2009 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Conduct yearly, accurate nationwide data collection of food intakes and related behavior of the U.S. population, and analyze and disseminate survey data. Expand usability of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System and its components to the research community. Maintain the USDA Dietary Survey Databases to reflect the U.S. food supply and release periodic versions.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The research approach is to maintain and enhance the components of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System to assure that the dietary collection method, the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM), and the supporting systems and databases result in the collection of dietary data that are scientifically sound, accurate, and valid. The USDA AMPM is being used to collect 10,000 dietary recalls yearly in the What We Eat in America Survey, the dietary component of NHANES. The Food Surveys Research Group has lead responsibility for not only the dietary collection, but also the data processing and release. The numerous applications developed as part of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System for data collection and processing will be continuously maintained and updated, and wherever possible, adapted for use by the nutrition research community.
During the last three months of the project, Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) scientists implemented changes to the Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM),developed training for dietary interviewers for the 2009 dietary collection of What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and provided technical review of dietary recalls collected in 2008 resolving food-related issues raised by dietary interviewers and coders.
The major accomplishments over the lifespan of the project are summarized below. Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS, FSRG assumed the leadership role for the dietary data collection and processing of WWEIA, NHANES beginning in 2002. This collaboration has produced the successful integration of national dietary data research by USDA and DHHS. WWEIA, NHANES dietary data for 2001-2002, 2003-2004, and 2005-2006 were jointly released on the web, totaling more than 45,000 dietary intake data records on more than 25,000 Americans. These data, unique to the Federal government, are used in monitoring the nutritional adequacy of diets, measuring the impact of food fortification, estimating exposure to contaminants, developing dietary guidance, and assessing the demand for agricultural products. Linked with health indicators from NHANES, these data permit the study of relationships between eating patterns and health conditions. WWEIA, NHANES dietary intake data have been analyzed and the following results have been released on the web: summarized nutrient intake tables, comparisons of usual nutrient intakes from food to Dietary Reference Intakes, and a dietary data brief on breakfast in America. Training sessions on using WWEIA, NHANES data for dietary intake research were conducted for various groups, including representatives from Canada, Korea, Israel, Russia, and Puerto Rico, which are using components of the system in their national dietary surveys. The Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS), the technical database used for analyzing dietary intakes from WWEIA, was developed and released on the web. It was updated and released along with each of the two-year survey data releases: FNDDS 1.0 (2001-2 release), FNDDS 2.0 (2003-4 release), and FNDDS 3.0 (2005-6 release). The FNDDS includes the descriptions, portions, and nutrient values for more than 13,000 foods typically eaten in the U.S. Over the three releases, 16 additional nutrients have been added, for a total of 63 nutrients in FNDDS 3.0. A consumer-friendly companion to the FNDDS, the What’s In The Foods You Eat Search Tool, was released on the web for each FNDDS version. Dietary recalls for WWEIA, NHANES were collected using the computer-assisted dietary intake method, the automated multi-pass method (AMPM), developed and validated by USDA. The AMPM Validation Study was completed and it use was found to reduce bias in collection of energy intakes. Mean energy intake was within 11% of mean energy expenditure and less than 3% for normal-weight subjects. These results place the AMPM as one of, if not the most, accurate dietary intake recall methods available today.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Collaboration in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study (HANDLS): The primary objective of HANDLS is to create a representative 20-year longitudinal study across the lifespan focused on investigating the differential influences of race and socioeconomic status on health. The study sample includes white and African-Americans 30-64 years of age from both low and high socioeconomic strata residing in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Anticipating attrition rates over the life of the study, the initial sample is 4,000 participants. Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) scientists have collaborated on the dietary component of HANDLS by providing scientific and technical support for the successful launch of dietary data collection that began in the fall of 2005. Numerous training sessions were conducted for HANDLS staff on the use of the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method for collection of 24-hour recalls and SurveyNet for coding and analysis of dietary intake data. Once dietary data collection was underway, FSRG scientists have provided technical oversight of the data processing steps and systems, assuring data quality and integrity.