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National Program 306: Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products
2000-2010 Action Plan (modified in 2004)
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INTRODUCTION

The goal of ARS National Program 306 (NP 306), Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, is to enhance the economic viability and competitiveness of U.S. agriculture by maintaining the quality of harvested agricultural commodities or otherwise enhancing their marketability, meeting consumer needs, developing environmentally friendly and efficient processing concepts, and expanding domestic and global market opportunities through the development of value-added food and nonfood products and processes.  A more detailed description of the Program can be found in the Program Summary on the NP 306 website.  The purpose of this document is to outline the problems to be addressed under this Program and the research proposed to address these problems.  

This action plan reflects input from ARS customers, stakeholders, and cooperators obtained through ARS-sponsored workshops held in May, November, and December of 1999, and from other communications.  Workshop participants included representatives from commodity and trade organizations, food and chemical manufacturers, universities, and public interest groups, as well as ARS scientists and administrators.  There was general agreement among participants that the scope of research under NP 306 reflects the appropriate use of federal resources to address problems concerning the quality, functionality, and utilization of agricultural products on a domestic and international scale not adequately addressed elsewhere.  ARS scientists will partner with industry cooperators to scale up and test promising technologies for potential commercialization.

NP 306 is comprised of two components:  (1) Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement and (2) New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products.  These components separately address research issues related to the quality and utilization of agricultural products.  They are not mutually exclusive, and research efforts under one component often complement and contribute to the other.  Many research problems under NP 306 require a multi-disciplinary approach involving collaboration and coordination of efforts from several ARS locations.  The 'virtual laboratory' concept where several locations can work on aspects of a research problem will facilitate the process when critical resources are not co-located.  Because this National Program encompasses research on a multitude of commodities and products, and in order to afford readers of this document a quick index for finding areas of interest, the descriptions of research are grouped by commodity categories under problems areas within the components.  These categories are:  (1) fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, and sugar crops; (2) animal products; (3) cereals, oilseeds, and novel crops; and (4) agricultural fibers.

Many ARS projects are associated with more than one National Program due to objectives that are sufficiently broad as to encompass more than one area and because the National Programs overlap to some extent to cover broad problems and concerns relating to U.S. agriculture.  Some of these linkages are described in the Program Summary.

Individual research projects associated with this National Program are listed at the end of the action plan.  These projects may address more than one component and more than one problem area but are categorized under the component reflecting the primary thrust of the project.

Vision Statement
Provide knowledge and innovative technologies that lead to new and expanded market opportunities for United States agriculture

Mission Statement
To enhance the economic viability and competitiveness of U.S. agriculture by maintaining the quality of harvested agricultural commodities or otherwise enhancing their marketability, meeting consumer needs, developing environmentally friendly and efficient processing concepts, and expanding domestic and global market opportunities through the development of value-added food and nonfood products and processes.

Research Components

  • Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement 
  • New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products 

COMPONENT 1. Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement

Problem Area 1a.  Definition and Basis for Quality

Issues

Quality is the composite of those attributes that contribute to the acceptability of a product by the customer.  Thus, it becomes essential to identify and define what those attributes are before one can measure quality or establish quality standards or grades.  In order to optimize quality, fundamental knowledge of biochemical, cellular, and molecular processes and their role in determining product quality is needed.  The relationships between chemical and physical attributes and sensory perception are important to defining quality.  As consumer preferences change, an understanding of the role of changing product composition in determining quality becomes important.

 Objectives

  • Identify attributes that define quality of agricultural products.
  • Develop better understanding of relationships between composition and component molecular structure and end-use quality and function and sensory characteristics.
  • Assess quality trends and needs of agricultural products in global markets.

Planned Research Activities

Fruits, Vegetables, Tree Nuts, and Sugar Crops

Analytical chemical techniques will be used to identify and quantify compounds contributing to appearance (pigments, surface components), flavor (including components of aroma and the basic tastes of sweet, sour, bitter, astringent), and human health (phytochemicals).  This information will serve as a baseline to evaluate how the metabolic processes associated with wounding, dormancy/sprouting, ripening and senescence impact production and utilization of these compounds.  Biochemical and genetic techniques will be utilized to characterize impact of produce developmental processes on metabolism of these compounds.  Biochemical, physical, and genetic analyses will be conducted to characterize changes in structural components, as well as regulation of the metabolic processes that result in textural changes.  Sensory evaluation will be conducted to accompany these analytical procedures to provide measures of human perception of quality.

Molecular, biochemical, and chemical procedures will be used to characterize processes of wound healing, dormancy/sprouting, ripening and senescence that affect produce resistance to postharvest environmental and microbiological stresses.  Physiological, biochemical, and molecular approaches will be developed to determine reversible and irreversible cellular and biological indices of produce storage disorders.

Researchers will use molecular and traditional biochemical approaches to understand underlying processes involved in quality loss and retention in fresh cut and minimally processed commodities.

Animal Products:

Muscle foods--The causes of conditions such as premature browning and persistent pinking in meats will be determined. 

Hides and leather--Molecular modeling and associated spectroscopy will be applied to study the interaction of collagen-I with hide proteoglycans and glycoproteins.  The expansion of the molecular model of collagen-I, and associated spectroscopic studies, will lead to a fundamental understanding of the nature of collagen crosslinking, chrome tanning, and alternative crosslinking processes.  Immunohistochemistry, enzymology, and biochemical separations will be used to determine the presence or absence of specific proteoglycans and glycoproteins in hides during their early-stage processing and their relationship to leather quality.

Animal fat and other renderer's products--Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry methods will be employed to identify, characterize, and quantitate the natural and degraded components of fats and greases.

Cereals, Oilseeds, and Novel Crops:

Basic relationships between composition, molecular structure, physical state, and end-use performance will be delineated by examining constituents in situ and isolated in raw crops and processing systems.  Gel permeation chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, near infrared spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and rheological methods will be utilized to characterize molecular-level structure and interactions.  Structure-property relationships will be established by application of advanced statistical and mathematical modeling techniques.  Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry methods will be employed to identify, characterize, and quantitate biologically-active constituents, such as lipids, antioxidants, and phytochemicals.  These components in their native and processed forms will be tested for their biological activity (e.g. ability to lower plasma cholesterol, prevent aortic plaque formation, reduce blood glucose and insulin response, prevent formation of precancerous intestinal cells in animals).  Mechanistic elucidation of the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of biologically-active compounds will be investigated through the identification of the precursors, intermediates, and/or final products.  Regulatory biochemical pathways and genes responsible for quality will be determined.

Agricultural Fibers

Research will elucidate important physical and chemical aspects of fiber structure and biochemical, cellular, and molecular events that determine the processes of fiber formation, development, and maturation.  The fundamental physical, chemical, and biological attributes will be used to improve theoretical models of fiber structure and evaluated as a basis for targeted interventions to improve fiber quality.

ARS Research Locations

Aberdeen, ID; Albany, CA; Ames, IA; Athens, GA; Beltsville, MD; East Lansing, MI; Fargo, ND; Fresno, CA; Lane, OK; Lincoln, NE; Madison, WI; Manhattan, KS; New Orleans, LA; Oxford, MS; Peoria, IL; Phoenix, AZ; Pullman, WA; Raleigh, NC; Wenatchee, WA; Weslaco, TX; Winter Haven, FL; Wooster, OH; and Wyndmoor, PA.

