2007 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
To collect, maintain and preserve diversity of tropical fruit and nut crops and potential beverage, ornamental and vegetable germplasm. To identify, evaluate and characterize horticultural traits and responses to environment, disease and pest stresses; to improve long-term seed and in vitro storage techniques; to evaluate germplasm propagation and production systems to minimize chemical dependence and maximize crop yield, quality, value, and production consistency. Data input into GRIN database. The funding being redirected in this project will be used to enhance research on the following objective: Efficiently and effectively conserve and regenerate tropical fruit genetic resources, and distribute pathogen-tested samples and associated information worldwide.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Germplasm collection to be expanded through active exploration & exchanges, priorities are elite traits and species diversity. Collection maintained in field arboreta with in vitro storage for selected specimens. Germplasm collection is information driven, accessions are to be evaluated and characterized by a team of horticulturists and pathologists for horticultural qualities, responses to pests, diseases and environmental stresses using standard horticultural, plant pathology & molecular methods. Cooperative research and support with NPGS germplasm sites. Evaluation information in input into GRIN database..
2)Identify physiological and cultural components of growth and development in selected tropical fruit, ornamental and vegetable crops, and to develop systems approaches to manage timing and reliability in flower and fruit production..
3)Enhance tropical crop germplasm through selection and hybridization..
4)Develop management strategies for control of tropical plant diseases on selected germplasm. Replacing 5320-21000-007-00d 8/2003.
Papaya and Vasconcellea seed regeneration
Accomplishment: The Tropical Plant Genetic Resource management unit a) Established a three acre field plot at Paauilo, thirty miles north of Hilo, with its own nursery and irrigation as a PRSV-free regeneration site for twenty-one accessions of Carica and Vasconcellea; seeds from eleven accessions were harvested from controlled pollinations, this is under sibling project 5320-21000-009-06N, 'Evaluate growth and performance of selected tropical fruit tree germplasm in Paauilo'; b) Established a ½ acre grow-out plot at Lalamilo, sixty miles outside of Hilo, as a secondary regeneration site. Seeds from four accessions were harvested; c) Established a back-up collection of Vasconcellea as potted culture in a screenhouse at Waiakea and have been able to keep the collection virus free; d) Initiated the in vitro backup of Vasconcellea, and seed storage study at -80°C.
Problem: Difficulty in Carica and Vasconcellea seed regeneration due to the severe Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) infection at the Waiakea site.
Impact: Collected sufficient seeds to secure maintenance and conservation of the Carica and Vasconcellea germplasm; having seeds for research and distribution.
This research supports NP 301, Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics and Genetic Improvement and focuses on Component 1: Plant and Microbial Genetic Resource Management. Problem Statement 1A. Efficiently and Effectively Manage Plant and Microbial Genetic Resources, and Problem Statement 1B. Assess the Systematic Relationships and Genetic Diversity of Crop Genetic Resources.
Flowering and Fruiting of Sapindaceae
Accomplishment: Field plots of ‘Kaimana’ litchi are pruned and fertilized at three distinct climates on the island of Hawaii by the Tropical Plant Genetic Resources management unit and two local farmers. This is to test the principle of timing of management methods to condition the trees to their best response to the mild winter for flower induction.
Problem: Lychee and longan are subtropical fruit tree germplasm that requires cold induction for flowering and fruiting. The lack of sufficiently cold temperatures in the tropics resulted in unreliable and unpredictable production which hinders the evaluation and utilization of the germplasm.
Impact: In Hilo, we successfully demonstrated the synchronization of vegetative growth provided more reliable flowering and production of ‘Kaimana’ litchi for four consecutive years. The experiment was successfully repeated in Kona this last season, but refinement will be needed for the Hamakua area. This research supports NP 301, Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics and Genetic Improvement and focuses on Component 1: Plant and Microbial Genetic Resource Management. Problem Statement 1A. Efficiently and Effectively Manage Plant and Microbial Genetic Resources, and Problem Statement 1B. Assess the Systematic Relationships and Genetic Diversity of Crop Genetic Resources.
Germplasm Maintenance, Evaluation and Distribution
Accomplishment: Nine hundred and fifty-seven accessions were maintained in thirty-three acres, two greenhouses and one in vitro laboratory. Observations were collected on 440 accessions, with 1103 separate observations, sixty-nine vouchers and eleven cooperator records loaded into the Germplasm Resource Information Network (GRIN). There were fifty-six orders filled for 293 items. This is to fulfill the mission of the unit and supports NP 301, Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics and Genetic Improvement and focuses on Component 1: Plant and Microbial Genetic Resource Management. Problem Statement 1A. Efficiently and Effectively Manage Plant and Microbial Genetic Resources, and Problem Statement 1B. Assess the Systematic Relationships and Genetic Diversity of Crop Genetic Resources.
Impact: By maintaining the collections of tropical fruit and nut crops entrusted to the Tropical Plant Genetic Resources repository, germplasm will be made available to scientists and plant enthusiasts for research, development and breeding programs. By characterizing and collecting observations, information that has previously not been available is now available to all through the GRIN system and the unit web pages.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
The litchi production management project supports small farms in tropical fruit production. This method will provide reliability and consistency in production of this crop in Hawaii, and may contribute to better labor and marketing management.
|Number of web sites managed||1|
|Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings||5|
|Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences||2|
Schenk, A., Berger, M., Keith, L.M., Bender, C.L., Muskhelishvili, G., Ullrich, M.S. 2006. The algT gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea and new insights into the transcriptional organization of the algT-muc gene cluster. Journal of Bacteriology. 188(23):8013-8021
T.K. Matsumoto, M.A. Nagao and B. Mackey. 2007. Off-season flower induction of longan with potassium chlorate, sodium chlorite and sodium hypochlorite. HortTechnology 17(3): 296-300.
Postman, J.D., Hummer, K.E., Stover, E.W., Krueger, R., Forsline, P.L., Grauke, L.J., Zee, F.T., Ayala Silva, T., Irish, B.M. 2006. Fruit and nut genebanks in the us national plant germplasm system. HortScience. 41(5):1188-1194.
Cessna, S.G., Matsumoto Brower, T.K., Lamb, G.N., Rice, S.J., Hochstedler, W.W. 2007. The externally derived portion of the hyperosmotic shock-activated cytosolic calcium pulse mediates adaptation to ionic stress in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Journal of Plant Physiology. 164:815 - 823.