2005 Annual Report
1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter?
The objective of this research is to determine if dietary phytochemicals ameliorate known and presumptive risk factors of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in middle-aged adults. These diseases account for a significant proportion of mortality and morbidity of the deaths in the United States and risk for these diseases is related to dietary intake. Unfortunately, the scientific evidence that phytochemicals can reduce risk of disease in humans is largely unknown. We propose that consumption of foods that are rich sources of dietary polyphenols will reduce inflammatory and oxidative markers associated with risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes, ameliorate signs and symptoms of type II diabetes, and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease by improving traditional lipid and lipoprotein risk factors. We also propose that the antioxidant properties of these phytochemicals will have the most benefit for individuals who are at increased risk from oxidative stress due to disease or environmental exposure.
This research is relevant to food manufacturers, commodity producers, consumers (especially those at increased risk for disease), targeted populations, nutrition professionals, and individuals serving in the medical and allied health sciences. These groups and individuals can use the results of this research to formulate healthier products, to improve agricultural production, and to provide science-based dietary recommendations to reduce the risk to disease.
These include component #3 (Diet, Genetics, Lifestyle, and the Prevention of Obesity and Disease), component #6 (Health Promoting Intervention Strategies for Targeted Populations), and component #7 (Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods). This proposal focuses on all three areas of the Human Nutrition Program 107.
2.List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan.
FY - 2005
Data analysis and modeling
Objectives 2 and 3- Prediabetic Studies
Institutional Review Board approval
Subject recruitment and screening
FY - 2006
Menu development and analysis
FY - 2007
Data analysis and modeling
FY - 2008
4a.What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year?
Dietary protection from oxidative stress. Data analysis from the smoker study was completed. This objective of this study was to determine if a diet rich in antioxidants from tea can protect an oxidatively stressed group of at-risk individuals (cigarette smokers) from oxidative damage. Smokers were recruited to participate in a dietary intervention in which they were fed as part of a controlled diet three treatments: black tea, water with caffeine equivalent to that of the tea, and water as a control. Endothelial function, markers of oxidative damage and risk factors for cardiovascular disease were measured. Some analyses were performed in collaboration between the Diet and Human Performance Laboratory and with Oregon State University. Overall, tea provided little protection to oxidative stress and did little to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Thus, while there are currently many recommendations to eat a diet rich in antioxidants, there remains little evidence from randomized control trials that these diets and foods can improve health status.
4b.List other significant accomplishments, if any.
4c.List any significant activities that support special target populations.
5.Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact.
This project has been active for less than 2 years and there are no major accomplishments achieved in the initial 2 years.
6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
The results of this study have been presented to industry partners involved in the production and marketing of foods rich in antioxidants. These data are being used to shape future product development and marketing.
7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Hartman, T.J., Baer, D.J., Parker, C.E., Stone, W.L., Gunter, E.W., Albert, P.S., Dorgan, J.F., Brown, E.D., Campbell, W.S., Tomer, K.B. 2004. Moderate alcohol consumption and levels of antioxidant vitamins and isoprostanes in post-menopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 59:161-168.
Laufer, E.M., Hartman, T.J., Baer, D.J., Gunter, E.W., Dorgan, J.F., Campbell, W.S., Clevidence, B.A., Brown, E.D., Albanes, D., Judd, J.T. 2004. The effects of moderate alcohol consumption of folate and vitamin B12 status in postmenopausal women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 58:1518-1524.
Lavigne, J.A., Baer, D.J., Wimbrow, H.H., Albert, P.S., Brown, E.D., Judd, J.T., Campbell, W.S., Giffen, C.A., Dorgan, J.F., Hartman, T.J. 2005. Effects of alcohol on insulin-like growth factor-i and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 81:503-507.
Mahabir, S., Baer, D.J., Johnson, L.L., Frenkel, K., Dorgan, J.F., Campbell, W., Hartman, T.J., Clevidence, B.A., Albanes, D., Judd, J.T., Taylor, P.R. 2005. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to dna damage in postmenpausal women in a controlled feeding study. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 14: 427-429.
Mahabir, S., Baer, D.J., Johnson, L.L., Dorgan, J.F., Campbell, W., Brown, E.M., Hartman, T.J., Clevidence, B.A., Albanes, D., Judd, J.T., Taylor, P.R. 2004. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and dheas in postmenopausal women. Nutrition Journal. 3:11-14.