2007 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
1) Develop and integrate GIS, GPS, and other systems for efficacious precision application;.
2)develop technologies that account for material released during crop spray applications;.
3)develop and evaluate nozzles and other application technologies and spray formulations with emphasis on reducing driftable fines and improving efficacy;.
4)determine effects of meteorological conditions on off-target movements of sprays;.
5)develop and evaluate systems for aerial delivery of new crop pest management materials.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Utilizing engineering and biological principles, laboratory and field studies will be conducted to evaluate the effects of various aerial application parameters, such as droplet size spectrum and equipment, on efficacy and off-target movement of crop production and protection materials. Efforts will focus on maximizing efficacy and spray deposition, through equipment or formulation modifications, so minimal amounts of pesticides will be needed for crop production and protection. Spray deposition and movement will be quantified using various plant and artificial collectors in conjunction with chromatography and spectrofluorometry. Pest control efficacy will be evaluated using lab and field assessments. Novel application equipment, spray models, and product formulations will be developed.
Spray Deposition on Wheat Heads Enhanced:
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major disease of wheat and barley in several small grain production areas in the U.S.; fungicides are critical to disease management. Although aerial application of fungicides provides a rapid method of response to a FHB outbreak, more information is needed to define application parameters that maximize spray deposition on wheat heads. Scientists in the Areawide Pest Management Research Unit at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX, conducted definitive aircraft spray-deposition trials using conventional hydraulic nozzles, electrostatic nozzles, and rotary atomizers. The work established that hydraulic nozzles set at the lowest spray rate and largest droplet size, along with electrostatic spray nozzles, resulted in maximum spray deposits on wheat heads. This accomplishment is important because it provides guidance for aerial fungicide applications that will increase deposition on wheat heads to maximize disease control efficiency, while minimizing off-target deposition and potential adverse environmental impacts. (NP 305, Component 2, Problem Statement 2B)
Sprayer Performance Characterized:
The control of human and animal disease-vectoring arthropods is a high priority for both public health and military officials, who routinely use a variety of hand-held and truck-mounted sprayers to disperse spray materials for arthropod control. The selection and setup of these sprayers determines the droplet size of the spray, which directly affects the level of control achieved during an application. Much more needs to be known concerning the distribution of droplet sizes produced by different sprayers and spray formulations so that applicators can make the most effective spray applications. Scientists in the Areawide Pest Management Research Unit at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX, evaluated eighteen hand-held and truck-mounted sprayers with both water- and oil-based spray solutions using laser diffraction droplet sizing equipment. The work demonstrated the distinct traits exhibited by each sprayer type and identified sprayer-specific droplet size/formulation characteristics. This accomplishment is important because it provides rigorous scientific data to vector control personnel, both civilian and military, that will aid in the selection of equipment and formulation combinations to provide the most effective control of targeted pests. (NP 305, Component 2, Problem Statement 2B)
Aerial Application Parameters Optimized for a Low Toxicity Insecticide:
Use of insecticides that are low in mammalian toxicity, such as spinosad, provides effective control of thrips in cotton and greatly reduces the risk of pesticide exposure to applicators and field workers. Because low toxicity compounds are dependent on proper spray application methods, aerial applicators must select among a wide range of application techniques to maximize product efficacy. Scientists in the Areawide Pest Management Research Unit at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX, conducted definitive aircraft trials using conventional, electrostatic, and rotary application systems to optimize application parameters for use of spinosad in control of thrips in early season cotton; the work resulted in development of effective protocols for maximum control efficiency. This accomplishment is important because it provides rigorous scientific data to aerial applicators that will facilitate their efforts to achieve maximum product efficacy using environmentally safer compounds. (NP 305, Component 2, Problem Statement 2B)
|Number of active CRADAs and MTAs||1|
|Number of invention disclosures submitted||1|
|Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings||16|
|Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences||8|
Huang, Y., Lan, Y., Hoffmann, W.C., Lacey, R.E. 2007. Multisensor data fusion for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation. Journal of Bionics Engineering. 6:53-62.
Lan, Y., Benedict, J.H., Ring, D.R., Hoffmann, W.C. 2006. Economic analysis of insect control strategies using an integrated crop ecosystem management model. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Ejournal. 8:1-18.
Kirk, I.W. 2007. Measurement and prediction of atomization parameters from fixed-wing aircraft spray nozzles. Transactions of the ASABE. 50:693-703.
Hoffmann, W.C., Fritz, B.K., Martin, D.E. 2007. AGDISP sensitivity to crop canopy characterization. Transactions of the ASABE. 50:1117-1122.
Fritz, B.K. 2006. Meteorological effects on deposition and drift of aerially applied sprays. Transactions of the ASABE. 49:1295-1301.
Fritz, B.K., Kirk, I.W., Hoffmann, W.C., Martin, D.E., Hofman, V., Hollingsworth, C., McMullen, M., Halley, S. 2006. Aerial application methods for increasing spray deposition on wheat heads. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 22:357-364.