Problem Area 1b.  Methods to Evaluate and Predict Quality

Issues

A better understanding of what constitutes quality and how we can relate composition and molecular structure to quality (Problem Area 1a) requires that we be able to measure those compounds or attributes that determine or predict end-use quality.  Detection and quantification methods for many compounds in agricultural products are either lacking or tedious and time-consuming.  Rapid, accurate, precise, nondestructive, and cost effective methods are needed to sample, measure, and track the various components, attributes or indicators that determine quality of agricultural products.  Correlations of physicochemical and/or biochemical data with sensory or performance-based evaluations are needed.  A new generation of quality measurement and classing strategies must be introduced to keep pace with advances in production and processing procedures.

Objectives

  • Develop rapid, non-destructive methods for detection and measurement of physical/chemical quality attributes and quality defects.
  • Develop automated, high-throughput on-line grading, sorting, and packaging systems for agricultural products.
  • Develop methods to evaluate the performance of sampling plans to measure quality characteristics of agricultural commodities shipped in bulk.
  • Develop and utilize multispectral techniques, imaging and image analysis, and methods incorporating information technology and artificial intelligence for further improvement of processing and grading.

Planned Research Activities

Fruits, Vegetables, Tree Nuts, and Sugar Crops: 

Develop a model to evaluate the performance of sampling plans to detect aflatoxin in bulk shipments of amonds.

Researchers will develop rapid, non-destructive methods for grading and sorting apples and tree nuts based on visible imaging, infrared transmittance, X-rays, surface reflectance of light at specific (540nm, 760nm, 960nm) wavelengths, and other techniques and that are compatible with the needs of commercial packing houses.

The potential for artificial intelligence technology (i.e. computer vision, robotics, and control systems, etc.) and other advanced forms of information technology (neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms) as quick methods to measure fresh produce quality attributes will be assessed.  Other such areas that will be further investigated for similar potential are:   optical evaluations using far-infrared thermography for surface appearance and damage evaluations and near infrared reflectance for internal quality evaluations; acoustic or ultrasound for firmness, texture evaluations; nuclear magnetic resonance for internal breakdown and composition evaluations;  fluidized beds for density evaluation and biosensors for determinations of taste, smell, flavor, and other internal gas/volatile concentrations.

Scientists will correlate sensory and analytical methods for product evaluation with computer multivariate analysis programs to develop better and faster techniques useful to juice processors for monitoring product quality and for new product development.

Animal Products:

Muscle foods--Comprehensive research efforts will profile meat products for specific markets by utilizing both instrumental and sensory procedures to measure quality attributes or functional properties which have a direct bearing on quality.  Special emphasis will be placed on developing procedures that are nondestructive, noninvasive, and will minimize the use of hazardous chemicals and provide information for decisions at line speed.  Meat tenderness will be measured using NIR reflectance spectra.  The NIR results will be validated by sensory panels and instrumental tests.  These integrated measures will be determined for basic meat cuts, as well as ready-to-eat products.

Hides and leather--Fundamental studies will be conducted to establish correlations between measured properties (e.g., tensile strength) and hide quality.  Methods will be established to measure hide quality nondestructively:  acoustic emission is one such approach, and digital image analysis is another.  Nondestructive testing will be developed for in-line use during leather production.

Animal fat and other renderer's products--Instrumental methodology will be developed and applied to characterize molecular structure, interactions, and morphology of fats, greases, and other renderer's products.

Cereals, Oilseeds, and Novel Crops:

Develop models to evaluate the performance of sampling plans to detect and measure genetically modified seed in corn.  TCK spores in wheat and foreign material in shelled peanuts.

Instrumental methodology, such as chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, infra-red spectroscopy, thermal analysis, NMR, rheology, and microscopy, will be utilized to characterize molecular structure, interactions, and morphology.  Chemical and physical analysis data will be correlated with sensory evaluations.  New sensor technologies such as 'bio-chips' will be made part of an overall analytical scheme to continuously monitor quality at all points in the food manufacturing and marketing sector.

Agricultural Fibers:

Quantitative models of fiber physical structure based on quantitative fiber wall formation and deconstruction studies will be used to refine interpretations of relationships between intrinsic fiber quality properties and fiber utility value.  Methods and technologies to rapidly and accurately measure desired fiber qualities or physical parameters will be developed, which can be incorporated into a High Volume Instrument (HVI) approach or other suitable quality assessment approaches, such as Advanced Fiber Instrument System (AFIS) testing or online grading in cotton gins.  In cooperation with USDA-AMS and others, new methods and technologies will be evaluated.   Standard reference methods will be developed, suitable for calibration of classing methods and technologies.  Barriers to adoption of new technologies for more precise, accurate, efficient, and cost-effective fiber classing will be identified and overcome to the extent feasible.  Studies of cotton will not be limited to properties currently used to establish grade, but will extend to stickiness, short fiber content, and other traits that affect utility value.  New standards and procedures for grading flax will be developed.  Image analysis techniques will be developed and applied to the evaluation of wool fiber quality.

ARS Research Locations

Albany, CA; Athens, GA; Beltsville, MD; Clemson, SC; Dawson, GA; East Lansing, MI; Fargo, ND; Las Cruces, NM;  Lubbock, TX; Manhattan, KS; New Orleans, LA; Oxford, MS; Peoria, IL; Pullman, WA; Raleigh, NC; Stoneville, MS; Weslaco, TX; Winter Haven, FL; Wooster, OH; and Wyndmoor, PA.

Problem Area 1c.  Factors and Processes that Affect Quality

Issues

Compounds and metabolic processes which contribute to color, flavor, and textural and structural properties often differ among apparently similar products, and causes of variability are often poorly understood.  Genetics and environment (pre-harvest and post-harvest) can profoundly affect quality, as can storage (especially long term), handling, and processing practices, but in many cases causes of these variations are poorly recognized.  Determination of physicochemical changes during storage, marketing, or processing is essential to maintain quality of many agricultural products.  Effects of metabolic changes induced to improve quality on subsequent byproduct quality are also poorly understood.

 Objectives

  • Determine influence of pre-harvest factors on quality, including genetics, production practices and environment.
  • Determine influence of post-harvest factors on quality, including storage, handling, grading, and processing.
  • Evaluate effects of safety and environmental protocols on quality of foods.

Planned Research Activities 

Fruits, Vegetables, Tree Nuts, and Sugar Crops:  

Varietal and preharvest production factors will be evaluated for their effects on product quality and shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables.  The biochemical and physiological effects of postharvest processes such as wounding, dormancy/sprouting, ripening and senescence on product quality and shelf life will also be assessed.  Researchers will determine the effects of factors such as variety, harvest maturity, growing region, cutting, packaging, and storage conditions on flavor and texture of fresh cut and minimally processed produce through human sensory and biochemical analyses.

Animal Products:

Muscle foods--The rheological properties of meat and muscle components as they change due to genetics, management practices, aging, postharvest intervention strategies, and cooking will be determined.  Mathematical models will be developed to characterize the nonlinear rheological properties and NIR spectroscopic properties will be studied.  Effects of postmortem practices, such as time of fabrication, physical state (nonfrozen, frozen), bulk package vs individual patties, and cooking/holding conditions will be evaluated.

Hides and leather--Variations in the contents of  specific proteoglycans and glycoproteins in hides as affected by animal research directed toward muscle growth and meat tenderness will be assessed, and the physical properties of leather made from those hides will be determined.   The results of food safety experiments directed toward rapid unhairing of cattle in the slaughterhouse will be monitored for effects on the quality of the hides and resultant leather.  Mechanical properties will be studied to better understand the impact of processing on resultant leather quality.

Animal fat and other renderer's products--Research will address long-term storage and handling parameters such as temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and atmosphere for impact on product flavor, microbial activity, and thermal stability.

