Location: Areawide Pest Management Research
2006 Annual Report
Year 2 (FY 2007): 1. Complete data collection on effects of trap placement on BW detection and colonization of cotton. 2. Establish the role of wind on BW immigration into the Texas Winter Garden. 3. Establish the effect of temperature inside pheromone traps on the release rate of grandlure and eugenol from lure dispensers. 4. Establish distribution of non-cotton habitats surrounding BW traps. 5. Develop EM and LM techniques for pollen analyses. 6. Establish optimal color and placement of sticky traps for detecting fleahopper movement into cotton. 7. Identify endogenous NP that modulate diuresis in house, flesh, stable, and horn flies.
Year 3 (FY 2008): 1. Complete data collection for detection of low-density BW populations. 2. Correlate species of pollen from captured BW with distribution of non-cotton habitats. 3. Establish criteria for using adult reproductive systems and associated fat body types to determine reproductive status. 4. Correlate stylet anatomy and pollen ingestion. 5. Identify endogenous PK-like NP regulating diapause, ecdysis and reproduction in stink bug. 6. Establish suitable sampling methods for CFH adults and nymphs in cotton. 7. Identify endogenous NP that modulate diuresis in stink bug, tick and mosquito. 8. Characterize structure-activity relationships for diuretic NP in Southern cattle fever tick. 9. Characterize structure-activity of PK-like NP in ecdysis fly model.
Year 4 (FY 2009): 1. Establish longevity of pollen signature in/on BW. 2. Identify diet(s) for obtaining reproductive and diapausing adults. 3. Identify seasonal occurrence of feral SGSB in cultivated and uncultivated hosts. 4. Determine pollen suppleness for pollen ingestion. 5. Establish effects of NP and/or analogs on ecdysis and/or diapause. 6. Establish weather parameters that influence the timing of fleahopper dispersal from weed hosts. 7. Identify plant phenology-dependent patterns of feeding and oviposition. 8. Characterize structure-activity relationships for diuretic NP in flies.
Year 5 (FY 2010): 1. Establish the role of weather factors in the build-up and dispersal of BW populations within the Texas Winter Garden. 2. Establish effects of physiological condition on overwintering survival rate and emergence of adult SGSB. 3. Establish pollen contamination factors in SGSB. 4. Establish effects of NP and/or analogs on olfactory response of SGSB to pheromone. 5. Identify time-of-day sampling effects on CFH population estimates, and establish CFH population dynamics in cotton. 6. Characterize structure-activity relationships for diuretic NP in mosquito. 7. Identify endogenous PK-like NP regulating diapause, ecdysis and reproduction in mosquito. 8. Characterize structure-activity of PK-like NP in ecdysis Lepidopteran model. 9. Develop non-peptide mimetic NP analogs for potential use in flies, mosquito and/or stink bug. 10. Evaluate biostable, bioavailable NP analogs for flies, mosquito and/or stink bug. 11. Determine role of NP in olfactory regulation in mosquito and/or flies. 12. Evaluate biostable NP analogs on mate/food location in mosquito and/or flies.
Neuropeptide Hormone/Active Site Interaction Profiles Identified for the Yellow Fever Mosquito and the Cattle Fever Tick: Characterization of the structural requirements for interaction of the insect kinin class of neuropeptide hormones with their active sites has been accomplished in the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), and the cattle fever tick (Boophilus microplus). Development of neuropeptide-based control technology offers much promise as an alternative control strategy for disease-carrying insects and ticks; however, characterization of neuropeptide hormone/active site interactions is required to facilitate development of acceptable neuropeptide mimics capable of disrupting critical life processes. Scientists in the Areawide Pest Management Research Unit at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, Texas, in collaboration with scientists at Texas A&M University, used state-of-the-art techniques to characterize the interaction dynamics between a specific kinin neuropeptide and its active site both in A. aegypti and in B. microplus. This accomplishment is important because it provides detailed knowledge of how neuropeptide hormones interact with active sites to exert their physiological effects; the accomplishment is of significant value in facilitating ongoing work toward development of effective and practical neuropeptide-based control agents for mosquitoes and other pest arthropods that act to disrupt life processes such as water balance, digestion, and growth (NP 304; Component 5, Pest Control Technologies; ARS Strategic Plan Performance Measure 3.2.5).
New Diuretic Neuropeptide Hormones Identified in Three Pest Flies: Neuropeptide hormones that regulate water balance (diuresis) were identified by state-of-the-art analytical techniques from three species of pest flies; the house fly (Musca domestica), the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans). New pest insect control technology is needed to provide effective alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides currently used; the development of neuropeptide-based control technology for pest flies requires an understanding of the specific structures of insect neuropeptides native to the insects and their location within the nervous system. Scientists in the Areawide Pest Management Research Unit at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, Texas, in collaboration with scientists at the Saxon Academy of Sciences, Jena, Germany, and at Texas A&M University, identified members of the CAP2b/PVK class of neuropeptides from neurosecretory organs of single fly specimens and pinpointed their location within the central nervous system of the insects. This accomplishment is important because it provides new and important structural and localization data on neuropeptides that regulate critical aspects of water regulation and digestion in pest flies, and it significantly furthers ongoing work to develop neuropeptide technology that will effectively control these pests without reliance on conventional chemical insecticides. (NP 304; Component 5, Pest Control Technologies; ARS Strategic Plan Performance Measure 3.2.5)
Nachman, R.J. 2006. A. Interaction of biostable, beta-AA insect kinin analogs with expressed receptors. B. Exploring the functional role of a salt bridge in sulfakinins with restricted conformation analogs (oral presentations). Invertebrate Neuropeptide Conference, February 22, 2006, Guanajuato, Mexico.
