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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

STEPHEN T. LEE

Research Chemist


Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Studies on the teratogenicity of anabasine in a rat model - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Knoppel, E.L., Green, B.T., Hammond, C.K., Hammond, Z.J., Pfister, J.A. 2014. Studies on the teratogenicity of anabasine in a rat model. Toxicon. 87: 32-7.
Detection of toxic monofluoroacetate in Palicourea species - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Taylor, C.M., Bassuner, B., Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R. 2014. Detection of toxic monofluoroacetate in Palicourea species. Toxicon. 80: 9-16.
Identification of the quinolizidine alkaloids in Sophora leachiana Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J. 2014. Identification of the quinolizidine alkaloids in Sophora leachiana. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 54: 1-4.
Plant alkaloids that cause developmental defects through the disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E. 2013. Plant alkaloids that cause developmental defects through the disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews. 99: 235-46.
Physiological and serum biochemical changes associated with rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Davis, T.Z., Green, B.T., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A. 2013. Physiological and serum biochemical changes associated with rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats. Toxicon. 76: 247-54.
Plant toxins that affect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: A review - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T. 2013. Plant toxins that affect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: A review. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 26(8): 1129-38.
Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Davis, T.Z., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Hall, J.O. 2013. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses. Toxicon. 73: 88-95.
A toxicokinetic comparison of two species of low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T. 2013. A toxicokinetic comparison of two species of low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle. Research in Veterinary Science. 95(2): 612-5.
Piperidine, pyridine alkaloid inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2013. Piperidine, pyridine alkaloid inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 58:8-13.
Alkaloid profiles of Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophllum gypsophilum, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Styphnolobium affine, and Styphnolobium japonicum previously classified as Sophora species Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R. 2013. Alkaloid profiles of Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophllum gypsophilum, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Styphnolobium affine, and Styphnolobium japonicum previously classified as Sophora species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 49:87-93.
Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of y-Coniceine and N-Methylconiine enantiomers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Jordan, G.T., Zhang, Q., Panter, K.E., Hughes, D., Cheng-Wei, T.C., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R. 2013. Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of y-Coniceine and N-Methylconiine enantiomers. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 23:616-21.
Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia (Macagnia) septentrionalis in goats - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Duarte, A.L., Medeiros, R.M., Carvalho, F.K., Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Costa, V.M., Riet-Correa, F. 2014. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia (Macagnia) septentrionalis in goats. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 34(2): 220-3.
The alkaloid profiles of Sophora nuttalliana and Sophora stenophylla - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J., Marcolongo-Pereira, C., Stonecipher, C.A., Gardner, D.R. 2013. The alkaloid profiles of Sophora nuttalliana and Sophora stenophylla. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 48: 58-64.
Fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells, and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2013. Fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells, and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 344:1-13.
Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum from the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gao, X., Cook, D., Ralphs, M., Yan, L., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Han, B., Zhao, M. 2012. Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum from the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 45: 79-85.
Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum form the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (01-Jul-12)
Detection of monofluoroacetate in Palicourea and Amorimia species Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J.A., Anderson, W.R., Lima, F.G., Gardner, D.R. 2012. Detection of monofluoroacetate in Palicourea and Amorimia species. Toxicon. 60(5): 791-6.
The resolution of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (31-May-12)
Veratrum-induced placental dysplasia in sheep - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Cook, D. 2012. Veratrum-induced placental dysplasia in sheep. International Journal of Poisonous Plant Research. 2:54-62.
Evaluation of drying methods and toxicity of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in goats - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Davis, T.Z., Cook, D., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2012. Evaluation of drying methods and toxicity of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in goats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(19): 4849-53.
Development of a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the hedgehog inhibitors cyclopamine and cyclopamine-KAAD - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Zhang, J., Change, C.T. 2012. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the hedgehog inhibitors cyclopamine and cyclopamine-KAAD. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 66: 282-6.
Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Brown, D.R. 2012. Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 50(6): 2049-55.
A pharmacodynamic comparison of piperidine and pyridine alkaloid actions at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) Reprint Icon - (Abstract Only)
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E. 2012. A pharmacodynamic comparison of piperidine and pyridine alkaloid actions at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Experimental Biology. 26: 1048.6.
