2007 Annual Report
National School Lunch Meal Improves Student Lunch Consumption: Researchers at the Children's Nutrition Research Center assessed the impact of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meal and non-NSLP foods or "competitive foods" sold in schools at lunchtime on children’s diets. Lunch food records were obtained, with information on source of each item consumed: NSLP, vending, snack bar, home, and "other". We learned that students in the "mainly NSLP" group reported higher consumption of most nutrients, milk, fruit, and vegetables, and lower intakes of sweetened beverages and candy than students in the "mainly non-NSLP" group. Students in the "mainly NLSP" group consumed more sodium, fat and saturated fat, however, and calorie intake was also higher for this group, although it was only 80% of the NSLP requirement for calories served at lunch. These results indicate the important relationship of the source of food consumed at lunchtime to the nutritional quality of the meal, and that consumption of the NSLP appears related to several positive dietary quality outcomes, but findings also support continuing efforts to reduce saturated fat and sodium in NSLP meals. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 2)
Evaluating Infant Feeding Dynamics: The development of reliable and valid measures of infant feeding is critical to understanding the role of responsive feeding to rapid weight gain and the learned controls of eating in the first two years of infant life. Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers evaluated infant hunger and fullness cues and maternal responsiveness to those cues based on observational data of feeding interactions in approximately 150 ethnically diverse mothers and their 6- to 24-month infants. Infant hunger cues were coded 10 minutes prior to feeding and infant fullness cues beginning with the first bite. Responsiveness was defined as the latency between infant feeding cues and maternal actions to initiate or terminate feeding, as well as the number of infant cues given before a maternal response was observed. The behavioral dynamics of feeding during the first two years of life are suspected to contribute to rapid weight gain but are poorly documented. Our work provides new tools to evaluate feeding dynamics in infancy and toddlerhood. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 3)
Juice Consumption Not Associated with Overweight: The role of juice consumption on the effect of weight gain needs to be further evaluated. Researchers at the Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Houston, TX, investigated the associations between 100% juice consumption, nutrient intake, and weight in children 2-11 years of age. On average, children consumed less than the maximum amounts of 100% juice recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Dietary Guidelines. Children consuming 100% juice had higher intakes of several vitamins and minerals, and total whole fruit, and lower intakes of sodium, fat, saturated fat, discretionary fat, and added sugars. One hundred percent juice consumption was not associated with overweight or other measures of adiposity in children 2-11 years of age, suggesting that their intake of 100% juice was not excessive. Further, 100% juice consumption contributes valuable nutrients to the diets of children. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 4)
Predictors of Overweight/Obesity: Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers evaluated various ethnic groups and lifestyle factors. Our team discovered that being European American, being younger in age, and smoking were all negatively associated with overweight status; being African American, having increased number of health problems, and lower physical activity were all positively associated with moderate obesity; and finally, being African American, having increased number of health problems, and lower physical activity were all positively associated with morbid obesity. The percent of young adults reporting health problems significantly increased with increasing overweight/obesity status. Mean levels of serum apolipoprotein-A and HDL-cholesterol decreased with increasing overweight status. Mean levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, triglycerides, blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA, homeostasis model assessment, increased with increasing overweigh status. Results suggest that various demographic, lifestyle, and health predictors of overweight/obesity vary by its severity, along with the occurrence of several health problems and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 4)
Dietary Energy Density Linkages: Dietary energy density and its relationship to other nutrition-related diseases needs to be further evaluated. Children’s Nutrition Research Center researchers published a report on dietary energy density and its relationship to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. This report confirmed that energy dense diets were related to obesity and also linked, for the first time, energy dense diets, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. For this report, our team analyzed nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. This report called for intervention trials to reduce dietary energy density for obesity prevention and further studies to investigate the link between dietary energy density, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 10)
Development of a Model of Youth Physical Activity Behavior: Theoretical models enable interventions to be developed that focus on known factors closely associated with a specific behavior. Few tested theoretical models of youth physical activity behavior are available to guide intervention research. Scientists at the Children's Nutrition Research Center constructed a hypothetical theoretical model of youth physical activity behavior and existing measurement scales were located and modified. The potential outcome of this research is the development of more effective interventions, thus enhancing physical activity among youth, with the goal of reducing obesity. Future research will further develop and test the model. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 9)
