2007 Annual Report
The spectral fingerprints of the broccoli were analyzed using analysis of variance-principal components analysis (ANOVA-PCA). It was demonstrated that ANOVA-PCA provides a simple, visual method for determining chemical differences between cultivars and treatments. It was demonstrated that the sources of variance (cultivar and treatment) can be quantified using the same data matrices constructed for ANOVA-PCA.
Work was completed on the development of a chromatographic profiling method for phenolic compounds in plant materials (see Accomplishments). The method was used to profile the phenolic compounds in a wide variety of plant materials and botanicals: beans, celery, Mexican oregano, different varieties of peas, cashew apples, chrysanthemum flowers, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria, and Teucrium. Research was started on the development of a general quantitative method for glycosylated flavonoids and an in-depth determination of the phenolic compounds in tea.
Sample Preparation for Phenolic Compounds: A systematic evaluation of different sample preparation parameters and their influence on extraction of different phenolic phytochemicals for different food matrices is necessary to insure accurate analyses. An approach for optimization of extraction of phenolic phytochemicals was developed and reported in 2006. A manuscript entitled “Influence of Sample Preparation on the Assay of Phenolic Acids from Eggplant” published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry was featured on the American Chemical Society (ACS) Publications website in 2007 as a most-cited article in 2006. Dionex Inc. has published an application note based on the research reported in this paper. This work will lead to more accurate determination of phenolic compounds in foods and will allow more accurate assessment of the health impact of these compounds. This accomplishment addresses National Program 107 Component 1: Composition of Foods.
Luthria, D.L., Biswas, R., Natarajan, S.S. 2007. Comparison of extraction solvents and techniques used for the assay of isoflavones from soybean. Food Chemistry. 105:325-333.
Luthria, D.L. 2006. Significance of sample preparation in developing analytical methodologies for accurate estimation of bioactive compounds in functional foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 86:266-2272.
Harnly, J.M., Doherty, R.F., Beecher, G.R., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B., Bhagwat, S.A., Gebhardt, S.E. 2006. Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54:966-9977.
Lin, L., Lu, S., Harnly, J.M. 2007. Detection and quantification of glycosylated flavonoid malonates in celery seed,(Apium graveolens L.) Chinese celery and celery by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55:1321-1326.
Erdman, J., Balentine, D., Arab, L., Beecher, G., Dwyer, J., Folts, J., Harnly, J.M., Hollman, P., Keen, G.J., Messina, M., Messina, M., Scalbert, A., Vita, J., Williamson, G., Burrowes, J. 2007. Flavonoids and Heart Health. Journal of Nutrition. 137:718S-737S.
Lin, L., Mukhopadhyay, S., Robbins, R.J., Harnly, J.M. 2007. Indentification and quantification of flavnoids of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolents) by LD-DAD-ESI/MS analysis. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20:361-369.
Chen, P., Ozcan, M., Harnly, J.M. 2007. Chromatographic Fingerprints Analysis for Evaluation of Ginkgo Biloba Products. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Available on-line doi: 10.1007/s00216-007-1386-9.
Harnly, J.M., Bhagwat, S.A., Lin, L. 2007. Profiling methods for the determination of phenolic compounds in foods and dietary supplements. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Available: doi:10.1007/s00216-007-1424-7.
Holden, J.M., Harnly, J.M., Beecher, G. 2006. Food Composition. In: Bowman, B.A., Russell, R.M., editors. Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Ninth Edition, Volume 1. Washington, D.C.:International Life Sciences Institute. p. 781-794.