Dairy foods--The role of the environment on the structure and function of milk proteins and peptides will be determined.  Physical aspects of cheese texture will be correlated with molecular level structure.  Chemical and physical interactions at the molecular level during extrusion will be correlated to structure, texture, and nutritional value of the extrudates.  The effects of different processing techniques on structural features of milk proteins and microbial flora in fluid cheesemilk will be evaluated, and findings will be related to processing parameters, textural qualities, and proteolysis of fresh and ripened ethnic cheeses.  The effects of environmental variables on the expression of regulatory biochemical pathways and genes responsible for quality will be ascertained.

Cereals, Oilseeds, and Novel Crops

The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (e.g. environment), and post-harvest (e.g. drying, moisture content, milling, storage) factors on quality attributes will be determined.  An understanding of the effects of production, handling, and processing on sensory properties will be obtained by statistically correlating human sensory analyses with instrumental measurements of constituents involved in physiological, biochemical, and structural/functional processes.  Research will also address long-term storage and handling parameters such as temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and atmosphere for impact on product flavor, microbial activity, pest control, and product damage or loss.

Agricultural Fibers

Research will identify sources of fiber variation, such as production environment (both spatial and temporal variability), harvesting technology, and various post-harvest processing steps (including cleaning, ginning, and related processes).   The research approaches will emphasize fiber property quantitation, and existing databases will be 'mined' to improve theoretical fiber models, fiber-production models, fiber-quality predictors, and fiber grading methodology.  New production technology, such as precision agriculture tools, will be used to develop insights into fiber variability.  The expanded knowledge of quantitative fiber quality will be used in cooperation with USDA-AMS and other partners to test and improve precision, accuracy, and utility of fiber classing data and to relate identified processing problems to intrinsic fiber properties, which may explain, predict or eliminate the fiber processing failure.  The economic impact of both intrinsic and introduced variations in fiber properties, and of the practices identified as sources of the variations, will be investigated by relating changes in fiber properties to fiber end-use suitability and utility value.  These results will be used to improve quality measurement instrumentation, and address economic factors like loan premiums and discounts.  Quantitative knowledge of fiber properties from characterized production systems will also be used to clarify communication among manufacturers, ginners, producers, and breeders.

ARS Research Locations

Aberdeen, ID; Albany, CA; Ames, IA; Athens, GA; Beltsville, MD; Clemson, SC; Dawson, GA; East Lansing, MI; Fargo, ND; Fresno, CA; Lane, OK; Las Cruces; NM; Lincoln, NE; Lubbock, TX; Madison, WI; Manhattan, KS; New Orleans, LA; Peoria, IL; Phoenix, AZ; Pullman, WA; Raleigh, NC; Stoneville, MS; Wenatchee, WA; Weslaco, TX; Winter Haven, FL; Wooster, OH; and Wyndmoor, PA.

Problem Area 1d.  Preservation and/or Enhancement of Quality and Marketability

Issues

Research is needed to explore new opportunities to enhance quality of agricultural products both before and after harvest/slaughter, based on new knowledge gained in problem areas 1a and 1c.  Handling and storage methods are needed which also preserve the quality of perishable high-quality products and minimize health and safety concerns to workers.  Losses due to post-harvest pathogens and disorders are more costly than losses during production because of the added value of the processed product.  New technologies are needed to replace those based on synthetic chemicals for control of post-harvest pests and pathogens.   Gaps remain in understanding taxonomy and biology of plant pathogens of quarantine significance.  Rapid and reliable identification of quarantine pests and pathogens is essential to establish and maintain export markets.

Objectives:

  • Develop strategies to enhance intrinsic product quality and consistency.
  • Improve storage technologies which maintain quality and nutrition and increase shelf life.
  • Enhance nutritional value of agricultural products.
  • Investigate use of antagonistic yeasts and bacteria for antimicrobial effects to enhance safety and reduce spoilage.
  • Develop environmentally friendly strategies for plant and animal pathogen control.
  • Minimize effects of pest infestation and food-borne risks on trade of agricultural products.  

 Planned Research Activities 

Fruits, Vegetables, Tree Nuts, and Sugar Crops

New strategies to control pests, pathogens and storage disorders will be developed based upon use of resistant varieties, biological control strategies, new packaging methods and other 'soft' technologies.  This will provide growers and shippers with alternatives to chemicals and fumigants being removed from the market.  Basic and applied research will be aimed at developing non-pesticide technologies that minimize losses from pests and reduce food-borne health risks.  Work is also aimed at minimizing risk of exotic pest introduction and developing technologies to control pests of quarantine significance.  Expanding use of ionizing energies (gamma irradiation) for product disinfestation treatment to extend storage-life will be assessed.

Genetic improvement, along with modified and/or controlled atmospheres and improved coatings and films, will be employed to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables.  Food safety and decay control strategies will be developed to extend marketable shelf life without the use of synthetic chemicals that restrict export to foreign markets.  Atmospheric modification will be further enhanced by developing absorbent compounds to limit produce-generated carbon dioxide and ethylene during storage.

Knowledge gained under problem area 1a will be used to develop superior germplasm with enhanced postharvest characteristics and to manipulate storage conditions to prolong product quality. 

Researchers will use information generated in problem areas 1a and 1c to produce fresh-cut products with optimal sensory quality without compromising product safety.

New non-thermal processing methods will be evaluated for the production of higher quality juice products.  New processes will be developed to limit the loss of sucrose during sugarbeet and sugarcane processing.

Animal Products:

Muscle foods--Nontraditional, environmentally friendly processes will be developed to optimize quality characteristics.  Processes to ensure optimum tenderization will include shock wave pressure technology to disrupt fiber structure, indigenous enzyme activation to break down fiber structure, and combining pulsed electric current and physical restraint of poultry breast muscles to deplete ATP levels while avoiding sarcomere contraction.  All of these processes have the potential to be used in commercial operations.  Methods for surface pasteurization of meat will be developed that do not adversely affect skin or muscle surface characteristics.  The unique approach of interrupting the life cycle of algae responsible for off-flavor in pond raised catfish will be evaluated.  If successful, this natural agent could be used at the farm level to prevent the resulting off-flavor problem in muscle tissue.

Intervention strategies will be developed to eliminate premature browning and persistent pinking in meats.

Research will establish complimentary handling/grading procedures that accurately segregate carcasses or portions to maximize raw meat use and reduce waste product accumulation.

Dairy foods -- Develop diary lactic fermentation bacteria with genetic capability to produce natural or milk-based biologically active food ingredients to improve the health-promoting, functional and bioprotective properties of foods.

Hides and leather--Alternative methods of short-term hide preservation will be developed in response to increasing environmental concerns.  Methods for processing 'green hides' are needed for those hides to be processed at the packing plant; salt curing needs to be responsive to environmental regulations at the tannery site where the salt is removed; packing plants that incorporate irradiation facilities for meat preservation need to understand the protocols for effective preservation of hides by irradiation; and packaging of hides needs to be attuned to warehouse conditions and--for international trade--those of cargo ships.  Bioprocesses will be invoked to effect leather tanning.

Animal fat and other renderer's products--Efficiency of handling and storage will be improved to prevent damage and spoilage.

Cereals, Oilseeds, and Novel Crops: 

Using the knowledge gained under problem area 1a and 1c, plant breeders will target the display of particular quality attributes and environmental stability in the germplasm.  Research efforts will include calibration of grain flowrates through orifices, suppression of grain dust to reduce risk of explosion, economic modeling of mechanical screening of peanuts, the design of mechanical screeners for farmer's stock peanuts, the establishment of aflatoxin sampling plans for farmer's stock peanuts, and the rheology of biopolymer blends derived from plant materials.  Efficiency of handling and storage will be improved to prevent damage and spoilage.

