2008 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective of this research is to validate measures of children's diet & physical activity (PA) behaviors & beliefs about diet & PA; study correlates of infant's diet & PA, including biological variables, beliefs/practices, environments, culture, & public policies; study correlates of children's body fatness & metabolic syndrome risk factors; develop & test interventions to change children's diet, PA, body composition & metabolic disease risk factors; study statistical methods for analyzing & clustering a large number of time series, & characterize the optimal policy; and determine the associations between the perceived barriers/facilitators and actual Dietary Guidelines for Americans adherence by different groupings using group appropriate survey instruments. 1)Biological Influences on Children's Diet & PA-understand the influences on those behaviors..
2)Develop & Testing of Interventions to Promote Healthy Dietary Behavior among Youth for Chronic Disease Prevention-Develop & test family & school-based interventions to promote healthy dietary behaviors among families & youth for obesity & chronic disease prevention..
3)Family Influences on the Development of Food Intake Regulation-Investigate whether the tenor of infant feeding affects infant's ability to regulate energy & growth during the first year of life..
4)Relationships between Infant Feeding Patterns and the Development of Risk Factors for Obesity, CV Disease & Diabetes in Early Childhood-Understand the impact of early infant feeding patterns on development of risk factors for obesity, heart disease and metabolic syndrome will provide critical information for development of effective intervention early strategies for reducing the incidence of these chronic debilitating conditions..
5)Investigation of Dietary Intakes of Children-Identify eating pattern "typologies" associated with diet quality & obesity in children & young adults from a biracial population, using cross-sectional & longitudinal approaches..
6)Dietary & Genetic Interactions of Isothiocyanates-In spite of the high chemopreventive potential of isothiocyantes, present in high concentrations of brassica vegetables, critical gaps in our knowledge exist on their intake & function in children & ethnic groups. .
7)A Longitudinal Study of Athletic Self-Concept & PA Behavior in Children & Adolescents - Determine the relationship between athletic identity, PA, & weight gain in a study of adolescents..
8)Prevention & Treatment of Obesity in Children - Utilize motivational interventions to prevent & treat childhood obesity..
9)Predicting & Explaining Youth PA Behavior - test a promising theoretical model of youth physical activity and to validate scales measuring its constructs.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Survey instruments will be constructed/validated to determine different groups of populations’ association between the perceived barriers and facilitators and actual DGA adherence. .
1)Biological Influences on Children's Diet & PA - Integrate how biological & psychosocial variables influence diet & PA using the sensitivity to bitter taste (PROP), as a biological influence on dietary intake; and adiposity, as a biological influence on PA..
2)The Development & Testing of Interventions to Promote Healthy Dietary Behavior among Youth for Chronic Disease Prevention - Evaluate related dietary interventions with children..
3)Family Influences on the Development of Food Intake Regulation - Will be determined through observational measures of mother-infant feeding interactions as well as a weighed food intake protocol to measure infants' energy regulation..
4)Relationships between Infant Feeding Patterns & the Development of Risk Factors for Obesity, CV Disease & Diabetes in Early Childhood - Through a prospective examination of relationships between feeding patterns in the first year of life & risk factors for obesity, heart disease & metabolic syndrome later in childhood. An instrument for characterizing early infant feeding behavior in different ethnic groups will be developed & validated. Infant body composition will be measured within 2 weeks of birth, every 6 months through the 2nd year of life, and yearly thereafter. Maternal and parental body composition will be measured. Weighed diet records will be obtained using data collected by parents and day care providers, and parental control of feeding behavior will be assessed at birth, 1 year, and 3 years of age..
5)Investigation of Dietary Intakes of Children - Conduct sophisticated analyses of the eating patterns & diet quality of 1243 children and 1840 young adults as they relate to obesity, using the Bogalusa Heart Study database compiled from 1973-96 surveys..
6)Dietary and Genetic Interactions of Isothiocyanates - Undertake an approach to advance present methods for measuring dietary intake of isothiocyanates & metabolic activity they induce. This will provide specific targets for preventative and therapeutic interventions that will be particularly important to older children..
7)A Longitudinal Study of Athletic Self-Concept & Physical Activity Behavior in Children & Adolescents - Obtain student measures on a Athletic identity questionnaire, utilizing activity monitors, evaluating parental measures and gaining an insight into the teacher measures for the child..