Poisonous Plants of the United States Reprint Icon - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Davis, T.Z., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2012. Poisonous Plants of the United States. In: Guptra, R.C., editor. Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles. 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Academic Press. p. 1031-79.
Benzofuran ketone dosage-dependent rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in a caprine model - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (19-Jul-11)
Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Stonecipher, C.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Panter, K.E. 2011. Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus. Phytochemical Analysis. 23(3): 278-84.
Relative feeding and development of armyworm, Mythimna (Pseudaletia) unipuncta (Haworth), on switchgrass and corn, and its potential effects on switchgrass grown for biomass - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Prasifka, J.R., Bradshaw, J.D., Lee, S.T., Gray, M.E. 2011. Relative feeding and development of armyworm, Mythimna (Pseudaletia) unipuncta (Haworth), on switchgrass and corn, and its potential effects on switchgrass grown for biomass. Journal of Economic Entomology. 104(5): 1561-7.
Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique to diagnose white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) poisoning in a cow - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Meyerholtz, K.A., Burcham, G.N., Miller, M.A., Wilson, C.R., Hooser, S.B., Lee, S.T. 2011. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique to diagnose white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) poisoning in a cow. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 23:775-9.
Detection of high levels of pyrrolizidine-N-oxides in the endangered plant cryptantha crassipes (Terlingua creek cat's-eye)using HPLC-ESI-MS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Williams, M.T., Warnock, B.J., Betz, J.M., Beck, J.J., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Colegate, S.M. 2011. Detection of high levels of pyrrolizidine-N-oxides in the endangered plant cryptantha crassipes (Terlingua creek cat's-eye)using HPLC-ESI-MS. Phytochemical Analysis. 22(3): 532-540
Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Motteram, E.S. 2011. Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine. Professional Animal Scientist. 27(2):101-8.
Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus - (Book / Chapter)
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z., Panter, K.E. 2011. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus and Lupinus leucophyllus. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 97:566-71.
Tremetone and structurally related compounds in white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima): A plant associated with trembles and milk sickness - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R., Colegate, S.M., Cook, D., Green, B.T., Meyerholtz, K.A., Wilson, C.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Evans, T.J. 2010. Tremetone and structurally related compounds in white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima): A plant associated with trembles and milk sickness. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(15):8560-65. DOI: 10.1021/jf1012456.
Distribution of Delphinium occidentale chemotypes and their potential toxicity - (Book / Chapter)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Lee, S.T. 2011. Distribution of Delphinium occidentale chemotypes and their potential toxicity. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. p. 606-11.
Determination of the relative toxicity of enantiomers with cell-based assays - (Book / Chapter)
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Kem, W. 2011. Determination of the relative toxicity of enantiomers with cell-based assays. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 100:581-7.
Measurement of steroidal saponins in Panicum and Brachiaria grasses in the USA and Brazil - (Book / Chapter)
Lee, S.T., Mitchell, R., Gardner, D.R., Tokarnia, C.H., Riet-Correa, F. 2011. Measurement of steroidal saponins in Panicum and Brachiaria grasses in the USA and Brazil. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge,MA. CAB International. 20:142-4.
The physiological effects and toxicokinetics of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) alkaloids in cattle - (Book / Chapter)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E. 2011. The physiological effects and toxicokinetics of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) alkaloids in cattle. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. p. 557-65.
The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reprint Icon - (Abstract Only)
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Kem, W.R. 2010. The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Experimental Biology.
Experimemntal Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) Toxicosis in Goats - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Hall, J.O. 2010. Experimemntal Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) Toxicosis in Goats. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22:570-577.
Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Ralphs, M.H., Davis, T.Z., Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D. 2011. Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 36:236-42.
Dose-response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep - (Book / Chapter)
Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Cook, D. 2011. Dose-Response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 37:243-50.
Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z. 2010. Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time. Rangelands. 32(2):14-7.
Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Kem, W.R. 2010. Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 32:383-390. Published online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2010.01.011
The comparative pathology of locoweed poisoning in horses and other livestock - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Panter, K.E. 2011. The comparative pathology of locoweed poisoning in horses and other livestock. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 48:309-10.
Colic Caused by Panicum maximum Toxicosis in Equidae in Northern Brazil - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cerqueira, V.D., Riet-Correa, G., Barbosa, J.D., Duarte, M.D., Oliveira, C.M., De Oliverira, C.A., Tokarnia, C., Lee, S.T., Riet-Correa, F. 2009. Colic Caused by Panicum maximum Toxicosis in Equidae in Northern Brazil. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 21:882-888
The Biogeographical Distribution of Duncecap Larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) Chemotypes and Their Potential Toxicity Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Lee, S.T. 2009. The Biogeographical Distribution of Duncecap Larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) Chemotypes and Their Potential Toxicity. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35:6443-652
A Quantitative Method for the Measurement of Three Benzofuran Ketones in Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and White Snakeroot (Ageratine altissima) by HPLC - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Evans, T.J. 2009. A Quantitative Method for the Measurement of Three Benzofuran Ketones in Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and White Snakeroot (Ageratine altissima) by HPLC. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57(12):5639-5642
Cyclopamine-induced Synophthalmia in Sheep: Defining a Critical Window and Toxicokinetic Evaluation Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Cook, D. 2009. Cyclopamine-induced Synophthalmia in Sheep: Defining a Critical Window and Toxicokinetic Evaluation. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 29:414-421. (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/jat.1427
Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Steroidal Saponins in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Mitchell, R., Wang, Z., Heiss, C., Gardner, D.R., Azadi, P. 2009. Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Steroidal Saponins in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57(6):2599-2604. DOI: 10.1021/jf803907y
Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gay, C., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Motteram, E., Cook, D., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z. 2008. Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years. Rangelands. 30(6): 13-8.
Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Davis, T.Z., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E. 2009. Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands. Rangelands. 31(1):38-44 DOI:10.2111/1551-501X-31.1.38
Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Panter, K.E., Motteram, E., Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Platt, T.E., Gay, C.C. 2009. Cooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State. Rangelands 31(1):10-15. http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.2111/1551-501X-31.1.45?
Value of Plant Diversity for Diet Mixing and Sequencing in Herbivores Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Provenza, F.D., Villalba, J.J., Wiedmeier, R.W., Layman, T., Owens, J., Lisonbee, L., Clemensen, A., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T. 2009. Value of Plant Diversity for Diet Mixing and Sequencing in Herbivores. Rangelands. 31(1):45-49. DOI:10.2111/1551-501X-31.1.45
The Alkaloid Profiles of Lupinus sulphureus Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z., Panter, K.E. 2009. The Alkaloid Profiles of Lupinus sulphureus. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 57(4):1646-1653.
Serum Elimination Profiles of Methyllycaconitine and Deltaline in Cattle Following Oral Administration of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2009. Serum Elimination Profiles of Methyllycaconitine and Deltaline in Cattle Following Oral Administration of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 70(7):926-931.
Steroselective Potencies and Relative Toxicities of Coniine Enantiomers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2008. Steroselective Potencies and Relative Toxicities of Coniine Enantiomers. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 21(10): 2061-2064. DOI 10.1021/tx800229w
Effects of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) on Heart Rate and Electrically Evoked Electromyographic Response of the External Anal Sphincter in Cattle. Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Welch, K.D., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Knoppel, E.L., Panter, K.E. 2009. Effects of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) on Heart Rate and Electrically Evoked Electromyographic Response of the External Anal Sphincter in Cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 70(4):539-546
The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease. Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Welch, K.D. 2008. The Effect of Body Condition on Serum Concentrations of Two Teratogenic Alkaloids (Anagyrine and Ammodendrine) From Lupines (Lupinus spp.) That Cause Crooked Calf Disease. Journal of Animal Science. 86:2771-2778 doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0610.
Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Chang, C.T., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J. 2008. Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs. Phytochemical Analysis, 19:395-402. DOI: 10.1002/pca.1064.
