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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Renfu Lu

Agricultural Engineer


Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pan, L., Zhu, Q., Lu, R., McGrath, J.M. 2014. Determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. Food Chemistry. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.117.
Evaluation of canning quality traits in black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mendoza, F., Cichy, K.A., Lu, R., Kelly, J.D. 2014. Evaluation of canning quality traits in black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy. Food and Bioprocess Technology. DOI: 10.1007/s/11947-014-1285-y.
Assessment of internal quality of blueberries using hyperspectral transmittance and reflectance images with whole spectra or selected wavelengths - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Leiva-Valenzuela, G., Lu, R., Aguilera, J. 2014. Assessment of internal quality of blueberries using hyperspectral transmittance and reflectance images with whole spectra or selected wavelengths. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. DOI: 10.1016/j.ifset.2014.02.006.
Grading of apples based on firmness and soluble solids content using VIS-SWNIR spectroscopy and spectral scattering techniques - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mendoza, F., Lu, R., Cen, H. 2014. Grading of apples based on firmness and soluble solids content using VIS-SWNIR spectroscopy and spectral scattering techniques. Journal of Food Engineering. 125(3):59-68.
Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cen, H., Lu, R., Ariana, D.P., Mendoza, F. 2014. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 7:1689-1700.
Assessing the sensitivity and robustness of prediction models for apple firmness using spectral scattering technique - (Proceedings)
Mendoza, F., Lu, R., Zhu, Q. 2013. Assessing the sensitivity and robustness of prediction models for apple firmness using spectral scattering technique. In: Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting, July 21-24, 2013, Kansas City, Missouri. Paper No. 13-1648152.
Comparison of optimal wavelengths selection methods for visible/near-infrared prediction of apple firmness and soluble solids content - (Proceedings)
Zhu, Q., Huang, M., Lu, R., Mendoza, F. 2013. Comparison of optimal wavelengths selection methods for visible/near-infrared prediction of apple firmness and soluble solids content. In: Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting, July 21-24, 2013, Kansas City, Missouri. Paper #13-1595860.
Mission of PROCINORTE’s Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Taskforce - (Abstract Only)
Goenaga, R.J., Salazar-García, S., Osuna-Garcia, J., Charlebois, D., Herrera-Gonzalez, J., Lu, R. 2013. Mission of PROCINORTE’s Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Taskforce. Proceedings Annual Meeting of the Interamerican Society of Tropical Horticulture. Page 108.
Detection of sucrose content of sugar beet by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy - (Proceedings)
Pan, L., Zhu, Q., Lu, R., McGrath, J.M. 2013. Detection of sucrose content of sugar beet by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy. In: Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting, July 21-24, 2013, Kansas City, Missouri. Paper No. 13-1619051.
Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers - (Proceedings)
Cen, H., Lu, R., Ariana, D.P., Mendoza, F. 2013. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers. In: Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting, July 21-24, Kansas City, Missouri. Paper No. 13-1671220.
Analysis of hyperspectral scattering images using a moment method for apple firmness prediction - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Qibing, Z., Huang, M., Lu, R., Mendoza, F. 2014. Analysis of hyperspectral scattering images using a moment method for apple firmness prediction. Transactions of the ASABE. 57(1):75-83.
Relationship of the optical absorption and scattering properties with mechanical and structural properties of apple tissue - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cen, H., Lu, R., Mendoza, F., Beaudry, R. 2013. Relationship of the optical absorption and scattering properties with mechanical and structural properties of apple tissue. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 83:33-38.
Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Qin, J., Chao, K., Kim, M.S., Lu, R., Burks, T. 2013. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 118:157-171.
A low-cost color vision system for automatic estimation of apple fruit orientation and maximum equatorial diameter - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mizushima, A., Lu, R. 2013. A low-cost color vision system for automatic estimation of apple fruit orientation and maximum equatorial diameter. Transactions of the ASABE. 56(3):813-827.
Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment - (Book / Chapter)
Lu, R., Cen, H. 2013. Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment. In: Kilcast, D., editor. Instrumental Assessment of Food Sensory Quality - A Practical Guide. New York: Elsevier. p. 230-254.
Principle of Solid Food Texture Analysis - (Book / Chapter)
Lu, R. 2013. Principle of Solid Food Texture Analysis. In: Kilcast, D., editor. Instrumental Assessment of Food Sensory Quality - A Practical Guide. New York: Elsevier. p. 103-128.
An image segmentation method for apple sorting and grading using support vector machine and Otsu's method - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mizushima, A., Lu, R. 2013. An image segmentation method for apple sorting and grading using support vector machine and Otsu's method. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 94(1):29-37.
Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R., Ariana, D.P. 2013. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 81(1):44-50.
Prediction of firmness and soluble solids content of blueberries using hyperspectral reflectance imaging - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Leiva-Valenzuela, G., Lu, R., Aguilera, J. 2013. Prediction of firmness and soluble solids content of blueberries using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Journal of Food Engineering. 115(1):91-98.
Analysis of hyperspectral scattering images using locally linear embedding algorithm for apple mealiness classification - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Huang, M., Wang, B., Zhu, Q., Lu, R. 2012. Analysis of hyperspectral scattering images using locally linear embedding algorithm for apple mealiness classification. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 89:175-181.
Comparison and fusion of four nondestructive sensors for predicting apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mendoza, F., Lu, R., Haiyan, C. 2012. Comparison and fusion of four nondestructive sensors for predicting apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 73:89-98.
Prediction of soluble solids content of blueberries using hyperspectral imaging - (Abstract Only)
Leiva-Valenzuela, G., Lu, R., Aguilera, J. 2012. Prediction of soluble solids content of blueberries using hyperspectral imaging [abstract]. Annual Food Engineering Conference, April 2-4, 2012, Leesburg, Washington. CDROM.
Assessing multiple quality attributes of peaches using spectral absorption and scattering properties - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cen, H., Lu, R., Mendoza, F., Ariana, D.P. 2012. Assessing multiple quality attributes of peaches using spectral absorption and scattering properties. Transactions of the ASABE. 55(2):647-657.
Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers - (Experiment Station)
Lu, R. 2011. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers. Michigan State University Cucumber Reporting Session. p. 44-50.
Data fusion of visible/near-infrared spectroscopy and spectral scattering for apple quality assessment - (Proceedings)
Mendoza, F., Lu, R., Cen, H. 2011. Data fusion of visible/near-infrared spectroscopy and spectral scattering for apple quality assessment. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 1111244.
Analysis of absorption and scattering spectra for assessing apple fruit internal quality after harvest and storage - (Proceedings)
Cen, H., Lu, R., Mendoza, F. 2012. Analysis of absorption and scattering spectra for assessing apple fruit internal quality after harvest and storage. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference Postharvest Unlimited, May 22-26, 2011, Leavenworth, Washington. p. 181-188.
Analysis of hyperspectral scattering profiles using a generalized Gaussian distribution function for prediction of apple firmness and soluble solids content - (Proceedings)
Zhu, Q., Huang, M., Zhao, X., Lu, R. 2011. Analysis of hyperspectral scattering profiles using a generalized Gaussian distribution function for prediction of apple firmness and soluble solids content. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 11388.
Development of a cost-effective machine vision system for in-field sorting and grading of apples: Fruit orientation and size estimation - (Abstract Only)
Mizushima, A., Lu, R. 2011. Development of a cost-effective machine vision system for in-field sorting and grading of apples: fruit orientation and size estimation. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 1110723.
Integrated spectral and image analysis of hyperspectral scattering data for prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mendoza, F., Lu, R., Ariana, D., Cen, H., Bailey, B.B. 2011. Integrated spectral and image analysis of hyperspectral scattering data for prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 62(2):149-160.
Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Ariana, D. 2011. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging. Proceedings of SPIE. 8027-0K.