Agricultural Fibers:  

Fiber quality deterioration during handling and storage, whether by weathering or through microbial action, will be documented and related to end-use performance and utility value.  New technologies, including both prevention and intervention strategies as appropriate, will be developed and evaluated.  Strategies and technologies to minimize dust emissions and other hazards during fiber processing will be developed and tested.

ARS Research Locations

Aberdeen, ID; Albany, CA; Ames, IA; Athens, GA; Beltsville, MD; Clemson, SC; Dawson, GA; East Lansing, MI; Fargo, ND; Fresno, CA; Lane, OK; Las Cruces, NM; Lincoln, NE; Lubbock, TX; Madison, WI; Manhattan, KS; New Orleans, LA; Oxford, MS; Peoria, IL; Phoenix, AZ; Pullman, WA; Raleigh, NC; Stoneville, MS; Wenatchee, WA; Weslaco, TX; Winter Haven, FL; Wooster, OH; and Wyndmoor, PA.


COMPONENT 2. New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products

Problem Area 2a.  New Product Technology

Issues

Fundamental knowledge of biochemical, cellular, and molecular processes, and their role in determining functionality, is needed to develop technologies that will lead to improved utilization of agricultural commodities and their byproducts.  There is opportunity for optimization of levels of compounds in agricultural products which provide health benefits to humans and animals.  Sources of natural products for use as nutraceuticals, phytochemicals, pharmaceuticals, biopesticides, or other high-value uses are needed.  New materials and composites are needed to create new markets for starch, proteins, other agricultural polymers, and fats and oils.  Novel products, compounds, and materials are needed for many nonfood uses, as are specialized products for niche markets.  New and alternative crops that can supply those materials need to be developed.  New textile and non-textile uses are needed to expand market opportunities for agricultural fibers.

Objectives

  • Identify and characterize functional compounds and components in agricultural commodities and their byproducts.
  • Improve understanding of the relationship between composition, molecular structure, and physical state and end-use functionality of these compounds and components.
  • Use new knowledge of product properties and component interactions to develop functional intermediates or products.

Planned Research Activities 

Fruits, Vegetables, Tree Nuts, and Sugar Crops:

Scientists will isolate, characterize, and evaluate biological activity of phytochemicals and functional food components at production and processing stages.  They will also identify process streams and fractions with high concentrations of phytochemicals and phytonutrients and develop new methods to isolate quantities of these beneficial compounds at acceptable cost, using chromatographic, extractive, physical, chemical, and biological processes to obtain these objectives. 

Researchers will develop fresh-cut and minimally processed products from new commodities, such as sweet potatoes, to expand markets.

Animal Products:

Dairy products--Computer-assisted models of the major milk proteins (caseins) and their peptides generated by enzymatic treatment will be used to improve the understanding of functionality of these proteins and peptides for novel applications in dairy foods.  Studies to determine portions of the kappa casein are on the surface of the casein micelle and which are buried in the interior will permit the generation of a topographical map that can then be related to conversion of the large casein package into products.  Based on the functional information generated, new product concepts can be developed by novel processing approaches, such as twin screw extrusion to manufacture texturized milk-protein-based seafood analogues and snack foods containing dairy ingredients, high pressure carbon dioxide precipitation to produce a high calcium-containing acid casein and as part of a process to produce other dairy foods; trials of a high calcium-containing acid casein produced by high pressure carbon dioxide prepicipation and effects of new pre-processing methods low dose irradiation to understandon milk protein structure as related to cheesemaking; and new technologies for processing protein fractions into non-food products.  Conditions for efficient, large-scale and cost-effective production of bioactive products by biotechnologically engineered dairy fermentation cultures will be optimized and efficacy of bioprotective agents in real food systems will be tested.   Trials of lactic dairy cultures, modified to produce bioactive peptides with potential for use as functional food ingredients antimicrobials, such as pediocin, will be conducted under processing conditions.    

Animal fat and other renderer's products--Biopolymers produced by fermentation of fats and oils will be modified, processed, and/or blended to develop materials with properties acceptable for applications such as film, foams, and molded articles.  Other targeted end uses include new food ingredients and nutraceuticals. 

Cereals, Oilseeds, and Novel Crops

Basic relationships between composition, molecular structure, physical state, and end-use functionality will be delineated by examining constituents in situ and isolated in raw crops and processing systems.  State-of-the-art chromatographic and spectroscopic methods will be employed to identify, characterize, and quantitate biologically-active constituents, such as lipids, antioxidants, and phytochemicals.  These components in their native and processed forms will be evaluated for beneficial medical or biological activity.  Metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of biologically active compounds will be elucidated, and precursors and/or intermediates identified.  Regulatory biochemical pathways and genes responsible for desirable end-use traits will be determined, and the effects of environmental variables on their expression will be ascertained.  Targeted end uses include new foods and food ingredients and bioactive compounds for use as nutraceuticals, preservatives, biopesticides, botanical supplements, etc.  Biopolymers such as starch, proteins, and cellulose will be modified, processed, and/or blended to develop materials with properties acceptable for applications such as film, foams, and molded articles.

Agricultural Fibers

Composites, plastics, and polymeric products using cotton, wool, and flax fibers for structural and automotive applications will be prepared.  Nonwoven composites from wool and from leather materials will be developed by enzymatic fiber-fiber crosslinking.  Novel uses of existing products for unique high-value purposes will be developed, such as wound-healing bandages or super-absorbent materials.  Alternatives to chlorination for the imparting of shrink resistance and softness to wool will also be developed. 

ARS Research Locations

Albany, CA; Athens, GA; Clemson, SC; Lane, OK; Madison, WI; Manhattan, KS; New Orleans, LA; Oxford, MS; Peoria, IL; Raleigh, NC; Winter Haven, FL; and Wyndmoor, PA.

Problem Area 2b.  New Uses for Agricultural By-products

Issues

Processing of agricultural crops and products generates millions of tons of low-value by-products annually.  The volume and diversity of agricultural by-products represent an enormous and underutilized renewable resource, which can create adverse environmental and cost impacts through disposal.  By-products may contain numerous bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolics, antioxidants, carotenes, glucosinolates, soluble fiber, and other components beneficial to human and animal health, as well as materials potentially useful for manufacturing biobased products.  New uses for these by-products are needed to increase value and create new market opportunities.  Successful introduction of new crops will depend in part on development of uses for by-product streams. 

Objectives

  • Identify and characterize by-product components for potential value-added products.
  • Convert low value agricultural residues into higher value products.

Planned Research Activities 

Fruits, Vegetables, Tree Nuts, and Sugar Crops

New, cost effective processes will be developed to convert low value, high volume agricultural waste into higher value products such as adsorbents for toxic metals and organic compounds from industrial waste water streams, biodegradable packaging materials, and emulsifiers and viscosifiers for industrial applications.  New processing techniques will be developed using biocatalysts and new chemical and physical methods to generate a wide range of products suitable for industrial uses.  Environmentally friendly products will be developed to replace those made with imported petroleum.

Animal Products:

Hides and leather--Solid wastes from leather tanning will be processed into valuable products using biotechnology. 

Animal fat and other renderer's products--Components will be identified, isolated, and characterized for potential value-added products.  Value-added products from the fermentation of fats and oils will be developed; such products will include biopolymers and surfactants; molecular biology will assist in producing organisms that are efficient in synthesizing the desired products.   

Cereals, Oilseeds, and Novel Crops:

Components of byproducts such as corn fiber, corn gluten meal, soy meal, and rice and bean hulls will be identified, isolated, and characterized.  By-product components of new crops will also be identified and characterized for potential value-added products.  Materials from components will be formulated and developed for use as food ingredients, as well as non-food uses such as films, foams, coatings, and adhesives.