Effects of Experience and Lactation on Lupine Consumption by Cattle - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pfister, J.A., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Motteram, E.S., Gay, C. 2008. Effects of Experience and Lactation on Lupine Consumption by Cattle. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61:240-244 March 2008
Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H., Motteram, E.S., Pfister, J.A., Gay, C. 2007. Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Web release 11/27/2007 Article DOI: 10.1021/jf0723110 Journal releae Volume 55, Number 26, pp. 10649-10655.
Phytochemicals: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly? - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Molyneux, R.J., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., James, L.F. 2007. Phytochemicals: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly?. Phytochemistry.68(22-24):2973-2985.
Separation Of Enantiomeric Mixtures Of Alkaloids And Their Biological Evaluation Reprint Icon - (Book / Chapter)
Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E. 2007. Separation Of Enantiomeric Mixtures Of Alkaloids And Their Biological Evaluation. In: Bioactive Natural Products: Detection, Isolation, and Structural Determination, Second Edition, ISBN: 9780849372582, ISBN: 0849372585, Chpt. 7, pp. 209-219.
Important poisonous plants of the United States - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F. 2007. Important poisonous plants of the United States. Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, Chpt. 66 pp. 825-872.
Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R. 2006. Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 33:75-84
Heliotropium Europaeum Alkaloids: a Quaternary Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Approach to Elisa Development Reprint Icon - (Book / Chapter)
Lee, S.T., Knill, A., Michalewicz, A., Stevens, V., Colegate, S.M. 2007. Heliotropium europaeum alkaloids: a quaternary pyrrolizidine alkaloid approach to elisa development. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions,Chpt 81, pp. 476-480.
Separation and Isolation of Teratogenic Piperidine Enantiomers from Nicotiana and Lupinus Species - (Book / Chapter)
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Chang, C.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Separation and isolation of teratogenic piperidine enantiomers from nicotiana and lupinus species. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 80, pp. 469 - 475.
N-Alkylated Derivatives of Swainsonine - (Book / Chapter)
Garrossian, M., Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R. 2007. N-alkylated derivatives of swainsonine. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 84, pp. 492 - 497.
The Comparative Pathology of Locoweed Poisoning in Livestock, Wildlife and Rodents - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. The comparative pathology of locoweed poisoning in livestock, wildlife and rodents. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions. Chpt. 61, pp. 359 - 365.
Effects of experience and lactation on lupine consumption by cattle - (Book / Chapter)
Pfister, J.A., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Motteram, E.S., Gay, C.C. 2007. Effects of experience and lactation on lupine consumption by cattle. Poisonous Plants Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 68, pp. 407 - 410.
The Effects of Vaccination on Riddelliine Toxicity in Rats - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. The effects of vaccination on riddelliine toxicity in rats. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 15, pp. 89 - 93.
Cutleaf Nightshade (Solanum Triflorumm NUTT.) Toxicity in Horses and Hamsters - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Cutleaf nightshade (solanum triflorumm nutt.) toxicity in horses and hamsters. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 50, pp. 296 - 300.
Pheasant's Eye (Adonis Aestavalis) Toxicity in Livestock and Rodents - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Hall, J.O., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Pheasant's eye (adonis aestavalis) toxicity in livestock and rodents. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions. Chpt. 79, pp. 463 - 468.
Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) Toxicity in Rodents, Sheep, Goats and Horses - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Elmore, S.A., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Switchgrass (panicum virgatum) toxicity in rodents, sheep, goats and horses. Poisonous Plants Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 19,pp. 113 - 117.
Cattle Grazeing Velvet Lupine (Lupinus Leucophyllus): Influence of Associated Forages, Alkaloid Levels and Population Cycles Reprint Icon - (Book / Chapter)
Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E., Gay, C., Motteram, E., Lee, S.T. 2007. Cattle grazeing velvet lupine (lupinus leucophyllus): influence of associated forages, alkaloid levels and population cycles. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 67, pp. 401-406
Research on Lupine-Induced "Crooked Calf Disease" at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: Past, Present and Future - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Wierenga, T.L., Gay, C., Motteram, E., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2007. Research on Lupine-Induced "Crooked Calf Disease" at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: Past, Present and Future. Poisonous Plants Global Research and Solutions. Chpt. 10, pp. 58 - 65.