Peach maturity/quality assessment using hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique - (Proceedings)
Cen, H., Lu, R., Mendoza, F., Ariana, D. 2011. Peach maturity/quality assessment using hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique. Proceedings of SPIE. April 25-29, 2011. Orlando, Florida. Paper No. 8027-0L, 15 p.
Multi-sensor Data Fusion for Improved Prediction of Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content - (Proceedings)
Mendoza, F., Lu, R., Cen, H. 2011. Multi-sensor Data Fusion for Improved Prediction of Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content. Proceedings of SPIE. April 25-29, 2011, Orlando, Florida. Paper No. 8027-0L, 14 p.
Optical Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers for 700-1000 nm - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R., Ariana, D.P., Cen, H. 2011. Optical absorption and scattering properties of normal and defective pickling cucumbers for 700-1000 nm. Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety. 5(2):198-204.
Development of a Low-Cost Attitude Sensor for Agricultural Vehicles Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mizushima, A., Noguchi, N., Ishii, K., Matsuo, Y., Lu, R. 2011. Development of a low-cost attitude sensor for agricultural vehicles. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 76(2):198-204.
Cost Benefits Analysis of In-field Presorting for the Apple Industry - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mizushima, A., Lu, R. 2011. Cost benefits analysis of in-field presorting for the apple industry. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 27(1):33-40.
Apple Mealiness Detection Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Huang, M., Lu, R. 2010. Apple mealiness detection using hyperspectral scattering technique. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 58(3):168-175.
Hyperspectral Waveband Selection for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ariana, D.P., Lu, R. 2010. Hyperspectral waveband selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers and whole pickles. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 741(1):137-144.
Sensors for product characterization and quality of specialty crops - A review Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ruiz-Altisent, M., Ruiz-Garcia, L., Moreda, G., Lu, R., Hernandez-Sanchez, N., Correa, E., Diezma, B., Nicolai, B., Garcia-Ramos, J. 2010. Sensors for product characterization and quality of specialty crops - A review. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 74(2):176-194.
Optimal Wavelengths Selection for Hyperspectral Scattering Prediction of Apple Firmness and Soluble Solids Content Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Huang, M., Lu, R. 2010. Optimal wavelengths selection for hyperspectral scattering prediction of apple firmness and soluble solids content. Transactions of the ASABE. 53(4):1175-1182.
Optimization of the Hyperspectral Imaging-based Spatially-resolved System for Measuring the Optical Properties of Biological Materials - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cen, H., Lu, R. 2010. Optimization of the hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved system for measuring the optical properties of biological materials. Optics Express. 18(16):17412-17432.
Optimization of the Inverse Algorithm for Estimating the Optical Properties of Biological Materials Using Spatially-resolved Diffuse Reflectance Technique - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cen, H., Lu, R., Dolan, K. 2010. Optimization of the inverse algorithm for estimating the optical properties of biological materials using spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance technique. Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering. 18(6):853-872.
Characterization of the Optical Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Ariana, D.P., Cen, H. 2010. Characterization of the Optical Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles. Proceedings of SPIE. April 5-9, 2010, Orlando, Florida. 76760:76760G. p. 1-8.
Inverse Algorithm Optimization for Determining Optical Properties of Biological Materials from Spatially-Resolved Diffuse Reflectance - (Abstract Only)
Cen, H., Lu, R., Dolan, K. 2010. Inverse Algorithm Optimization for Determining Optical Properties of Biological Materials from Spatially-Resolved Diffuse Reflectance [CD-ROM]. 2010 Inverse Problems Symposium. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University.
Quality Is More Than Skin Deep - (Other)
Lu, R., Guyer, D. 2010. Quality Is More Than Skin Deep. ASABE Resource Magazine. 17(3):10-13.
Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report - (Experiment Station) - (10-Jan-10)
Spectral Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Bruised Apple Tissue - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R., Cen, H., Huang, M., Ariana, D.P. 2009. Spectral Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Bruised Apple Tissue. Transactions of the ASABE. 53(1):263-269.
Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber - (Book / Chapter)
Ariana, D., Lu, R. 2010. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber. In: Sun, Da-Wen, editor. Hyperspectral Imaging for Food Quality Analysis and Control. Boston, MA: Elsevier Inc. p. 431-437.
Quantification of the Optical Properties of Two-Layer Turbid Materials Using a Hyperspectral Imaging-based Spatially-resolved Technique - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cen, H., Lu, R. 2009. Quantification of the Optical Properties of Two-Layer Turbid Materials Using a Hyperspectral Imaging-based Spatially-resolved Technique. Applied Optics. 48(29):5612-5623.
Evaluation of Internal Defect and Surface Color of Whole Pickles Using Hyperspectral Imaging - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ariana, D.P., Lu, R. 2009. Evaluation of Internal Defect and Surface Color of Whole Pickles Using Hyperspectral Imaging. Journal of Food Engineering. 96(4):583-590.
A Hyperspectral Imaging System for Quality Detection of Pickles - (Proceedings)
Ariana, D., Lu, R. 2009. A Hyperspectral Imaging System for Quality Detection of Pickles. In: Zhang, Q., editor. Proceedings of the 4th IFAC International Workshop on Bio-Robotics, Information Technology, and Intelligent Control for Bioproduction Systems, September 10-11, 2009, Champaign, Illinois. Paper No. 801.
Two-layer Model for Measuring the Optical Properties of Turbid Materials Based on Spatially Resolved Hyperspectral Diffuse Reflectance Images - (Abstract Only)
Cen, H., Lu, R. 2009. Two-layer Model for Measuring the Optical Properties of Turbid Materials Based on Spatially Resolved Hyperspectral Diffuse Reflectance Images [abstract]. Inverse Problems Symposium.
Optical Properties of Bruised Apple Tissue - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Cen, H., Huang, M., Ariana, D.P. 2009. Optical Properties of Bruised Apple Tissue. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 096998.
Optimal Wavelengths Selection Using Hierarchical Evolutionary Algorithm for Prediction of Firmness and Soluble Solids Content in Apples - (Proceedings)
Min, H., Lu, R. 2009. Optimal Wavelengths Selection Using Hierarchical Evolutionary Algorithm for Prediction of Firmness and Soluble Solids Content in Apples. Proceedings of the ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 097428.
Determining the Optical Properties of Two-Layer Turbid Materials Based on Spatially Resolved Diffuse Reflectance - (Proceedings)
Cen, H., Lu, R. 2009. Determining the Optical Properties of Two-Layer Turbid Materials Based on Spatially Resolved Diffuse Reflectance. Proceedings of the ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 095769.
A portable device for the bioyield detection to measure apple firmness - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R., Tipper, N.C. 2009. A Portable Device for the Bioyield Detection to Measure Apple Firmness. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 25(4):517-523.
Monte Carlo Simulation for Quantification of Light Transport Features in Apples - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2009. Monte Carlo Simulation for Quantification of Light Transport Features in Apples. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 68(1):44-51.
Prediction of olive quality using FT-NIR spectroscopy in reflectance and transmittance modes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kavdir, I., Burukcan, M., Lu, R., Kocabiyik, H., Seker, M. 2009. Prediction of Olive Quality Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Reflectance and Transmittance Modes. Biosystems Engineering. 103(3):304-312.
Analysis of Hyperspectral Scattering Characteristics for Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Huang, M., Qin, J. 2009. Analysis of Hyperspectral Scattering Characteristics for Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content. Proceedings of SPIE. April 13-17, 2009, Orlando, FL. 7315:7315-17.
Prediction of apple internal quality using spectral absorption and scattering properties - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Qin, J., Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2009. Prediction of Apple Internal Quality Using Spectral Absorption and Scattering Properties. Transactions of the ASABE. 52(2):499-507.
Prediction of Apple Quality by Optical Properties - (Experiment Station)
Lu, R., Qin, J. 2008. Prediction of Apple Quality by Optical Properties. Michigan State University Controlled Atmosphere Clinic. Volume 6. 10 p.
Quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging – Part 1. Development of a prototype Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ariana, D., Lu, R. 2008. Quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging. Part 1. Development of a prototype. Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety. DOI 10.1007/s11694-008-9057-x. Available: www.springerlink.com/content/w44j431683101493/?.
Quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging – Part 2. Performance of a prototype Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ariana, D., Lu, R. 2008. Quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging. Part 2. Performance of a prototype. Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety. DOI 10.1007/s11694-008-9058-9. Available: www.springerlink.com/content/r3715505p0155360/?.
Development of a Hyperspectral Imaging System for Online Quality Inspection of Pickling Cucumbers - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Ariana, D. 2008. Development of a Hyperspectral Imaging System for Online Quality Inspection of Pickling Cucumbers. In: Proceedings of the ASABE Food Processing Automation Conference, June 28-29, 2008, Providence, Rhode Island. 2008 CDROM.
Internal defect detection of whole pickles using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging - (Proceedings)
Ariana, D.P., Lu, R. 2008. Internal defect detection of whole pickles using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 084266.
The effect of washing treatments on the surface cleanliness of Michigan Red Delicious apples - (Abstract Only)
Quist, E.E., Rubino, M.I., Guyer, D.E., Auras, R., Lu, R. 2008. The effect of washing treatments on the surface cleanliness of Michigan Red Delicious apples [abstract]. Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists Abstracts. No. 133-02.
The impact of wax application on gloss development of Michigan Red Delicious apples - (Abstract Only)
Quist, E.E., Rubino, M.I., Bailey, B.B., Lu, R., Guyer, D.E., Auras, R., Ariana, D.P. 2008. The impact of wax application on gloss development of Michigan Red Delicious apples [abstract]. Annual Meeting Horticultural Society. HortScience. 43(4):1189.
Gloss evaluation of curved-surface fruits and vegetables Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mizrach, A., Lu, R., Rubino, M. 2008. Gloss evaluation of curved-surface fruits and vegetables. Food and Bioprocess Technology. DOI 10.1007/s11947-008-0083-9. Available: www.springerlink.com/content/a223w2330w876341/?.
Measurement of the optical properties of fruits and vegetables using spatially resolved hyperspectral diffuse reflectance imaging technique - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2008. Measurement of the optical properties of fruits and vegetables using spatially resolved hyperspectral diffuse reflectance imaging technique. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 49(3):355-365.
Detection of Internal Defect in Pickling Cucumbers Using Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ariana, D., Lu, R. 2008. Detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral transmittance imaging. Transactions of the ASABE. 51(2):705-713.
A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers - (Experiment Station)
Lu, R., Ariana, D. 2008. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers. Michigan State University Cucumber Reporting Session. p. 29-36.
Nondestructive Olive Quality Detection Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Reflectance Mode - (Proceedings) - (07-Jan-08)
Spectroscopic Technique for Measuring the Texture of Horticultural Products: Spatially Resolved Approach - (Book / Chapter)
Lu, R. 2009. Spectroscopic Technique for Measuring the Texture of Horticultural Products: Spatially Resolved Approach. In: Zude, M. Optical Monitoring of Fresh and Processed Agricultural Crops. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 391-423.
Internal quality evaluation of apples using spectral absorption and scattering properties - (Proceedings)
Qin, J., Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2007. Internal quality evaluation of apples using spectral absorption and scattering properties. Proceedings of SPIE. 6767:67610M.
A recursive method for updating apple firmness prediction models based on spectral scattering images - (Proceedings)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2007. A recursive method for updating apple firmness prediction models based on spectral scattering images. Proceedings of SPIE. 6761:67610U.
Analysis of Spatially-Resolved Hyperspectral Scattering Images for Assessing Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2008. Analysis of Spatially-Resolved Hyperspectral Scattering Images for Assessing Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 48(1):52-62.
Development of a Multispectral Imaging Prototype for Real-Time Detection of Apple Fruit Firmness - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2007. Development of a Multispectral Imaging Prototype for Real-Time Detection of Apple Fruit Firmness. Optical Engineering. 46(12):123201.