Agricultural Fibers

New uses for ginning coproducts and for by-products of mill processing of cotton will be developed.  Cottonseed and other ginning wastes will be converted into livestock feed, soil amendments, and fuels utilizing commercial and experimental equipment. 

ARS Research Locations

Albany, CA; Athens, GA; Clemson, SC; Las Cruces, NM; Lubbock, TX; New Orleans, LA; Peoria, IL; Winter Haven, FL; and Wyndmoor, PA.

Problem Area 2c.  New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks

Issues

Agricultural materials could be competitive with non-renewable hydrocarbons as feedstocks for the production of chemicals and materials, but significant advances are needed in processing technology and engineering to achieve overall cost competitiveness.  Many current processing and conversion practices for agricultural products are energy intensive and often require harsh or toxic chemical treatments.  They generate large quantities of waste water, solid waste, and/or byproducts requiring treatment and disposal.  Fundamental engineering and scientific understanding of processes and their impact on structure-property-function is often lacking.  Development of new markets and uses will require new processes and knowledge of process impact on properties, functionality, quality, safety, and environment.  New cost effective, environmentally benign processes will be needed to extract, isolate, and purify high value components from agricultural materials.  Domestic production of products such as pectin and casein has been eliminated due to processing constraints, with concomitant loss of jobs and increase in trade deficit.  Successful utilization of new crops requires processing methods for isolating main components and handling coproducts in a cost effective and environmentally benign manner. 

Natural fibers in their native state often lack acceptable washability, dimensional stability, tensile strength, antimicrobial, and photostability properties.  Dyeing and finishing treatments to improve fiber properties can reduce their strength and generate large amounts of waste chemicals.   Difficulties in dyeing blends of wool and cotton to the same color and depth of shade impedes market acceptance.  Efficient utilization of cotton/linen blends will require utilizing short staple flax on cotton processing and spinning systems.

Objectives

  • Develop improved and new techniques and technologies to convert agricultural products into value-added foods and biobased products.
  • Improve/develop processes and technologies that are environmentally benign.

Planned Research Activities 

Fruits, Vegetables, Tree Nuts, and Sugar Crops

Researchers will develop new molding, extrusion, and forming technologies to produce value-added fruit and vegetable products, such as shelf-stable snacks, refrigerated products, and new ingredients for frozen and baked goods.  Scientists will develop new, more efficient methods for bulk storage of brined produce.  They will also develop new methods for the fermentation/acidification/minimal processing/restructuring of vegetables with reduction in chloride and organic wastes.  Time and energy requirements will be reduced for extraction of value added food ingredients, such as pectins, from fruit and sugarbeet processing residues.

Animal Products:

Muscle foods--Value will be added to meat products by combining and optimizing processes such as pressure technologies, restructuring, freeze drying and rehydrating, and marinating.

Dairy foods--Modification of large scale processing technologies needed to create new nutritious dairy foods will be evaluated.  For example, high pressure homogenization offers an opportunity to induce protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions that can stabilize the product against deterioration during storage.  Relationship of the structure of the product matrix to observed textural changes can lead to altered processing parameters.  There is little information available on the effects of thermal and nonthermal extrusion-based processes and other methodologies that induce shear effects of extrusion cooking on dairy ingredients.  Investigation of changes occurring at the molecular level can enhance utilization of dairy components in extruded products, such as seafood analogues and  snack foods.  Production of seafood analogues by extrusion will be conducted and resultant products compared to existing analogues for nutritive value and textural characteristics.  New large-scale processing technologies with minimal environmental impact are required for greater utilization of dairy proteins.  Processes that utilize high pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide will be investigated for component protein separation, protein fractionation, and protein-based reactions.  New processing techniques for dairy proteins will be investigated to expand their utilization in nonfood products.

Hides and leather--New hide preservation methods are needed with less environmental impact, reduced damage during storage, and that target specific hide markets.  Alternative processes, such as bioprocessing for chromium in tanning processes, replacements for sulfide salts used in unhairing, and reduced tannery VOC emissions will be investigated.

Animal fat and other renderer's products--These products will be converted to value-added products by formulating economically feasible separation and extraction techniques to isolate valuable components and by developing biocatalytic, biomimetic, and bioengineering processes.  New foods, food ingredients, nutraceuticals, surfactants, and biopolymers will be obtained by separating, extracting, or restructuring raw materials using physical, biological, or chemical means.  Non-food or industrial uses further expand the range of bio-based products envisaged to include construction materials, polymers, fibers, and derived oleochemicals.  Scientists will also develop processing techniques using supercritical fluids with reduced environmental impact, and correlate processing parameters with properties.  The potential for biochemical methods to impart specific, directed modifications to renderer's proteins, fats and greases will be investigated; moderately high temperature bioengineering processes will be developed that accommodate solid fat feedstocks.

Cereals, Oilseeds, and Novel Crops

Agricultural commodities will be converted to value-added products by formulating economically feasible separation and extraction techniques to isolate valuable components from agricultural materials and potential new crops and by developing biocatalytic, biomimetic, and bioengineering processes.  New foods and food ingredients and bioactive compounds for use as nutraceuticals, preservatives, biopesticides, etc. will be obtained by separating, extracting, or restructuring raw materials using physical, biological, or chemical means.  Non-food or industrial uses further expand the range of bio-based products envisaged to include construction materials, polymers, fibers, derived oleochemicals, and surfactants.  Using the knowledge gained under problem area 2a, plant breeders will target the display of particular end-use traits and environmental stability in the germplasm.  Breeding programs will increase production efficiencies, the concentration and ease of recovery of desirable materials, as well as creating new compositions with novel components.

Scientists will utilize thermomechanical and high shear processing methods such as extrusion and jet cooking to impart unique properties and morphologies and correlate materials properties and morphologies with processing parameters to optimize processes.  They will also develop processing techniques using supercritical fluids with reduced environmental impact, and correlate processing parameters with properties.  Novel nonthermal processes, such as microwave and ohmic heating, will be used to impart physical and chemical changes.  The potential for biochemical methods to effect/induce/cause specific, directed modifications to carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids will be investigated.  Processes will be developed to extract and purify novel components of new and alternative crops with minimal environmental and waste impact.

To reduce the negative impact of excess phosphate from animal manure caused by phytic acid in plant meals, enzyme technologies will be developed to increase the bioavailability of this nutrient. 

Agricultural Fibers

Research will be focused on developing strong, wrinkle-resistant cotton with less chemical waste and on developing methods for evenly dyeing wool/cotton blends.  Techniques for blending wool or flax with cotton will be developed so that the blends can be spun and woven on traditional cotton equipment.  Research will also modify yarn engineering to produce cotton-containing yarns that will provide an abrasion-resistant, smooth warp suitable for sizeless weaving; weaving equipment and conditions will be modified to accommodate 'sizeless' warp for standard fabric constructions.  Formaldehyde-free systems will be developed for crosslinking cotton fabrics and imparting flame resistance to cotton-containing carpets with moderate to no reductions in wear life.  Antimicrobial cottons will be developed and evaluated.  Enzymatic crosslinking of wool will be explored to obviate the use of chemical crosslinking agents.  Tensile properties of wool will be improved, and procedures for covalently bonding dyes, antimicrobials, insect-resisting agents, and photoprotective agents to wool will be developed.  Wool or cotton fiber, yarn, or textiles will be modified using enzymatic treatments to impart dimensional stability, fiber flexibility, and other improved properties.  An economical, environmentally friendly retting system will be developed for flax based on commercial enzymes that produces high quality fibers.

ARS Research Locations

Albany, CA; Athens, GA; Clemson, SC; New Orleans, LA; Peoria, IL; Raleigh, NC; and Wyndmoor, PA.