Relative Toxicities and Neuromuscular Nicotinic Receptor Agonistic Potencies of Anabasine Enantiomers and Anabaseine - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Wildeboer, K., Panter, K.E., Kem, W., Gardner, D.R., Molyneux, R.J., Chang, C.T., Soti, F., Pfister, J.A. 2006. Relative toxicities and neuromuscular nicotinic receptor agonistic potencies of anabasine enantiomers and anabaseine. Neurotoxicology and Teratology.
Cattle Consumption of Velvet Lupine (Lupinus Leucophyllus) in the Channel Scablands of Eastern Washington - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E., Motteram, E., Lee, S.T. 2006. Cattle consumption of velvet lupine (lupinus leucophyllus) in the channel scablands of eastern washington. Rangeland Ecology and Management. 59:204-207.
Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea) Induced Lesions in Mule Deer (Odocoileius Hemionus) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Spraker, T.R. 2005. LOCOWEED (OXYTROPIS SERICEA) INDUCED LESIONS IN MULE DEER (ODOCOILEIUS HEMIONUS). Veterinary Pathology. 42(5): 566-78.
Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea)-Induced Lesions in Mule Deer (Odocoileius Hemionus) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Spraker, T.R. 2005. Locoweed (oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (odocoileius hemionus). Veterinary Pathology 42:566-578.
Ammodendrine and N-Methylammodendrine Enantiomers: Isolation, Optical Rotation, and Toxicity - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E., Chang, C.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Garrossian, M. 2005. Ammodendrine and n-methylammodendrine enantiomers: isolation, optical rotation, and toxicity. Journal of Natural Products.
Solid-Phase Extraction and Hplc-Ms Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their N-Oxides: a Case Study of Echium Plantagineum - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Colegate, S.M., Edgar, J.A., Knill, A.M., Lee, S.T. 2005. Solid-phase extraction and hplc-ms profiling of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their n-oxides: a case study of echium plantagineum. Phytochemical Analysis.
Solid-phase extraction and HPLC-MS profiling of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their n-oxides: A case study of echium plantagineum - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Colegate, S.M., Edgar, J.A., Knill, A.M., Lee, S.T. 2005. Solid-phase extraction and HPLC-MS profiling of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their n-oxides: A case study of echium plantagineum. Phytochemical Analysis. 16(2):108-119.
Structure-Activity Relationships of Ammodendrine and N-Methyl Ammodendrine Enantiomers: Isolation, Optical Rotation, and Toxicity - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E., Chang, C., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Garrossian, M. 2005. Structure-activity relationships of ammodendrine and n-methyl ammodendrine enantiomers: isolation, optical rotation, and toxicity. Journal of Natural Products.
Characterization of Steroidal Sapogenins in Panicum Virgatum L. (Switchgrass) - (Proceedings)
Lee, S.T., Stegelmeier, B.L., Gardner, D.R., Vogel, K.P. 2003. Characterization of steroidal sapogenins in panicum virgatum l. (switchgrass). Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
The Detection and Estimation of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Plants and Feeds Using An Elisa - (Proceedings)
Lee, S.T., Schoch, T.K., Stegelmeier, B.L., Gardner, D.R., Than, K.A., Molyneux, R.J. 2003. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid measurement in plants, feeds, and food supplies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
The Clinical and Morphological Changes of Intermittent Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea) Poisoning in Sheep - (Proceedings)
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2003. The clinical and morphological changes of intermittent locoweed (oxytropis sericea) poisoning in sheep. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
Toxicity of a Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Riddelliine, in Neonatal Pigs - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R., Schoch, T.K., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2003. Toxicity of a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, riddelliine, in neonatal pigs. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Isocupressic Acid and Serum Metabolites of Isocupressic Acid - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., GARDNER, D.R., GARROSSIAN, M., PANTER, K.E., SERREQI, A.N., SCHOCH, T.K., WIERENGA, T.L. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR ISOCUPRESSIC ACID AND SERUM METABOLITES OF ISOCUPRESSIC ACID. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2003.