8)Prevention & Treatment of Obesity in Children - Develop a data collection protocol for future studies, and review datasets to understand correlations between socioeconomic status, dietary intake, & media as they relate to obesity..
9)Predicting & Explaining Youth PA Behavior - Literature review will permit an understanding of variable definition and will permit scale construction. Cognitive interviews will initiate the pilot testing of the scales followed by an analysis utilizing 500 participants.
We completed data collection & initiated data analyses & hope to submit several papers from these analyses (Proj 1). The family intervention analysis was completed, a training guide & intervention materials are being prepared for posting on the CNRC website for use by health professionals. The breakfast intervention was successful & manuscripts will be prepared (Proj 2). An evidence-based practice course was developed & refined to target breastfeeding specialists & has been offered in 3 venues in TX & will continue to be a regular offering through the State Health Department (Proj 3). Analysis occurred in research data from Bogalusa, LA, & appropriate manuscripts were written on this & other research studies (Proj 4). Researchers acquired & analyzed datasets of dietary intake, with particular emphasis on food sources & actual values of isothiocynates. Each participant has dietary assessment completed, which enables the measurement of their total vegetable intake, & brassica vegetable intake that are sources of isothiocynates (Proj 5). We finished a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents over the transition from middle to high school. Final measures from students, parents, & teachers were obtained & all waves of data have now been entered into the database(Proj 6). Nutritional & physical activity risk factors for obesity &
related disorders were examined. The project examining television viewing & computer use among US preschool children from NHANES was completed & published. We examined the association of diet quality & weight status among a sample of US children & also examined the impact of the TX School Lunch Policy to students' dietary energy density (Proj 7). The scales measuring the constructs in the hypothetical theoretical model, were refined & an additional round of cognitive interviews were conducted to review the resulting scales for comprehension, developmental appropriateness, & cultural sensitivity. Additional modifications to the scales were made, participants were recruited to complete the scales for initial model testing, & data were collected (Proj 8). Research efforts were spent on the preparation/development of Helping HAND, a parent targeted obesity prevention program for pediatric primary care clinics. A literature review of.
1)previously published physical activity interventions & obesity prevention programs with family components &.
2)food parenting research was conducted. Materials for the program were developed based on the results of the literature reviews (Proj 9). Statistical analyses evaluating the reliability & validity of this observational measure of maternal responsiveness to infant hunger & fullness cues were in progress. Analyses were based on observational feeding data from 120 Hispanic, non- Hispanic white, & non-Hispanic black mothers of infants ranging in age from 7 - 24 mos. These analyses provide the basis of the initial description of this instrument in the scientific literature (Proj 10).
Improving Middle School Student School Breakfast Participation:
Middle school student's participation in the school breakfast program is low compared with the school lunch meal. Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers developed an intervention to promote school breakfast with promotional materials and implemented in three middle schools. Free breakfast was provided for all (universal free breakfast) at two schools, while only students eligible for reduced price meals at the other school received a free breakfast. The breakfast intervention was successful in the schools with universal free breakfast. Such strategies are important and may shape school breakfast policy. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 2)
Family Intervention for Obesity Prevention:
An intervention that targets healthy home food environments and parenting feeding skills needs to be developed. Through the support of the USDA, ARS and the USDA, EFNEP, Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers developed a short video, handouts, and a goal setting/problem solving piece for use for families at their homes. A training guide and the intervention materials are being prepared for posting on the CNRC website. These materials will be available for free download and used by health professionals. This program has the potential to reach limited resource families across the US. [NP107, Component 6] (CNRC Project 2)
Evidence of Reliability of Observational Ratings of Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Cues:
Behavioral researchers are curious if observational ratings of a mother's responsiveness to the infant's feeding cues could be made reliable across raters and whether such ratings represented a meaningful analytical construct. Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers provided evidence that caregiver's responsiveness to their child, from infancy through toddlerhood, can be captured/assessed reliably by three independent raters and represented by a cohesive analytical construct. These results were achieved through factor analysis, intraclass correlation coefficients, and multi-rater kappa statistical analysis and interpretation. The impact of this science is to provide the basis of description of a new observational measure to be used for research purposes to understand maternal
Television Viewing, Computer Use, Obesity, and Adiposity in US Preschool Children: The association between television viewing or computer and obesity/adiposity is not well known among preschool children. Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on over 1,800 US preschool children. Our research team reported that almost 36% of US preschoolers watched over two hours per day of television, which was in excess of national recommendation. More importantly, we reported that preschoolers who exceeded two hours per day of TV viewing were more likely to be overweight or obese and have greater adiposity. We were also the first to report that preschool children who used computers were more likely to have greater adiposity. These findings have broad
implications and suggest that interventions are necessary to reduce preschool
children's TV viewing and computer use to help address the epidemic of childhood
obesity. [NP107, Component 6] (CNRC Project 7)
Does Family Involvement Help to Increase Youth Physical Activity?:
There have been a large number of studies that have attempted to include families to increase children's physical activity or prevent obesity; and in order to assess which type of family involvement was most beneficial, a systemic review of the published literature is needed. To assess the quality of the studies reviewed, Children's Nutrition Research Center scientists used the Extended Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Randomized Trials (CONSORT) for non-pharmacologic treatment checklist. The review found that there is little evidence for proven effective family-based programs or procedures for promoting physical activity in children due to the heterogeneity of study design, study quality, and outcome measures used in the intervention studies. Face-to-face interactions with parents that offer parent training or preventive messages during family visits appear to offer some promise. Future, well-designed studies are needed to evaluate family-based physical activity interventions via fully-powered randomized control trials. A manuscript of the systematic review of physical activity interventions with family components is to be submitted for publication and will offer the scientific community a thorough review of the literature and recommendations for reporting future physical activity interventions. [NP107, Component 6] (CNRC Project 9)
Developing Effective Interventions to Help Youth Become More Physically Active:
Youth are less physically active than recommended, with continued decreases
throughout childhood and adolescence. Theory helps predict, explain, and understand behavior, and provides a blueprint for intervention research; however, there is not a good theoretical model of youth physical activity. In order to develop and validate such a model Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers recruited and collected data on 200 youth (two age groups, 100/age group) to refine the scales and conduct initial testing of the model. Youth were screened for eligibility and completed a written questionnaire containing scales measuring constructs represented in the hypothetical model. The impact of this research is that it will ultimately provide a tested theoretical model of youth physical activity behavior that can be used to guide future intervention research. [NP107, Component 6] (CNRC Project 8)
Calculating the Impact of Nutrient Dense Beverages:
Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this Children's Nutrition Research Center research study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall was collected on each participant (440 young adults, ages 19-28 years in Bogalusa, LA). Mean nutrient intakes and food group consumption were examined across the energy density (ED) tertiles using two calculation methods: one with food and all beverages (excluding water) and one including food and only energy-containing beverages. With increasing ED, there was a significant increase in the consumption of total meats. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in consumption of fruits/juices, vegetables, beverages and total sweets with increasing ED. There was a significantly higher mean intake of total protein, amino acids, and total fat with higher ED compared to lower ED. The percent energy from protein, total fat, and saturated fatty acids significantly increased, and the percent energy from carbohydrates and sucrose significantly decreased with increasing ED. This study suggests that ED may influence the nutrient density of the diet, depending on whether energy-containing beverages are included or excluded in the analysis. [NP107, Component 6] (CNRC Project 4)
Evidence Based Lactation Management Program:
Management of human lactation is often viewed as an art form rather than a science, and practices surrounding lactation management are rarely evidence based. A course targeting medical and nursing personnel specializing in lactation management was developed with the assistance of Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers, in order to introduce the concept of evidence-based lactation management. This hands-on course utilizes the resources of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, the USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, and the Texas Department of State Health Services to introduce and build expertise in skills necessary to locate, evaluate, and apply high quality research data to the management of breastfeeding dyads and development of hospital policies. This course is the first of its kind in the nation and has significant potential for improving the quality of care of breastfeeding dyads. [NP107, Component 6] (CNRC Project 3)
Identifying the Eating Patterns of the Overweight:
Several studies have focused on the association between eating patterns and obesity; however, the findings have not been consistent. The goal of this Children's Nutrition Research Center research study was to identify the eating patterns associated with overweight among young adults aged 19-28 years in Bogalusa, LA. Food intake was determined using a single 24-hour dietary recall, and height and weights were measured to determine body mass index (BMI). The association between eating patterns and overweight status was evaluated using logistic regression and analysis of covariance. Twenty-four percent of young adults were overweight and 18% were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity seen among black females. Percent gram consumption of fruit/fruit juices was negatively associated with overweight status, and diet beverage consumption was positively associated with obesity. Eating patterns are associated with overweight status in young adults; however, the amount of variance explained in BMI was very small. [NP107, Component 6] (CNRC Project 4)
Investigating Nutritional Isothiocyanates for Cancer Prevention:
Isothiocyanates are dietary compounds which have the potential to prevent cancer. Dietary intake patterns of adults for brassica and other vegetable sources for isothicyanates were measured by Children's Nutrition Research Center scientists. Secondary data analysis occured on a large epidemiological study comparing healthy controls and pancreatic cancer cases was also completed. Our research team isolated servings of these vegetables from data files on frequency and portion sizes of vegetables consumed over a year. The data collected in this project will better characterize the specific dietary patterns that promote cancer and who may be at greatest risk. The data will also lay the groundwork for investigations on determinants of vegetable intake, including the genetic variation among individuals that benefit from dietary compounds to prevent cancer, since not all individuals show the beneficial impact of these compounds. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 5)
Parental Influence on Child Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors:
A better understanding of how parents affect child behavior is important to families
and important in the development of interventions to prevent childhood obesity.
Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers conducted multiple analyses
throughout the year to determine: parent-child similarity of attitudes on the value
of different types of physical activities (sports activities, chores, etc.) and
intensities (vigorous, moderate) and the relationship to child physical activity and
television watching; the effects of child gender and child sports team participation
on parent and child beliefs about physical activity; the role of child temperament
and parent affect in parent child feeding strategies; and the role of economic
security, parental child-related distress, and parent depression on parent eating
behavior. In summary we have found that parents affect child activity by
transferring specific value attitudes, for instance, the value of vigorously intense
sports provided the most benefit to activity and the reduction of sedentary behavior
in both elementary school boys and girls. In eating behaviors, the preschool
children’s ability to control their behavior and focus their attention influenced the
performance of constructive feeding strategies of parents through enhancing positive attitudes in parents. And finally, both low family economic security and higher distress related to parenting were associated with increased depression among mothers of preschool children; however, level of parenting distress, not depression, was related to an increase in uncontrolled eating among mothers. This is important because it provides new insights as to how interventions may be crafted to reach youth for the goal of obesity prevention. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 6)
Thompson, D.J., Baranowski, T., Buday, R., Baranowski, J., Juliano, M., Frazior, M., Wilsdon, J., Jago, R. 2007. In pursuit of change: Youth response to intensive goal setting embedded in a serious video game. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 1(6):907-917.
Krebs, N.F., Himes, J.H., Jacobson, D., Nicklas, T.A., Guilday, P., Styne, D. 2007. Assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 120(Suppl 4):S193-S228.
Thompson, D., Baranowski, T., Cullen, K., Watson, K., Canada, A., Bhatt, R., Liu, Y., Zakeri, I. 2008. Food, Fun and Fitness Internet program for girls: Influencing log-on rate. Health Education Research. 23(2):228-237.
Cullen, K., Baranowski, T., Watson, K., Nicklas, T., Fisher, J., O'Donnell, S., Baranowski, J., Islam, N., Missaghian, M. 2007. Food category purchases vary by household education and race/ethnicity: Results from grocery receipts. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107(10):1747-1752.
Gallaway, M.S., Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J.C., Diamond, P.M. 2007. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of fruit, juice and vegetable consumption among 11-14-year-old Boy Scouts. Public Health Nutrition. 10(12):1508-1514.
Beltran, A., Knight Sepulveda, K., Watson, K., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J., Islam, N., Missaghian, M. 2008. Mixed foods are similarly categorized by 8-13 year old children. Appetite. 50:316-324.
Baranowski, T., Buday, R., Thompson, D.J., Baranowski, J. 2008. Playing for real, video games and stories for health-related behavior change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 34(1):74-82.
Beltran, A., Knight Sepulveda, K., Watson, K., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J., Islam, N., Missaghian, M. 2008. Diverse food items are similarly categorized by 8- to 13-year-old children. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 40:149-159.
Baranowski, T., Watson, K., Missaghian, M., Broadfoot, A., Cullen, K., Nicklas, T., Fisher, J., Baranowski, J., O'Donnell, S. 2008. Social support is a primary influence on home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable availability. Journal of American Dietetic Association. 108(7):1231-1235.
