A thorough understanding of the habits of harmful arthropods is basic to the success of the other three components of NP 104. These are predominately observational and experimental studies done in the field by biologists trying to understand whole populations and their interaction with livestock or humans. It is essential to know, for example, not only which mosquitoes are capable of transmitting West Nile virus but which species are in fact responsible for transmission to horses and humans, where they breed and when they bite. It is only with that information that surveillance and control will be effective. How invasive species compete for local ecological niches influences control strategies. For example, the diversity of native ant species is diminished when fire ants invade and control efforts aimed at fire ants should leave the environment suitable for recolonization of native ants. The underground colonizing behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite is poorly understood, making the placement of toxic baits inefficient.
1.1 Identify Aspects of Arthropod Behavior Vulnerable to Control.
1.1.1 Characterize the oviposition behavior of mosquitoes and midges and isolate environmental factors that attract or repel. (MFRU)
1.1.2 Determine the dispersal patterns, breeding habits and host attractions of horn flies, house flies and stable flies that may be useful in devising control strategies. (MLIRU; KBLIRL; MFRU)
1.1.3 Characterize the colonization behavior of Formosan termites and fire ants, and hybridization of invasive ants with native species. (FARU; FSTRU)
1.1.4 Perform and categorize genetic profiles and behavior of New World screwworm in South America and the Carribean in support of potential eradication efforts by APHIS. (SRU)
1.2.1 Determine the role of species biology and population genetics in the transmission of arboviruses. (ABADRL; MFRU)
1.2.2 Determine the role played by filth-breeding flies in the epidemiology of bacterial diseases in livestock and humans. (MLIRU; MFRU)
1.2.3 Determine the role ticks play in the transmission of Lyme disease in cattle and of other pathogens in animals and humans. (APDL; KBLIRL)
1.2.4 Determine the role played by screwworm in the transmission of foot and mouth disease and other viral pathogens of livestock. (SRU)