CRIS Projects
CRIS Projects

CRIS Projects with Primary Effort in National Program 306  (by program component and location)

Component 1.  Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement

Location/Lead Scientist

NP Codes/ Percentage

Research Project Number and Title

Beltsville Area

 

Beltsville, MD

 

 

M. Solomon

NP 306 (70%) NP 108 (30%)

1265-41420-003-00D -- New Technologies to Improve and Assess Meat Quality and Safety

S. Delwiche

NP 306 (100%)

1265-44000-006-00D -- Rapid and Objective Assessment of Quality in Small Grains for Regulation, Bleeding, and Processing

B. Whitaker

NP 306(100%)  

1275-43000-007-00D -- Quality Maintenance and Food Safety of Fresh and Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables

C. Wang

NP 306 (100%)

1275-43440-001-00D -- Quality Maintenance and Evaluation of Fresh Produce

Midwest Area

 

Wooster, OH

 

 

C. Gaines

NP 306 (70%) NP 301 (30%)

3607-43440-00400D -- Genetic Basis for the Biochemical Determinants of Wheat Quality

Peoria, IL

 

 

K. Warner

NP 306 (100%)

3620-44000-044-00D -- Optimizing Flavor Quality and Oxidative Stability of Commodity Vegetable Oils

VACANT

NP 306 (70%) NP 301 (30%)

3620-43000-005-00D -- Coordinated Analysis of Soybean Breeding Germplasm

East Lansing, MI

 

 

G. Hosfield

NP 306 (60%) NP 201 (40%)

3635-21430-005-00D -- Post-Harvest Sanitation of Cucumbers

R. Lu

NP 306 (100%)

3635-43000-003-00D -- Development of Non-Destructive Sensing Technologies to Assess Postharvest...Deciduous Tree Fruits

Madison, WI

 

 

B.Jones

NP 306 (100%)

3655-43440-002-00D -- Research on Malting Quality Improvement in Barley

Pacific West Area

 

Fresno, CA

 

 

J. Smilanick

NP 306 (70%)

NP 303 (30%)

5302-43000-029-00D -- Emerging Technologies to Maintain Postharvest Quality and Control Decay of Fruit Commodities

Albany, CA

 

 

B. Ishida

NP 306 (60%)

NP 301 (40%)

5325-21430-009-00D -- Enhanced Production of High-Value Carotenoids in Tomato

R. Haff

NP 306 (100%)

5325-44000-004-00D -- Sorting Agricultural Materials for Defects and Inclusions Using Imaging and Physical Methods

Pullman, WA

 

 

C. Morris

NP 306 (70%)

NP 301 (30%)

5348-43440-003-00D -- Enhance Wheat Quality and Utilization

Wenatchee, WA

 

 

E. Curry 

NP306 (100%)

5350-43000-003-00D -- Enhance Market Quality, Reduce Postharvest Loss, and Increase Utilization of Deciduous Tree Fruits

Manhattan, KS

 

 

M. Casada

NP 306 (100%)

5430-43440-004-00D -- Improved Handling and Storage Systems for Grain Quality Maintenance and Measurement

T. Pearson

NP 306 (100%)

5430-44000-014-00D -- Objective Grading and End-Use Property Assessment of Single Kernels and Bulk Grain Samples

M. Tilley 

NP 306 (100%)

5430-44000-010-00D -- Characterization of Grain Biochemical Components Responsible for End-Use Quality

S. Bean NP 306 (100%) 5430-44000-012-00D -- New Uses of Grain Sorghum

O. Chung

NP 306 (100%)

5430-44000-013-00D -- Determination and Characterization of Wheat Quality

Fargo, ND

 

 

J. Suttle

NP 306 (60%)

NP 302 (40%)

5442-21430-003-00D -- Improving Potato Market Quality Through Postharvest Physiology

D. Doehlert

NP 306 (70%)

NP 301 (30%)

5442-21440-003-00D -- Oat Quality Improvement for Food, Feed, and Value-Added Appllication

G. Hareland

NP 306 (70%)

NP 301 (30%)

5442-43440-005-00D -- Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Processing and End-Use Quality

M. Glynn

NP 306 (100%)

5442-43440-006-00D -- Evaluation of Processing and Storage Capabilities of New and Established Potato Germplasm

Southern Plains Area

 

Weslaco, TX

 

 

G. Lester

NP 306 (100%)

6204-43000-010-00D -- Mechanisms to Enhance Postharvest Quality and Manage Quarantined Pests of Fruits and Vegetables

Lubbock, TX

 

 

A. Brashears

NP 306 (70%)

NP 305 (30%)

6208-21410-004-00D -- Development of Harvesting and Ginning Processes to Enhance the Textile Utility of Stripper Cotton

Lane, OK

 

 

V. Perkins

NP 306 (100%)

6222-43000-006-00D -- Postharvest Quality, Physiology, and Phytonutrient Content of Vegetables and Small Fruits

Las Cruces, NM

 

 

S. Hughs

NP 306 (70%)
NP 203 (30%)

6235-41440-004-00D -- Develop, Enhance, and Transfer Gin Technology to Improve FiberQuality and Farm Profits

Mid South Area

 

Stoneville, MS

 

 

W. Anthony

NP 306 (100%)

6402-41000-005-00D -- New Technologies in Cotton Ginning to Enhance Fiber Quality and Value

New Orleans, LA

 

 

G. Davidonis

NP 306 (60%)

NP 302 (40%)

6435-21430-002-00D -- Pre-Harvest Environmental Effects on Cotton Fiber Quality

D. Thibodeaux

NP 306 (100%)

6435-44000-066-00D -- Enhanced Cotton Fiber Quality through Improvements in Measurement Technology and Genetic Engineering

A. French

NP 306 (100%)

6435-44000-065-00D -- Structural Sources of Variation in Cotton Fiber Quality

J. Montalvo

NP 306 (100%)

6435-44000-062-00D -- Development of Improved Instrumentation to Measure Cotton Maturity and Fineness

G. Eggleston

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-072-00D -- Losses of Sucrose and Other Sugars During Processing of Sugarbeet and Sugarcane

A. DeLucca 

NP 306 (70%)

NP 303 (30%)

6435-41000-078-00D -- Genetic Up-Regulation of Antifungal Natural Products for Post Harvest Crop Protection

S. Chung

NP 306 (100%)

6435-43440-010-00D -- Peanut Allergenicity as Affected by By End Products During Roasting

C. Grimm

NP 306 (100%)

6435-44000-063-00D -- Crop Sensory Quality:  Basic Understanding and Instrumental Assessment

O. Lamikanra

NP 306 (100%)

6435-44000-064-00D -- Improving the Sensory Quality and Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Fruit Products

K. Robert

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41440-007-00D -- Study of Short Fiber Content, Length Distribution, and Breakage in Cotton Textile Processing

South Atlantic Area

 

Dawson, GA

 

 

C. Butts

NP 306 (100%)  

6604-41430-001-00D -- Improve US Peanut Competitiveness Through Improvements in Measurement Technology and Genetic Engineering

Athens, GA

 

 

S. Nelson

NP 306 (100%)

6612-44000-020-00D -- Sensing Moisture Content and Quality of Grain and Other Agricultural Products by Dielectric Properties

F. Barton

NP 306 (100%)

6612-44000-021-00D -- Spectroscopic Sensors and Multivariate Calibration Methods for Quality Assessment of Commodities

B. Lyon

NP 306 (100%)

6612-44000-018-00D -- Sensory and Physiochemical Property Relationships in Food that Define and Predict End-Use Quality

Winter Haven, FL

 

 

R. Hagenmaier

NP 306 (100%)

6621-41430-004-00D -- Enhancement of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Quality with Edible Coatings and Other Technologies