Baranowski, T., Masse, L.C., Ragan, B., Welk, G. 2008. How many days was that? We're still not sure, but we're asking the question better! Medical Science Sports Exercise. 40(7 Suppl):S544-S549.
Cullen, K.W., Watson, K. 2007. Measuring school foodservice workers' perceptions of organizational culture. Journal of Child Nutrition and Management [serial online]. 31(1). Available: http://docs.schoolnutrition.org/newsroom/jcnm/07spring/cullen/index.asp.
Thompson, V., Cullen, K.W., Watson, K.B., Zakeri, I. 2007. The increased availability and marketing of fruit, juice, and vegetables to middle school students increases consumption. Journal of Child Nutrition and Management [serial online]. 31(1). Available: http://docs.schoolnutrition.org/newsroom/jcnm/07spring/thompson/index.asp.
Cullen, K.W., Thompson, D. 2008. Feasibility of an 8-week African American web-based pilot program promoting healthy eating Behaviors: Family Eats. American Journal of Health Behavior. 32(1):40-51.
Cullen, K.W., Watson, K., Zakeri, I. 2008. Improvements in middle school student dietary intake after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. American Journal of Public Health. 98(1):111-117.
Hartstein, J., Cullen, K.W., Reynolds, K.D., Harrell, J., Resnicow, K., Kennel, P. 2008. Impact of portion-size control for school a la carte items: Changes in kilocalories and macronutrients purchased by middle school students. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 108(1):140-144.
Cullen, K., Watson, K., Zakeri, I. 2008. Relative reliability and validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire among youth aged 10 to 17 years. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 108(5):862-866.
Thompson, V.J., Bachman, C., Watson, K., Baranowski, T., Cullen, K.W. 2008. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch. Public Health Nutrition. 11(4):421-426.
Forshee, R.A., Storey, M.L., Allison, D.B., Glinsmann, W.H., Hein, G.L., Lineback, D.R., Miller, S.A., Nicklas, T.A., Weaver, G.A., White, J.S. 2007. A critical examination of the evidence relating high fructose corn syrup and weight gain. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 47(6):561-582.
O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A. 2007. Relationship between diet/physical activity and health. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 1(6):457-481.
Hoerr, S.L., Tsuei, E., Liu, Y., Franklin, F.A., Nicklas, T.A. 2008. Diet quality varies by race/ethnicity of Head Start mothers. Journal of The American Dietetic Association. 108:651-659.
Nicklas, T.A., Hayes, D. 2008. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years. Journal of The American Dietetic Association. 108:1038-1047.
Nicklas, T.A., O'Neil, C.E., Kleinman, R. 2008. Association between 100% juice consumption and nutrition intake and weight of children aged 2 to 11 years. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 162(6):557-565.
O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A., Metallinos-Katsaras, E., Kalin, S. 2008. Interpreting evidence-based research: Major pediatric and adult nutrition studies. In: Edelstein, S., Sharlin, J., editors. Life Cycle Nutrition An Evidence-Based Approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 1-35.
Mendoza, J.A., Zimmerman, F.J., Christatkis, D.A. 2007. Television viewing, computer use, obesity, and adiposity in US preschool children. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity [serial online]. 4:44. Available: http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/pdf/1479-5868-4-44.pdf.
Goldman, A.S., Hopkinson, J.M., Rassin, D.K. 2007. Benefits and risks of breastfeeding. Advances in Pediatrics. 54:275-304.
Hodges, E.A., Hughes, S.O., Hopkinson, J., Fisher, J.O. 2007. Maternal decisions about the initiation and termination of infant feeding. Appetite. 50(2-3):333-339.
Hopkinson, J.M. 2007. Response to "Is breastfeeding really best? Risk and total motherhood in the National Breastfeeding Awareness Campaign". Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. 32(4):637-648.
Baranowski, T., Missaghian, M., Watson, K., Broadfoot, A., Cullen, K., Nicklas, T., Fisher, J., O'Donnell, S. 2008. Home fruit, juice, and vegetable pantry management and availability scales: A validation. Appetite. 50:266-277.
Anderson, C.B., Coleman, K.J. 2008. Adaptation and validation of the athletic identity questionnaire-adolescent for use with children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 5(4):539-558.