On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers - (Proceedings)
Ariana, D., Lu, R. 2007. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 073133.
Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Propagation in Apples - (Proceedings)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2007. Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Propagation in Apples. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 073058.
Characterization of Spatially-Resolved Hyperspectral Scattering Images for Assessing Apple Fruit Firmness - (Proceedings)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2007. Characterization of Spatially-Resolved Hyperspectral Scattering Images for Assessing Apple Fruit Firmness. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 076270.
Integration of Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Imaging for Assessing Apple Maturity - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Noh, H., Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2007. Integration of Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Imaging for Assessing Apple Maturity. Transactions of the ASABE. 50(3):963-971.
Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence for assessing apple maturity - (Other)
Lu, R. 2007. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence for assessing apple maturity. In: Apple Research Review. 2007 Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission Annual Research Review, January 23, 2007, Wenatchee, Washington. p. 80-88.
Measurement of the Absorption and Scattering Properties of Turbid Liquid Foods Using Hyperspectral Imaging - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2007. Measurement of the Absorption and Scattering Properties of Turbid Liquid Foods Using Hyperspectral Imaging. Applied Spectroscopy. 61(4):388-396.
Imaging technique for detection of internal defects of pickling cucumbers - (Experiment Station)
Ariana, D., Lu, R. 2007. Imaging technique for detection of internal defects of pickling cucumbers. Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletins. p.18-24.
Nondestructive measurement of firmness and soluble solids content for apple fruit using hyperspectral scattering images - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R. 2007. Nondestructive measurement of firmness and soluble solids content for apple fruit using hyperspectral scattering images. Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety. 1(1):19-27.
Prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content using characteristics of multispectral scattering images - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2007. Prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content using characteristics of multispectral scattering images. Journal of Food Engineering. 82(2):142-152.
Integrating fluorescence and interactance measurements to improve apple maturity assessment - (Proceedings) - (01-Oct-06)
Quality evaluation of fruit by hyperspectral imaging - (Book / Chapter)
Lu, R. 2007. Quality evaluation of fruit by hyperspectral imaging. In: Sun, D.W., editor. Computer Vision Technology for Food Quality Evaluation. Burlington, MA: Elsevier. p. 319-348.
Hyperspectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging for assessing apple quality - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Noh, H., Lu, R. 2007. Hyperspectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging for assessing apple quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 43(2):193-201.
Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Nondestructive Quality Assessment of Pickling Cucumbers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kavdir, I., Lu, R., Ariana, D., Ngouajio, M. 2007. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for nondestructive quality assessment of pickling cucumbers. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 44(2):165-174.
Hyperspectral Diffuse Reflectance for Rapid, Noncontact Determination of the Optical Properties of Turbid Materials - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2006. Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for rapid, noncontact determination of the optical properties of turbid materials. Applied Optics. 45(32):8366-8373.
Assessing the Maturity of Apples by Integrating Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Imaging Techniques - (Experiment Station)
Lu, R., Noh, H. 2006. Assessing the maturity of apples by integrating hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging techniques. Michigan State University Controlled Atmosphere Clinic. Volume 5(2):209-217.
Development of a Bioyield Tester for Intact Apple - (Experiment Station)
Tipper, N., Lu, R., Srivastava, A., Beaudry, R. 2006. Development of a bioyield tester for intact apple. Michigan State University Controlled Atmosphere Clinic. Volume 5(2):218-220.
Measurement of the Optical Properties of Apples by Hyperspectral Imaging for Assessing Fruit Quality - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Qin, J., Peng, Y. 2006. Measurement of the optical properties of apples by hyperspectral imaging for assessing fruit quality. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 066179.
Integration of Hyperspectral Reflectance and Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging for Assessing Apple Maturity - (Proceedings)
Noh, H., Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2006. Integration of hyperspectral reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence imaging for assessing apple maturity. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 066182.