Preparative Isolation of Swainsonine from Locoweed: Extraction and Purification Procedures - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
GARDNER, D.R., LEE, S.T., MOLYNEUX, R.J., EDGAR, J.A. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION OF SWAINSONINE FROM LOCOWEEDS: EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION PROCEDURES. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 2003.
Development of An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Veratrum Plant Teratogens: Cyclopamine and Jervine - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., PANTER, K.E., GAFFIELD JR, W.P., STEGELMEIER, B.L. DEVEELOPMENT OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE PLANT TERATOGENS CYCLOPAMINE AND JERVINE. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2003.
Evaluation of Vaccination Against Methyllycaconitine Toxicity in Mice Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., STEGELMEIER, B.L., PANTER, K.E., PFISTER, J.A., GARDNER, D.R., SCHOCH, T.K., JAMES, L.F. EVALUATION OF ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION AGAINST METHYLLYCACONITINE TOXICITY IN MICE. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE 2003, 81:232-238.
Evaluation of Vaccination Against Methyllycaconitine Toxicity in Mice - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Stegelmeier, B.L., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Schoch, T.K., James, L.F. 2003. Evaluation of vaccination against methyyllycaconitine toxicity in mice. Journal of Animal Science.
The Isolation and Identification of Steroidal Sapogenins in Switchgrass - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., STEGELMEIER, B.L., GARDNER, D.R., VOGEL, K.P. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STEROIDAL SAPOGENINS IN SWITCHGRASS. JOURNAL OF NATURAL TOXINS. 2001.
Reproductive Losses to Poisonous Plants: Influence of Management Strategies - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PANTER, K.E., JAMES, L.F., GARDNER, D.R., RALPHS, M.H., PFISTER, J.A., STEGELMEIER, B.L., LEE, S.T. REPRODUCTIVE LOSSES TO POISONOUS PLANTS: INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES. JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT. 2002.
Larkspur Poisoning: Toxicology and Alkaloid Structure-Activity Relationships - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PANTER, K.E., MANNERS, G.D., JAMES, L.F., GARDNER, D.R., RALPHS, M.H., PFISTER, J.A., STEGELMEIER, B.L., LEE, S.T. LARKSPUR POISONING: TOXICOLOGY AND ALKALOID STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS. BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGY. 2002.
Management of Three Toxic Delphinium Species Based on Alkaloid Concentrations - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PFISTER, J.A., RALPHS, M.H., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L., MANNERS, G.D., PANTER, K.E., LEE, S.T. MANAGEMENT OF THREE TOXIC DELPHINIUM SPECIES BASED ON ALKALOID CONCENTRATIONS. BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGY. 2002.
Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Hepatotoxic Alkaloids Riddelliine and Riddelliine N-Oxide - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., SCHOCH, T.K., STEGELMEIER, B.L., GARDNER, D.R., THAN, K.A., MOLYNEUX, R.J. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR THE HEPATOTOXIC ALKALOIDS RIDDELLIINE AND RIDDELLIINE N-OXIDE. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2001.
Alkaloids As Anti-Quality Factors in Plants on Western U.S. Rangelands - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PFISTER, J.A., PANTER, K.E., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L., RALPHS, M.H., MOLYNEUX, R.J., LEE, S.T. ALKALOIDS AS ANTI-QUALITY FACTORS IN PLANTS ON WESTERN U.S. RANGELANDS. JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT. 2001.
Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Toxic Larkspur (Delphinium SPP.)ALKALOIDS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., SCHOCH, T.K., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR TOXIC LARKSPUR ALKALOIDS. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL FOOD & CHEMICAL. 2000.
Three New Toxic Norditerpenoid Alkaloids from the Low Larkspur Delphinium Nuttallianum - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
GARDNER, D.R., MANNERS, G.D., PANTER, K.E., LEE, S.T., PFISTER, J.A. THREE NEW TOXIC NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM THE LOW LARKSPUR DELPHINIUM NUTTALLIANUM PRITZ. JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS. 2000.
Last Modified: 5/5/2010
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