2007 Annual Report
Objective 1: Determine how shifts in agricultural and dietary practices, such as the availability of functional/genetically modified foods and emphasis on plant-based diets with reductions in meat consumption will impact the intake, bioavailability, and dietary requirements of minerals. This objective will address the production of foods with enhanced bioactive Se compounds, and assess their ability to enhance health, especially by controlling oxidative stress and reducing cancer risk. The impact of organic farming methods will also be assessed (Finley). It will also address the practical impact of dietary changes that emphasize plant-based diets on meeting nutritional needs for Fe and Zn (Hunt).
Objective 2: Determine the effectiveness of current and proposed mineral fortification/supplementation practices for improving mineral nutrition while avoiding excessive or imbalanced mineral intakes. This objective will evaluate the bioavailability of Fe fortificants such as elemental Fe and micronized, encapsulated Fe compounds in human studies (Hunt).
Objective 3: Determine the mechanisms of uptake, transport, and retention of food minerals and how mineral nutritional status influences these mechanisms to impact the bioavailability of essential minerals, non-nutritive metals, and other food components. Cell and whole animal models will be employed to elucidate how the modifications of mineral content of foods can influence the biochemical regulation of specific transporters, cellular trafficking, and interactions of minerals such as Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Se, and Mn. (Reeves).
Problem to be addressed with increased funds: Elucidate the roles and diets in support of optimal health and prevention of obesity and related illnesses, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and cancer.
Problem to be addressed with increased funds (FY05): Under Performance Measure 4.1.1 of the ARS Strategic Plan and the NP107 Action Plan, this project will develop an enhancement to the food supply by increasing the nutritional value of beef.
Objective modification FY05: Increase the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in beef to a nutritionally significant level by feeding flax. Demonstrate that the increase in omega-3 fatty acids in the meat are sufficient to have a physiological effect. Study feasibility of increasing selenium in beef to levels that will have an impact on human health when the meat is consumed at recommended levels. This may include studies of organic form of selenium in beef, stability with varying cooking methods, sensory issues, bioavailability and health effects in both steers and consumers.
Specific objectives to be accomplished with increased funding: To study the roles of foods, particularly those produced in the Northern Plains, in the support of health. This work is to be multi-disciplinary, including collaborations such as with the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences and North Dakota State University.
b) Perennial wheat could be nutritious, less expensive to maintain and more likely to aide the environment than annual wheat: Perennial wheat is emerging as a potential solution to some of these problems caused by annual wheat, such as seed expense, soil cultivation and erosion, and applied fertilizers and chemicals. In collaboration with investigators at the University of Washington, we helped describe a perennial wheat hybrid that yields as much as 93% of the average annual wheat and contains mineral nutrient concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc that are 46, 45, 31, 27, 38, 33, and 37% higher than annual wheat varieties. Regrowth after harvest is as great as 90% in the perennial variety. (Human Nutrition Program 107, Component 2: Bioavailability of Nutrients and Food Components.)
c) Hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron will not support adequate iron status in some animals: Up to ten percent of the iron consumed in the diets of humans comes from heme and hemoglobin, which are major components in blood. Although all animals have specific intestinal heme transporters, some cannot absorb heme iron efficiently; however, they are still used from time to time as experimental models to study the absorption of iron from these sources. This showed that feeding hemoglobin, as the sole source of iron could not maintain normal levels of body iron and caused anemia, and confirmed that the rat is not a good experimental model for the human to study the utilization of iron from hemoglobin or heme. (Human Nutrition Program 107, Component 2: Bioavailability of Nutrients and Food Components.)
Sempertegui, F., Estrella, B., Elmieh, N., Jordan, M., Ahmed, T., Rodriguez, A., Tucker, K.L., Hamer, D.H., Reeves, P.G., Meydani, S.N. 2006. Nutritional, immunological, and health status of the elderly population living in poor neighborhoods of quito, ecuador: a preliminary report. British Journal of Nutrition. 96:845-853.
Sempertegui, F., Diaz, M., Mejia, R., Rodriguez-Mora, O.G., Renteria, E., Guarderas, C., Estrella, B., Recalde, R., Hamer, D.H., Reeves, P.G. 2007. Low concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa are associated with increased severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation. Helicobacter Journal. 12:43-48.
Reeves, P.G., Gregoire, B.R., Garvin, D.F., Hareland, G.A., Lindlauf, J.E., Johnson, L.K., Finley, J.W. 2007. Determination of selenium bioavailability from wheat mill fractions in rats by using the slope-ratio assay and a modified Torula yeast-based diet. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55:516-522.
Reeves, P.G., Demars, L.C. 2007. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats. Nutrition Research. 27:289-294.
Swain, J.H., Johnson, L., Penland, J.G., Hunt, J.R. 2007. Electrolytic iron or ferrous sulfate increase body iron in women with moderate to low iron stores. Journal of Nutrition. 137:620-627.
Miller, K.B., Caton, J.S., Finley, J.W. 2006. Manganese depresses rat heart muscle respiration. Biofactors. (28)33-46.
Lynch, S.R., Bothwell, T., Campbell, L., Cowan, K., Glahn, R.P., Hallberg, L., Hoppe, M., Hulthen, L., Hunt, J.R., Hurrell, R.F., Miller, D., Swain, J., Turner, L., Winichagoon, P., Yeung, C.K., Zeder, C., Zimmermann, M.B. 2007. A comparison of physical properties, screening procedures and a human efficacy trial for predicting the bioavailability of commercial elemental iron powders used for food fortification. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 77:107-124.
Beisiegel, J.M., Hunt, J.R., Glahn, R.P., Welch, R.M., Menkir, A., Maziya-Dixon, B.B. 2007. Iron bioavailability from maize and beans: a comparison of human measurements with Caco-2 cell and algorithm predictions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 86:388-396.