Opto-Electric Determination of Insect Presence in Fruit - (Proceedings)
Guyer, D., Ariana, D., Shrestha, B., Lu, R. 2006. Opto-electric determination of insect presence in fruit. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 066061.
New Approaches of Analyzing Multispectral Scattering Profiles for Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content - (Proceedings)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2006. New approaches of analyzing multispectral scattering profiles for predicting apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 066234.
Visible/near-Infrared Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Detection of Internal Mechanical Injury in Pickling Cucumbers - (Proceedings)
Ariana, D.P., Lu, R. 2006. Visible/near-infrared hyperspectral transmittance imaging for detection of internal mechanical injury in pickling cucumbers. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 063039.
Measurement of the Optical Properties of Apples Using Hyperspectral Diffuse Reflectance Imaging - (Proceedings)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2006. Measurement of the optical properties of apples using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance imaging. ASABE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 063037.
Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging for Detection of Bruises on Pickling Cucumbers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ariana, D., Lu, R., Guyer, D.E. 2006. Hyperspectral reflectance imaging for detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 53(1):60-70.
Nondestructive Quality Assessment of Pickling Cucumbers Using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy - (Proceedings)
Kavdir, I., Lu, R., Ariana, D., Ngouajio, M. 2006. Nondestructive quality assessment of pickling cucumbers using visible and near infrared spectroscopy. Borimer Agrartechnische Berichte. 55:97-108.
Nondestructive Quality Assessment of Pickling Cucumbers Using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy - (Abstract Only)
Kavdir, I., Lu, R., Ariana, D., Ngouajio, M. 2006. Nondestructive quality assessment of pickling cucumbers using visible and near infrared spectroscopy [abstract]. IFAC/CIGR Workshop. Paper No. CAPPT0068.
Detection of Bruises on Pickling Cucumbers Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging - (Experiment Station)
Ariana, D., Lu, R. 2006. Detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Experiment Station Bulletins.
Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of Bioyield Probes for Measuring Apple Fruit Firmness - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R., Srivastava, A.J., Ababneh, H.A. 2006. Finite element analysis and experimental evaluation of bioyield probes for measuring apple fruit firmness. Transactions of the ASABE. 49(1):123-131.
A Lctf Based Multispectral Imaging System for Estimation of Apple Fruit Firmness: Part I: Acquisition and Characterization of Scattering Images - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2006. A LCTF based multispectral imaging system for estimation of apple fruit firmness: Part I: acquisition and characterization of scattering images. Transactions of the ASABE. 49(1):259-267.
A Lctf Based Multispectral Imaging System for Estimation of Apple Fruit Firmness: Part Ii: Selection of Optimal Wavelengths and Development of Prediction Models - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2006. A LCTF based multispectral imaging system for estimation of apple fruit firmness: Part II: selection of optimal wavelengths and development of prediction models. Transactions of the ASABE. 49(1):269-275.
Hyperspectral Diffuse Reflectance for Determination of the Optical Properties of Milk and Fruit and Vegetable Juice - (Proceedings)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2005. Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juice. Proceedings of SPIE. 5996:59960Q.
Hyperspectral Scattering for Assessing Peach Fruit Firmness - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2006. Hyperspectral scattering for assessing peach fruit firmness. Biosystems Engineering. 93(2):161-171.
A Laser-Based Multispectral Imaging System for Real-Time Detection of Apple Fruit Firmness - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2005. A laser-based multispectral imaging system for real-time detection of apple fruit firmness. Proceedings of SPIE. 5996:59960F.
Uv/blue Light-Induced Fluorescence for Assessing Apple Maturity - (Proceedings)
Noh, H., Lu, R. 2005. UV/blue light-induced fluorescence for assessing apple maturity. Proceedings of SPIE. 5996:59960I.
Detection of Mechanical Injury on Pickling Cucumbers Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging - (Proceedings)
Ariana, D., Lu, R., Guyer, D. 2005. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Proceedings of SPIE. 5996:59960P.
Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging for Detection of Mechanical Injury on Pickling Cucumbers - (Abstract Only)
Lu, R., Ariana, D. 2005. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers. Pickle Packers International Meeting Proceedings.