E. Baldwin

NP 306 (100%)

6621-41440-002-00D -- Enhanced Fruit and Fruit Product Quality Using Analytical/Sensory Methods to Improve Processing

Raleigh, NC

 

 

T. Sanders

NP 306 (100%)

6645-43440-008-00D -- Development and Maintenance of Flavor and Shelf Life in Peanuts

T. Sanders

NP 306 (100%)

6645-43440-006-00D -- Evaluate/Develop Technology for Increased Grading Efficiency, Food Safety, and Quality of Peanuts

T. Sanders

NP 306 (100%)

6645-43440-008-00D -- Development and Maintenance of Flavor and Shelf-Life in Peanuts Through Improved Handling, Processing and Use of Genetic Resources

T. Whitaker

NP 306 (100%)

6645-44000-008-00D -- Improve the Detection of Foreign Material, Genetically Modified Seed, and Mycotoxins in Agricultural Commodities

Clemson, SC

 

 

D. McAlister III

NP 306 (100%)

6655-41440-002-00D -- Fiber Quality Measurements, Processing Efficiency and End Use Quality

Component 2.  New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products

Location/Lead Scientist

NP Codes/ Percentage

Research Project Number and Title

North Atlantic Area

 

Wyndmoor, PA

 

 

H. Farrell

NP 306 (70%)

NP 101 (30%)

1935-31440-002-00D -- Molecular Basis for Improved Milk Protein Based Dairy Products

D. Van Hekken

NP 306 (100%)

1935-41000-051-00D -- Processing Methods for Specialty Cheeses with Unique Functional Properties

C. Onwulata

NP 306 (100%)

1935-41000-052-00D -- New and Improved Processes to Foster Utilization of Milk Components

G. Somkuti

NP 306 (100%)

1935-41000-056-00D -- Development of Lactic Fermentation Bacteria for the Production of Bioactive Food Ingredients

P. Tomasula

NP 306 (100%)

1935-41000-058-00D -- Protein Processing Using High-Pressure Gases and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

M. Fishman

NP 306 (100%)

1935-41000-057-00D -- Sustainable Technologies for Polysaccharide-Based Functional Foods and Biobased Products

T. Foglia

NP 306 (60%)

NP 307 (40%)

1935-41000-060-00D -- New Processes for Obtaining Biofuels and Other Value-Added Products from Agricultural Lipids

D. Solaiman

NP 306 (100%)

1935-41000-061-00D -- Bioconversion of Agricultural Fats, Oils, and Their Derivatives into Value-Added Biopolymers

W. Marmer

NP 306 (100%)

1935-41440-010-00D -- Improving the Production Efficiency, Quality and Durability of Leather

W. Marmer

NP 306 (100%)

1935-41440-012-00D -- Conversion of Proteinaceous Rendering Byproducts into Marketable Materials

E. Brown

NP 306 (100%)

1935-41440-011-00D -- Biocatalytic Methods for Processing of Hides, Leather, and Wool

D. Johnston NP 306 (70%)
NP 307 (30%)
1935-41000-059 -- Enzyme-based Technologies for Milling Grains and Producing Biobased Products and Fuel

Midwest Area

 

Peoria, IL

 

 

A. Hewings

NP 306 (100%)

0500-00035-003-00D -- Biotechnology Research and Development Corporation (BRDC)

M. Berhow NP 306 (100%) 3620-41000-106-00D -- Characterization of Health-Related Phytochemicals From Soy and Other Agricultural Crops

S. Erhan

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-101-00D -- Chemical Systems for the Conversion of Vegetable Oils to Industrial Products

G. List

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-081-00D -- Functionality, Structure, and Quality Interactions in Food Oil Systems

J. Lawton

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-105-00D -- Chemistry and Processing of Cereal and Soy Based Co-Products for Nonfood Utilization

J. Lawton

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-107-00D -- Characterization and Optimization of Adhesion in Starch-Polymer Composites

R. Shogren 

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-088-00D -- Modification of Natural Polymers by Thermo-Mechanical Processing

J. Willett

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-104-00D -- Biochemical Modification and Degradation of Biobased Materials

G. Inglett

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-103-00D -- Heart Healthy Foods:  Enzymatic and Physical Modifications of Carbohydrates

G. Fanta

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-089-00D -- Preparation, Properties, and Commercial Applications of Starch-Lipid Composites (Fantesk)

A.Mohamed 

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41440-017-00D -- Development of Value-Added Products from Seed Proteins:   Rheological Properties, Performance

C. Carriere

NP 306 (100%)

3620-44000-046-00D -- Rheological and Interfacial Properties of Bio-Based Materials and Food Products

G. Cote

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-093-00D -- Novel Carbohydrate-Based Materials via Bioconversion Processes

C. Skory

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-080-00D -- Conversion of Renewable Materials into Bioproducts through Fungal, Enzymatic, and Plant Technologies

C. Hou

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-095-00D -- Biocatalytic Processes for Converting Soybean Oil to Value-Added Industrial Products

F. Eller

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-102-00D -- Green Chemistry for Oilseed Extraction

T. Isbell

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-092-00D -- New Crops for Industrial Products

J. Laszlo

NP 306 (100%)

3620-41000-100-00D -- Biocatalytic Transformation of Plant Lipids in Unconventional Fluids

Madison, WI

 

 

P. Weimer NP 306 (60%)
NP 307 (40%)
3655-41000-003-00D -- Value Added Products from Plant Materials

D. Peterson

NP 306 (60%)
NP 302 (40%)

3655-21000-031-00D -- Improving the Nutrient and Phytonutrient Status of  Oats and Barley

Pacific West Area

 

Albany, CA

 

 

G. Glenn

NP 306 (70%)
NP 307 (30%)

5325-41000-039-00D -- Development of Biopolymer Composites for Industrial and Food Applications

G. Takeoka

NP 306 (60%)

NP 304 (40%)

5325-41000-036-00D -- Control of Nutritional and Sensory Properties of New Extruded Foods from Grain and Legumes

W. Yokoyama 

NP 306 (100%)

5325-41440-003-00D -- Enhancing Functional and Health Promoting Properties of  Grains and Cereal Plants through Processing

T. McKeon

NP 306 (100%)

5325-21000-006-00D -- Technology to Enhance Soybean Oil for Food and Non Food Uses

T. McHugh

NP 306 (100%)

5325-41000-038-00D -- Improved Utilization of Fruits and Vegetables as Formed and Restructured Products

G. Robertson

NP 306 (100%)

5325-41000-037-00D -- Enabling Technologies for Wheat Starch and Protein Separation, Drying, and Utilization

G. Manners

NP 306 (70%)

NP 107 (30%)

5325-41430-008-00D -- Citrus Quality Improvement and Improved Processed By-Product Utilization

K. Cornish NP 306 (70%)
NP 302 (30%)
5325-41000-040-00D -- Biotechnological Development of Domestic Natural Rubber-Producing Industrial Crops

Mid South Area

 

Oxford, MS

 

 

D. Wedge

NP 306 (60%)

NP 106 (40%)

6408-23430-001-00D -- Discovery of Natural Products for Control of Microbial Pests and Diseases in Agriculture

M. Tellez

NP 306 (70%)

NP 302 (30%)

6408-41000-002-00D -- Chemistry of Natural Products for Pest Management

New Orleans, LA

 

 

N. Sachinvala 

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-081-00D -- Polymer Modified Cotton and Cotton Composites

W. Marshall

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-084-00D -- Agricultural By-Products as Adsorbents for Environmental Remediation

A. Pepperman

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-083-00D --Enzymatic Processes for Increasing Industrial Utilization of Vegetable Oils

P. Wan

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-082-00D -- Development of Processes to Improve Oilseed Utilization