Nachman, R.J. 2006. Interaction of mimetic analogs of insect neuropeptides with expressed receptors (oral presentation). European Comparative Endocrinologists 23rd Conference, September 2, 2006, Manchester, England.
Spurgeon, D.W. 2005. Boll weevil trapping and pheromone production update. Texas A&M Entomology Science Conference, October 26-28, 2005, College Station, Texas.
Spurgeon, D.W. 2005. Dynamics of pheromone production in the boll weevil (oral presentation). Texas A&M University Department of Entomology Seminar Series, December 1, 2005, College Station, Texas.
Spurgeon, D.W. 2005. Diet-mediated dynamics of pheromone production in the boll weevil (poster presentation). Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, December 15-18, 2005, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Westbrook, J.K., Esquivel, J.F., Suh, C.P.-C. 2006. Early-season dispersal of cotton fleahoppers relative to weather factors (oral presentation). Southwestern Branch of the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, February 27-March 2, 2006, Austin, Texas.
Westbrook, J.K., McCracken, G.F., Kunz, T.H. 2006. Aerobiology of predator and prey: Bats and insects (oral presentation). American Meteorological Society Conference on Biometeorology and Aerobiology, May 22-25, 2006, San Diego, California.
Westbrook, J.K., Esquivel, J.F., Suh, C.P.-C. 2006. Early-season dispersal of cotton fleahoppers relative to atmospheric factors (oral presentation). Beltwide Cotton Conferences, January 3-6, 2006, San Antonio, Texas.
Lodyga-Chruscinska, E., Sanna, D., Micera, G., Chruscinska, L., Olejnik, J., Nachman, R.J., Zabrocki, J. 2006. Chelating ability of proctolin tetrazole analogue. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 53:65-72.
Mertens, I., Meeusen, T., Janssen, T., Nachman, R.J., Schoofs, L. 2005. Molecular characterization of two G protein-coupled receptor splice variants as FLP2 receptors in Caenorhabditis elegans. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 330:967-974.
Nachman, R.J., Russell, W.K., Coast, G.M., Russell, D.H., Predel, R. 2005. Mass spectrometric assignment of Leu/Ile in neuropeptides from single neurohemal organ preparations of insects. Peptides. 26:2151-2156.
Nachman, R.J., Russell, W.K., Russell, D.H., Predel, R. 2006. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometric assignment of Leu/Ile in PVK/CAP2b neuropeptides from single neurohemal organ preparations of four flies. Proceedings of International Conference on Arthropods: Chemical, Physiological and Environmental Perspectives. 3:49-53.
Nachman, R.J., Strey, A.A., Zubrzak, P., Zdarek, J. 2006. A comparison of the pupariation acceleration activity of pyrokinin-like peptides native to the flesh fly: Which peptide represents the primary pupariation factor? Peptides. 27:527-533.
Nachman, R.J., Russell, W.K., Coast, G.M., Russell, D.H., Miller, J.A., Predel, R. 2006. Identification of PVK/CAP2b neuropeptides from single neurohemal organs of the stable fly and horn fly via MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Peptides. 27:521-526.
Neupert, S., Predel, R., Russell, W.K., Davey, R.B., Pietrantonio, P.V., Nachman, R.J. 2005. Identification of tick periviscerokinin, the first neurohormone of Ixodidae: Single cell analysis by means of MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 338:1860-1864.
Spurgeon, D.W., Cattaneo, M. 2006. Interactions between trap placement and boll weevil colonization of cotton. In: Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences, January 3-6, 2006, San Antonio, Texas. 2006 CDROM.
Spurgeon, D.W., Anderson, R.M. 2006. Boll weevil trap captures as a function of distance from brush lines. In: Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences, January 3-6, 2006, San Antonio, Texas. 2006 CDROM.
Spurgeon, D.W., Raulston, J.R. 2006. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in traps associated with different habitats. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99:752-756.
Taneja-Bageshwar, S., Strey, A.A., Zubrzak, P., Pietrantonio, P.V., Nachman, R.J. 2006. Structure-activity relationships for insect kinins on expressed receptors from a tick (Acari: Ixodidae) and a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of International Conference on Arthropods: Chemical, Physiological and Environmental Perspectives. 3:55-59.
Taneja-Bageshwar, S., Strey, A.A., Zubrzak, P., Pietrantonio, P.V., Nachman, R.J. 2006. Comparative structure-activity analysis of insect kinin core analogs on recombinant kinin receptors from southern cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 62:128-140.
Armstrong, J.S., Spurgeon, D.W., Suh, C.P. 2006. Comparisons of standard and extended-life boll weevil pheromone lures. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99:323-330.
Showler, A.T., James, W.D., Armstrong, J.S., Westbrook, J.K. 2006. An experiment using neutron activation analysis and a rare earth element to mark cotton plants and two insects that feed on them. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 64(8):875-880.
Nachman, R.J., Teal, P.E.A., Garside, C.S., Tobe, S.S. 2006. Mimetic insect allatostatin analogs for insect control. U.S. Patent 7,078,384.