Assessing the Impact of School Nutrition Policy Change: A need exists to identify the impact of school nutrition policy on student dietary behaviors. Children's Nutrition Research Center statisticians utilized point of sale (POS) time series analysis to assess the impact of the policy change. Our lab discovered that compared to the baseline school year, the school nutrition policy resulted in a significant increase in the students’ consumption of most nutrients of interest, and vegetable and milk servings. In contrast, consumption of sweetened beverages (including soft drinks), dessert foods, and chips were significantly lower after the policy change. Such results would be of interest to behavioral scientists as well as applied statisticians since these findings may provide a means to alleviate childhood obesity. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 7)
Understanding Beneficial Factors of Isothiocyanates: Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers analyzed two datasets of dietary intake, with particular emphasis on food sources and actual values of chemopreventive substances, isothiocynates. This accomplishment addresses the problem of obtaining baseline estimates of dietary chemopreventive substances among young adults and ethnic groups, which will help identify strategies for improving dietary methodology using biomarkers, and identifying dietary interventions to increase their intake. Using two datasets from different research studies, dietary assessment was completed on nearly 300 individuals using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) methodology. Using statistical programs, total vegetable intake, and brassica vegetable intake (sources of isothiocyanates) and the differences of these variables by ethnic group or gender were computed. We have discovered that due to genetic variation, there is a subgroup of individuals who are most susceptible to cancer, and who potentially could benefit from isothiocyante intake. These studies can identify if there are differences in the patterns of isothiocyanate and brassica intakes by age, gender, and race/ethnic group, and eventually identify the diet gene interactions among individuals who are most susceptible to cancer and therefore require higher intake of isothiocyanate compounds. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 6)
Evidence-based Lactation Support Training: Children's Nutrition Research Center scientists in collaboration with the Texas Department of State Health Services and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine developed a two-day workshop to provide hands-on training in evidence-based lactation support for health care professionals. This project was designed to increase the ability of lactation consultants, nurses, dieticians, health administrators and physicians to locate, evaluate, and utilize scientific data in management of lactation and development of health care policies. Internet resources for lactation management were reviewed and evaluated, and a series of lectures and workshops were developed to enable participants to find reliable information, set up personalized literature searches, identify reliable internet sites, evaluate research quality, and consolidate information into policy recommendations for health care institutions. Sixty health care providers have participated in the workshop to date and are reviewing and revising breastfeeding policies at their respective institutions. The impact of this workshop is substantial and could lead to policy change and an increase in the use of evidence based breastfeeding support in health care facilities. [NP107, Component 6 Prevention of Obesity & Disease] (CNRC Project 4)
Lederman, S.A., Hopkinson, J. 2006. Breastfeeding rates: Is the Ross mother's survey underestimating breastfeeding rates of Hispanic women? Journal of Human Lactation. 22(4):389-390.
Hopkinson, J.M., Berens, P.D., Reece, E.F. 2007. Puerperium and lactation: physiology of the reproductive system. In: Reece E.A., Hobbins, J.R., editors. Clinical Obstetrics: The Fetus and Mother. 3rd edition. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 1206-1218.
Cullen, K.W., Thompson, D.I. 2005. Texas school food policy changes related to middle school a la carte/snack bar foods: Potential savings in kilocalories. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105(12):1952-1954.
Thompson, D., Canada, A., Bhatt, R., Davis, J., Plesko, L., Baranowski, T., Cullen, K., Zakeri, I. 2006. eHealth recruitment challenges. Evaluation and Program Planning. 29(4):433-440.
Subar, A.F., Thompson, F.E., Potischman, N., Forsyth, B.H., Buday, R., Richards, D., McNutt, S., Hull, S.G., Guenther, P.M., Schatzkin, A., Baranowski, T. 2007. Formative research of a quick list or an automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall. Journal of The American Dietetic Association. 107(6):1002-1007.
Baranowski, T., Watson, K., Missaghian, M., Broadfoot, A., Baranowski, J., Cullen, K., Nicklas, T., Fisher, J., O'Donnell, S. 2006. Parent outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and vegetables: A validation. Public Health Nutrition. 10(3):280-291.
Thompson, V.J., Bachman, C.M., Baranowski, T., Cullen, K. 2007. Self-efficacy and norm measures for lunch fruit and vegetable consumption are reliable and valid among fifth grade students. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 39:2-7.
Baranowski, T., Missaghian, M., Broadfoot, A., Watson, K., Cullen, K., Nicklas, T., Fisher, J., Baranowski, J., O'Donnell, S. 2006. Fruit and vegetable shopping practices and social support scales: A validation. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 38:340-351.
Watson, K., Baranowski, T., Thompson, D. 2006. Item response modeling: an evaluation of the children's fruit and vegetable self-efficacy questionnaire. Health Education Research. 21(Suppl 1):i47-i57.
Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J.C. 2006. Observed, GIS, and self-reported environmental features and adolescent physical activity. American Journal of Health Promotion. 20(6):422-428.
