2008 Annual Report
Objective 1: Determine how shifts in agricultural and dietary practices, such as the availability of functional/genetically modified foods and emphasis on plant-based diets with reductions in meat consumption will impact the intake, bioavailability, and dietary requirements of minerals. This objective will address the production of foods with enhanced bioactive Se compounds, and assess their ability to enhance health, especially by controlling oxidative stress and reducing cancer risk. The impact of organic farming methods will also be assessed (Finley). It will also address the practical impact of dietary changes that emphasize plant-based diets on meeting nutritional needs for Fe and Zn (Hunt).
Objective 2: Determine the effectiveness of current and proposed mineral fortification/supplementation practices for improving mineral nutrition while avoiding excessive or imbalanced mineral intakes. This objective will evaluate the bioavailability of Fe fortificants such as elemental Fe and micronized, encapsulated Fe compounds in human studies (Hunt).
Objective 3: Determine the mechanisms of uptake, transport, and retention of food minerals and how mineral nutritional status influences these mechanisms to impact the bioavailability of essential minerals, non-nutritive metals, and other food components. Cell and whole animal models will be employed to elucidate how the modifications of mineral content of foods can influence the biochemical regulation of specific transporters, cellular trafficking, and interactions of minerals such as Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Se, and Mn. (Reeves).
Problem to be addressed with increased funds: Elucidate the roles and diets in support of optimal health and prevention of obesity and related illnesses, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and cancer.
Problem to be addressed with increased funds (FY05): Under Performance Measure 4.1.1 of the ARS Strategic Plan and the NP107 Action Plan, this project will develop an enhancement to the food supply by increasing the nutritional value of beef.
Objective modification FY05: Increase the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in beef to a nutritionally significant level by feeding flax. Demonstrate that the increase in omega-3 fatty acids in the meat are sufficient to have a physiological effect. Study feasibility of increasing selenium in beef to levels that will have an impact on human health when the meat is consumed at recommended levels. This may include studies of organic form of selenium in beef, stability with varying cooking methods, sensory issues, bioavailability and health effects in both steers and consumers.
Specific objectives to be accomplished with increased funding: To study the roles of foods, particularly those produced in the Northern Plains, in the support of health. This work is to be multi-disciplinary, including collaborations such as with the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences and North Dakota State University.
To determine the impact of current dietary guideline recommendations on iron absorption, women’s nonheme iron absorption was measured from menus planned to meet the dietary guidelines (MyPyramid 7-d sample menus). The study was successfully completed, and the data are being applied to help validate and further develop algorithms that predict iron absorption from dietary composition. (NP107, Component 2: Bioavailability of Nutrients and Food Components.)
Analysis and reporting of research on adaptation in human zinc absorption, as affected by zinc intake and bioavailability (especially dietary phytate) was completed, including statistical modeling of equations to predict zinc absorption from diets (see accomplishment below). (NP107, Component 2: Bioavailability of Nutrients and Food Components and Component 4: Nutrient Requirements.)
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Finley, J.W., Burrell, J., Reeves, P.G. 2007. Pinto Bean Consumption Changes SCFA Profiles in Fecal Fermentations, Bacterial Populations of the Lower Bowel, and Lipid Profiles in Blood of Humans. Journal of Nutrition. 137:2391-2398.
Hunt, J.R., Beiseigel, J.M., Johnson, L.K. 2008. Adaptation in human zinc absorption as influenced by dietary zinc and bioavailability. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 87(5):1336-1345.
Reeves, P.G., Chaney, R.L. 2008. Bioavailability as an issue in risk assessment and management of food cadmium: A review. Science of the Total Environment. 398(1-3):13-19.