress 'Stayman' Apple Cracking. HortTechnology. Vol. 17, p 1-9.
Miller, S.S., Mcnew, R., Crassweller, R. 2007. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999 NE-a83 regional project planting: II. Fruit quality characteristics. Journal of American Pomological Society. 61:97-114.
Hampson, C., Mcnew, R., Miller, S.S., Berkett, L., Crassweller, R., Garcia, M., Greene, D., Azarenko, A., Lindstrom, T., Stasiak, M., Cowgill, W., Greene, Ii, G. 2007. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999-NE-183 regional project planting: III. Fruit sensory characteristics. Journal of American Pomological Society. 61:115-126.
Crassweller, R., Mcnew, R., Greene, D., Miller, S.S. 2007. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999 NE-183 regional project planting. I. Growth and yield characteristics. Journal of American Pomological Society. 61:84-96.
Greene, D., Crassweller, R., Hampson, C., Mcnew, R., Miller, S.S. 2007. Multidisciplinary evaluation of new apple cultivars: The NE-183 regional project 1999 planting.. Journal of American Pomological Society. Vol. 61; p. 78-83.
Myers, C.T., Hull, L.A., Krawczyk, G. 2007. Effects of orchard host plants on the development of the oriental fruit moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 100(2): 421-430.
Glenn, D.M., Puterka, G.J. 2007. The use of sprayable reflective particle films to increase light penetration in apple canopies and improve apple quality. HortScience. 42(1): 91-96.
Leskey, T.C., Zhang, A. Impact of temperature on plum curculio responses to odor-baited traps. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol 100: 343-349.
Leskey, T.C., Wright, S.E. 2007. Host Preference of the Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Vol. 123: 217-227.