Rogers, L.Q., Gutin, B., Humphries, M.C., Lemmon, C.R., Waller, J.L., Baranowski, T., Saunders, R. 2006. Evaluation of internal medicine residents as exercise role models and associations with self-reported counseling behavior, confidence, and perceived Success. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 18(3):215-221.
Thompson, D., Baranowski, J., Cullen, K., Baranowski, T. 2007. Development of a theory-based internet program promoting maintenance of diet and physical activity change to 8-year-old African American girls. Computers & Education. 48(3):446-459.
Deshmukh-Taskar, P., Nicklas, T., Morales, M., Yang, S., Zakeri, I., Berenson, G.S. 2006. Tracking of overweight status from childhood to young adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 60(1):48-57.
Britten, P., Lyon, J., Weaver, C.M., Kris-Etherton, P.M., Nicklas, T.A., Weber, J.A., Davis, C.A. 2006. MyPyramid food intake pattern modeling for the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 38:S143-S152.
Jaramillo, S.J., Yang, S-J., Hughes, S.O., Fisher, J.O., Morales, M., Nicklas, T.A. 2006. Interactive computerized fruit and vegetable preference measure for African-American and Hispanic preschoolers. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 38(6):352-359.
Killion, L., Hughes, S.O., Wendt, J.C., Pease, D., Nicklas, T.A. 2006. Minority mothers' perceptions of children's body size. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity. 1(2):96-102.
Hughes, S.O., Patrick, H., Power, T.G., Fisher, J.O., Anderson, C.B., Nicklas, T.A. 2007. The impact of child care providers' feeding on children's food consumption. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 28:100-107.
Casey, P.H., Simpson, P.M., Gossett, J.M., Bogle, M.L., Champagne, C.M., Connell, C., Harsha, D., McCabe Sellers, B.J., Robbins, J.M., Stuff, J.E., Weber, J. 2006. The association of child and household food insecurity with childhood overweight status. Pediatrics. 118(5):e1406-e1413.
Dansky, K.H., Thompson, D., Sanner, T. 2006. A framework for evaluating eHealth research. Evaluation and Program Planning. 29(4):397-404.
Watson, K., Baranowski, T., Thompson, D., Jago, R., Baranowski, J., Klesges, L.M. 2006. Innovative application of a multidimensional item response model in assessing the influence of social desirability on the pseudo-relationship between self-efficacy and behavior. Health Education Research. 21(Suppl 1):i85-i97.
Mendoza, J.A., Drewnowski, A., Christakis, D.A. 2007. Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults. Diabetes Care. 30(4):974-979.
Thompson, D., Baranowski, T., Zakeri, I., Jago, R., Davis, J., Cullen, K. 2006. Effectiveness of school-based environmental vs. individual approaches to diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior change among youth. In: Flamenbaum, R.K., editor. Childhood Obesity and Health Research. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. p. 157-174.
Yoo, S., Baranowski, T., Missaghian, M., Baranowski, J., Cullen, K., Fisher, J.O., Watson, K., Zakeri, I.F., Nicklas, T. 2006. Food-purchasing patterns for home: A grocery store-intercept survey. Public Health Nutrition. 9(3):384-393.
Baranowski, T., Cooper, D.M., Harrell, J., Hirst, K., Linder, B., Kaufman, F.R., Goran, M., Resnicow, K. The STOPP-T2D Prevention Study Group. 2006. Presence of diabetes risk factors in a large U.S. eight-grade cohort. Diabetes Care. 29(2):212-217.
Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J.C., Thompson, D., Cullen, K.W., Watson, K., Liu, Y. 2006. Fit for Life Boy Scout Badge: Outcome evaluation of a troop and internet intervention. Preventive Medicine. 42(3):181-187.
Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Zakeri, I., Harris, M. 2005. Observed environmental features and the physical activity of adolescent males. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 29(2):98-104.
Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Thompson, D., Baranowski, J., Greaves, K.A. 2005. Sedentary behavior, not TV viewing, predicts physical activity among 3- to 7-year-old children. Pediatric Exercise Science. 17(4):364-376.
Jago, R., Jonker, M., Missaghian, M., Baranowski, T. 2006. Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls. Preventive Medicine. 42(3):177-180.
Anderson, C.B., Masse, L.C., Hergenroeder, A.C. 2007. Factorial and construct validity of the athletic identity questionnaire for adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 39(1):59-69.
Baranowski, T., Allen, D. D., Masse, L. C., Wilson, M. 2006. Does participation in an intervention affect responses on self-reported questionnaires? Health Education Research. 21(Suppl 1):i98-i109.
Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J.C. 2007. Fruit and vegetable availability: A micro environmental mediating variable? Public Health Nutrition. 10(7):681-689.
Kandiah, J., Nicklas, T., Pitman, S., Stitzel, K. 2007. Practice paper of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrient density: Meeting nutrient goals within calorie needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107(5):860-869.
Jago, R.P., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J., Cullen, K., Thompson, D.J. 2007. Social desirability is associated with some physical activity, psychosocial variables and sedentary behavior but not self-reported physical activity among adolescent males. Health Education Research. 22(3):438-449.
Baranowski, T. 2006. Crisis and chaos in behavioral nutrition and physical activity. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 3(1):27-31.
Swanson, M.A. 2006. Eating healthier in school. Food Technology. 60(9):32-38.
Jago, R., Zakeri, I., Baranowski, T., Watson, K. 2007. Decision boundaries and receiver operating characteristic curves: New methods for determining accelerometer cutpoints. Journal of Sports Sciences. 25(8):937-944.
O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A. 2006. Applying nutrition science to the public's health. In: Edelstein S., editor. Nutrition in Public Health: A Handbook for Developing Programs and Services, 2nd edition. Sudbury, MA:Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 17-80.
Lederman, S.A., Hopkinson, J. 2006. Response to Geraghty et al. regarding the use of pumps and breastfeeding. Journal of Human Lactation. 22(4):387.
Savage, J.S., Fisher, J.O., Birch, L.L. 2007. Parental influence on eating behavior: Conception to adolescence. Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 35(1):22-34.
Fisher, J.O., Cai, G., Jaramillo, S.J., Cole, S.A., Comuzzie, A.G., Butte, N.F. 2007. Heritability of hyperphagic eating behavior and appetite-related hormones among Hispanic children. Obesity. 15(6):1484-1495.
Fisher, J.O., Liu, Y., Birch, L.L., Rolls, B.J. 2007. Effects of portion size and energy density on young children's intake at a meal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 86:174-179.
Fisher, J.O. 2007. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions. Obesity. 15(2):403-412.
Cullen, K.W., Anderson, B.J., Mckay, S., Watson, K. 2007. Psychometric properties of questionnaires measuring associations between behavioral factors and diabetes care for youth with type 2 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes. 8(1):21-27.
Cullen, K.W., Hartstein, J., Reynolds, K.D., Vu, M., Resnicow, K., Greene, N., White, M.A. 2007. Improving the school food environment: Results from a pilot study in middle schools. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107(3):484-489.
Anderson, C.B., Hughes, S.O., Fisher, J.O., Nicklas, T.A. 2005. Cross-cultural equivalence of feeding beliefs and practices: The psychometric properties of the child feeding questionnaire among Blacks and Hispanics. Preventive Medicine. 41:521-531.
Cullen, K.W., Watson, K.B., Zakeri, I., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J.H. 2007. Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 4:28.
Cullen, K.W., Watson, K., Zakeri, I., Ralston, K. 2006. Exploring changes in middle-school student lunch consumption after local school food service policy modifications. Public Health Nutrition. 9(6):814-820.
Brooks, B.M., Rajeshwari, R., Nicklas, T.A., Yang, S-J., Berenson, G.S. 2006. Association of calcium intake, dairy product consumption with overweight status in young adults (1995-1996): The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 25(6):523-532.
Anderson, B.J., Cullen, K., McKay, S. 2005. Quality of life, family behavior, and health outcomes in children with Type 2 diabetes. Pediatric Annals. 34(9):722-729.
Jago, R., Watson, K., Baranowski, T., Zakeri, I., Yoo, S., Baranowski, J., Conry, K. 2006. Pedometer reliability, validity and daily activity targets among 10- to 15-year-old boys. Journal of Sports Sciences. 24(3):241-251.
Masse, L.C., Wilson, M., Baranowski, T., Nebeling, L. 2006. Improving psychometric methods in health education and health behavior research. Health Education Research. (21)1:i1-i3.
Deshmukh-Taskar, P., Nicklas, T.A., Yang, S-J., Berenson, G.S. 2007. Does food group consumption vary by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults? The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107(2):223-234.
O'Connor, T.M., Yang, S-J., Nicklas, T.A. 2006. Beverage intake among preschool children and its effect on weight status. Pediatrics. 118(4):e1010-e1018.
Demory-Luce, D.K., Morales, M., Nicklas, T. 2005. Acculturation, weight status, and eating habits among Chinese-American preschool children and their primary caregivers: A pilot study. Nutrition Research. 25(3):213-224.