2006 Annual Report
1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
This research focuses on all three areas of the Human Nutrition Program 107. These include component #3 (Diet, Genetics, Lifestyle, and the Prevention of Obesity and Disease), component #6 (Health Promoting Intervention Strategies for Targeted Populations), and component #7 (Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods).
The objective of this research is to determine if dietary phytochemicals ameliorate known and presumptive risk factors of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in middle-aged adults. These diseases account for a significant proportion of mortality and morbidity in the United States and risk for these diseases is related to dietary intake. Unfortunately, the scientific evidence that phytochemicals can reduce risk of disease in humans is largely unknown. Scientists in the Diet and Human Performance Laboratory propose that consumption of foods that are rich sources of dietary polyphenols will reduce inflammatory and oxidative markers associated with risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes, ameliorate signs and symptoms of type II diabetes, and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease by improving traditional lipid and lipoprotein risk factors. Scientists in the Diet and Human Performance Laboratory also propose that the antioxidant properties of these phytochemicals will have the most benefit for individuals who are at increased risk from oxidative stress due to disease or environmental exposure.
This research is relevant to food manufacturers, commodity producers, consumers (especially those at increased risk for disease), targeted populations, nutrition professionals, and individuals serving in the medical and allied health sciences. These groups and individuals can use the results of this research to formulate healthier products, to improve agricultural production, and to provide science-based dietary recommendations to reduce the risk to disease.
2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
FY - 2005
Data analysis and modeling.
Objectives 2 and 3- Prediabetic Studies.
Institutional Review Board approval.
Subject recruitment and screening.
FY - 2006
Menu development and analysis.
FY - 2007
Data analysis and modeling.
FY - 2008
4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
A dietary intervention study was conducted and analysis of these samples to determine the concentration of uric acid, vitamin E, and vitamin C has been completed. The sample analyses have been completed and the data have been analyzed. Briefly, dietary polyphenol antioxidants from tea do not protect oxidatively stressed people from additional oxidative damage.
4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
A dietary intervention study was conducted to determine the effect of whey protein on body weight, body fat, markers of inflammation and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. There is a significant benefit of dietary protein supplementation with respect to body weight and fat. Protein intake also improves insulin response. These results suggest that dietary protein is associated with improving body composition and that whey protein may help improve some risk factors for chronic diseases.
4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
There are no major accomplishments achieved in the initial 3 years, especially since the approach has been altered due to limited funding.
6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
The results of this study have been presented to industry partners involved in the production and marketing of foods rich in antioxidants. These data are being used to shape future product development and marketing.
7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Effects of whey protein on body weight, fat and health indices in supplemented overweight and obese adults. IFT Annual Meeting and Food Expo, Orlando, FL, June 24-28, 2006.
Whey protein decreases body weight and fat in supplemented overweight and obese adults. Experimental Biology, San Francisco, CA, April 1-5, 2006.
Mahabir, S., Baer, D.J., Giffen, C., Subar, A., Campbell, W., Hartman, T., Clevidence, B.A., Albanes, D., Taylor, P. 2006. Calorie intake misreporting by diet record and food frequency questionnaire compared to doubly labeled water among postmenopausal women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 60:561-565.