2009 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
To enhance current objectives by collecting updated analytical data on foods commonly consumed that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States. To compile analytical information in appropriate databases and release these to the public. To enhance timely updating of nutrient databases. To assay key contributors of energy and other nutrients affecting obesity and to monitor these nutrient changes in foods consumed by the U.S. population, including low-income minority populations, especially those of Hispanic, African American, and Native American heritage. To compile and release changes to the food composition data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of more than 3,000 foods and 65 components which supports the NHANES: What We Eat in America Survey.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
This project will identify and rank foods which are key contributors of energy and other dietary components for the U.S. population including minority populations. Where nutrient data are inadequate for high priority foods and nutrients, nationally representative values will be generated by analytical determination. A probability-based approach for nationwide sampling unique to various population groups will be used to select samples of foods to be analyzed. Valid chemical methods including rigorous analytical quality control will be employed. Final estimates will be disseminated to the scientific community and the U.S. population via NDL's website www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl and directly to the NHANES: What We Eat in America Survey.
During the last five months of the project, Nutrient Data Lab (NDL) scientists reviewed final analytical data for vitamin D in foods. They developed procedures for estimating vitamin D content of foods not analyzed. Once this was completed, Vitamin D values for the 2900 foods required for the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietaty Studies (FNDDS) maintained by the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) were calculated. In addition, 30 foods sampled nationwide were analyzed for full nutrient profiles
During the full five years of this project the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) was updated and expanded annually (SR17 (2004), SR18 (2005), SR19 (2006), SR20 (2007), and SR21 (2008). Releases of SR18 and SR20 were used as the foundations of the FNDDS versions 1 and 2 (cycles 2003-04 and 2005-2006) to estimate nutrient intakes for the What We Eat in America dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). NDL worked closely with FSRG staff to identify reported foods and to develop full nutrient profiles for 65 nutritional components. In SR18, values were provided for added vitamin E and added vitamin B12 for all 2900 foods used for the FNDDS. In SR20, values for choline were provided for all FNDDS foods. The addition of these components allowed the comparison of nutrients to the Dietary Reference Intake Upper Level for vitamin E, estimation of vitamin B12 intakes for adults 51 years of age and older, and choline intakes for all age groups wihtin NHANES to address important public health questions. New data generated for more than 700 foods and full nutrient profiles through NDL’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program were released in the SR series over this period of time.
Also, NDL developed and released seven Special Interest Databases. These include databases for flavonoids (2006, 2009), isoflavonoids (updated 2008), proanthocyanidins (2004), choline (2004), ORAC (oxidative reducing antioxidant capacity) (2007), and fluoride (2004, 2005). The Special Interest Databases are small focused databases which provide data for new compounds not previously included in the SR series. Each contains 150-500 foods and their values for the analyzed compounds. The data are collected from the scientific literature or analytical projects and evaluated using USDA’s data quality evaluation system before inclusion. They provide seminal datasets for the preliminary investigation of relationships between intake and human biological response.
Collaborator over this research project period include the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, the National Pork Board, Produce for Better Health Foundation, and Coca-Cola's Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness, as well as nine universities, to produce new data for beef, pork, fruits and vegetables, and other food groups. NDL’s database products provide authoritative unbiased estimates for use by the scientific community to conduct research, monitor nutrient intake, and to develop nutrition policy. The products impact virtually every food composition application or nutrition policy issue in the U.S.
Beecher, G., Stewart, K., Holden, J.M., Harnly, J.M., Wolf, W.R. 2009. Legacy of Wilbur O. Atwater: human nutrition research expansion at the USDA-interagency development of food composition research. Journal of Nutrition. 139:178-184.
Ahuja, J.K., Lemar, L.E., Omolewa Tomobi, G., Goldman, J.D., Moshfegh, A.J. 2009. The impact of revising fats and oils data in the US Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2009.02.005.
Bhagwat, S.A., Patterson, K.K., Holden, J.M. 2009. Validation study of the USDA’s data quality evaluation system. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.06.009.
Haytowitz, D.B., Lemar, L.E., Pehrsson, P.R. 2009. USDA’s Nutrient Databank System – a tool for handling data from diverse sources. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2009.01.003.