E. Mullaney

NP 306 (70%)

NP 201 (30%)

6435-13410-002-00D -- Development of an Enzyme-Based Technology to Reduce Phosphate Pollution of the...in Plants

E. Champagne

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-073-00D -- Capturing the Unique Nutritional and Functional Properties of Rice in Value-Added Products

M. Dowd

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-075-00D -- Development of Environmentally Acceptable Technologies for Processing Corn

E. Blanchard

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41430-003-00D -- Improved Cotton Textile Performance and Processing Systems 

D. Parikh

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-070-00D -- Nonwoven Fabrics/ Composites from Cotton and Other Natural Fibers

A. Sawhney

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-076-00D -- Development of Technology for Weaving Sizeless Cotton Warps on Modern High Speed Weaving Machines

L. Kimmel

NP 306 (100%)

6435-41000-077-00D -- Improved Methods for the Production of Superior Textiles from Naturally Colored Cotton

J. Edwards NP 306 (100%) 6435-41000-086-00D -- Improved Performance and Novel Properties Vila Biochemical Modificaiton of Cotton Fabric as Medical Textiles

South Atlantic Area

 

Athens, GA

 

 

D. Akin

NP 306 (100%)

6612-44000-019-00D -- Value-Added, Biobased Products Through Microbial Treatments

Winter Haven, FL

 

 

J. Manthey 

NP 306 (100%)

6621-41000-010-00D -- Recovery of Value-Added Products from Citrus Processing Waste

Raleigh, NC

 

 

H. Fleming

NP 306 (70%)

NP 108 (30%)

6645-41420-002-00D -- Food Safety, Waste Minimization, and Value Enhancement of Fermented and Lightly Processed Vegetables

CRIS Projects with Secondary Effort in National Program 306 (by program component and location)

Component 1.  Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement

Location/Lead Scientist

NP Codes/ Percentage

Research Project Number and Title

Beltsville Area

 

 

Beltsville, MD

 

 

W. Conway

NP 306 (40%)

NP 303 (60%)

1275-42430-008-00D -- Control Strategies to Reduce Postharvest Decay of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

North Atlantic Area

 

 

Kearneysville, WV

 

 

D. Peterson

NP 306 (40%)

NP 305 (60%)

1931-21440-002-00DHarvest Mechanization for Tree Fruits and Automated Sorting Systems for Apples

Wyndmoor, PA

 

 

P. Tomasula

NP 306 (40%)

NP 103 (60%)

1935-41000-062-00D - Biosecurity of Milk from the Farm to the Dairy Processing Plant

Midwest Area

 

 

Madison, WI

 

 

D. Peterson

NP 306 (40%)

NP 302 (60%)

3655-21000-031-00D -- Improving the Nutrient and Phytonutrient Status of Oats and Barley

Pacific West Area

 

 

Albany, CA

 

 

A. Blechl

NP 306 (30%)

NP 302 (70%)

5325-21430-006-00D -- Production of Germplasm and Molecular Resources for Wheat Improvement

W. Hurkman

NP 306 (40%

NP 302 (60%)

5325-43000-025-00D -- Molecular Analysis of Environmental Effects on Wheat Grain Development, Productivity and Quality

Wenatchee, WA

 

 

R. Roberts

NP 306 (40%)

NP 303 (60%)

5350-22000-009-00D -- Biology and Systematics of Microorganisms that Affect Tree Fruit Marketability

Aberdeen, ID

 

 

V. Raboy

NP 306 (40%)

NP 301 (60%)

5366-21000-019-00D -- Grain Quality Genetics

Northern Plains Area

 

 

Lincoln, NE

 

 

R. Graybosch

NP 306 (40%)

NP 301 (60%)

5440-21000-023-00D -- Genetic Improvement and Evaluation of Winter Wheat and Oats

J.  Pedersen

NP 306 (30%)

NP 301 (70%)

5440-21220-024-00D -- Genetic Improvement of Sorghum for Feed Quality and Agronomic Fitness

Southern Plains Area

 

 

Lane, Oklahoma

 

 

B. Bruton

NP 306 (40%)

NP 303 (60%)

6222-22430-001-00D -- Management Systems for Control of Preharvest and Postharvest Diseases of Cucurbits

Mid South Area

 

 

New Orleans, LA

 

 

B. Triplett

NP 306 (30%)

NP 302 (70%)

6435-21440-002-00D -- Molecular Analysis of Development to Improve Cotton Fiber

B. Hurlburt

NP 306 (30%)

NP 106 (70%)

6435-43440-040-00D -- Mitigation of Off-Flavors in Catfish Aquaculture Systems

South Atlantic Area

 

 

Dawson, GA

 

 

M. Lamb

NP 306 (30%)

NP 207 (70%)

6604-64000-004-00D -- Develop Systems Technology for Economic Peanut Production

Athens, GA

 

 

C. Lyon

NP 306 (40%)

NP 108 (60%)

6612-41420-008-00D -- Effects of Processing Treatments on Safety and Quality of Raw and Cooked Poultry Products

Component 2.  New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products

Location/Lead Scientist

NP Codes/ Percentage

Research Project Number and Title

North Atlantic Area 

 

 

Ithaca, NY

 

 

D. Gibson

NP 306 (40%)

NP 301 (60%)

1907-22410-002-00D -- Microbial and Plant Genetic Resources for Biological Control and High-Value Uses

Wyndmoor, PA

 

 

R. Moreau

NP 306 (40%)

NP 307 (60%)

New Biobased Products to Increase Demand for Grains

K. Hicks

NP 306 (30%)

NP 307 (70%)

1935-41000-055-00D -- Improving the Economic Competitiveness of Ethanol Production

M. Kozempel

NP 306 (30%)

NP 108 (70%)

1935-41420-008-00D -- Development of Gentle Intervention Processes to Enhance the Safety of Heat Sensitive Food

Midwest Area

 

 

Peoria, IL

 

 

M. Jackson

NP 306 (30%)

NP 304 (70%)

3620-22410-004-00D -- Production and Stabilization of Living Microbial Agents

D. Labeda

NP 306 (40%)

NP 301 (60%)

3620-22410-005-00D -- Development and Characterization of the ARS Microbial Germplasm Collection

D. Schisler

NP 306 (40%)

NP 303 (60%

3620-22410-006-00D -- Mass Production and Formulation of Bacterial Antagonists of Fungal Root and Tuber Diseases

B. Dien

NP 306 (40%)

NP 307 (60%)

3620-41000-084-00D -- Bioprocess and Metabolic Engineering Technologies for Biofuels and Value-Added Coproducts

S. Erhan

NP 306 (30%)

NP 307 (70%)

3620-41000-087-00D -- Vegetable Oil-Based Alternative diesel Fuels, Extenders, and Additives

P. Slininger

NP 306 (30%)

NP 307 (70%)

3620-41000-096-00D -- Stress-Tolerant Microbes for Lower Cost Production of Bioenergy and Bioproducts

B. Saha

NP 306 (30%)

NP 307 (70%)

3620-41000-097-00D -- Bioprocess Engineering to Convert Biomass to Biofuel

Vacant

NP 306 (30%)

NP 307 (70%)

3620-41000-098-00D -- Biocatalysts to Produce Biofuels

Pacific West Area

 

 

Albany, CA

 

 

D. Wong

NP 306 (40%)

NP 307 (60%)

5325-41000-035-00D -- Conversion of Crops to Products with Higher Added Value Through Directed Molecular Evolution

W. Riedell

NP 306 (40%)

NP 307 (60%)

5447-41000-001-00D - Fiber Extrusion to Improve Use and Production of Ethanol Byproducts


Last Modified: 10/7/2008