Determination of the Optical Properties of Turbid Materials by Hyperspectral Diffuse Reflectance - (Proceedings)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2005. Determination of the optical properties of turbid materials by hyperspectral diffuse reflectance. ASAE Annual International Meeting Proceedings. Paper No. 053068.
Comparison of Multispectral Scattering with Visible/nir Spectroscopy for Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2005. Comparison of multispectral scattering with visible/NIR spectroscopy for predicting apple fruit firmness. 7th Fruit, Nut, and Vegetable Production Engineering International Symposium. Paper No. 62.
A Bioyield Tester for Measuring Apple Fruit Firmness - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Srivastiva, A., Beaudry, R. 2005. A bioyield tester for measuring apple fruit firmness. ASAE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 056171.
Nir Measurement of Apple Fruit Soluble Solids Content and Firmness As Affected by Postharvest Storage - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Bailey, B.B. 2005. NIR measurement of apple fruit soluble solids content and firmness as affected by postharvest storage. ASAE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 056070.
An Improved Multispectral Imaging System for Apple Fruit Firmness Prediction - (Proceedings)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2005. An improved multispectral imaging system for apple fruit firmness prediction. ASAE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 056172.
Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence for Assessing Apple Quality - (Proceedings)
Noh, H., Lu, R. 2005. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence for assessing apple quality. ASAE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 053069.
Assessing Peach Firmness by Multispectral Scattering - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2005. Assessing peach firmness by multispectral scattering. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Journal. 13(1):27-36.
A New Bioyield Tester for Measuring Apple Fruit Firmness - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R., Srivastava, A., Beaudry, R. 2005. A new bioyield tester for measuring apple fruit firmness. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 21(5):893-900.
Multispectral Scattering Measures Fruit Texture - (Trade Journal)
Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2005. Multispectral scattering measures fruit texture. Laser Focus World. April Issue. p. 99-1003.
Detection of Pits in Tart Cherries by Hyperspectral Transmission Imaging - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2005. Detection of pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging. Transactions of the ASAE. Volume 48(5):1963-1970.
Comparison of Multispectral Scattering and Visible/nir Spectroscopy for Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness - (Abstract Only)
Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2005. Comparison of multispectral scattering and visible/NIR spectroscopy for predicting apple fruit firmness [abstract]. Fruit, Nut, and Vegetable Production Engineering International Symposium.
Modeling Multispectral Scattering Profiles for Predction of Apple Fruit Firmness - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2005. Modeling multispectral scattering profiles for predction of apple fruit firmness. Transactions of the ASAE. Volume 48(1): 235-242.
Detecting Pits in Tart Cherries by Hyperspectral Transmission Imaging - (Proceedings)
Qin, J., Lu, R. 2004. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging. Proceedings of SPIE. 5587:153-162.
A Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter Based Multispectral Imaging System for Prediction of Apple Fruit Firmness - (Proceedings)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2004. A liquid crystal tunable filter based multispectral imaging system for prediction of apple fruit firmness. Proceedings of SPIE. 5587:91-100.
Multispectral Scattering for Assessing Peach Firmness - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2004. Multispectral scattering for assessing peach firmness. Agricultural Engineering International Conference Proceedings.
Nondestructive Detection of Fruit Postharvest Quality - (Experiment Station)
Lu, R. 2004. Nondestructive detection of fruit postharvest quality. Michigan State University Controlled Atmosphere Clinic. p. 14-19.
Hyperspectral Scattering for Assessing Peach Fruit Firmness - (Proceedings)
Lu, R., Peng, Y. 2004. Hyperspectral scattering for assessing peach fruit firmness. ASAE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 046117.
Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness by Multispectral Scattering Profiles - (Proceedings)
Peng, Y., Lu, R. 2004. Predicting apple fruit firmness by multispectral scattering profiles. ASAE Annual International Meeting. Paper No. 043007.
Prediction of Apple Fruit Firmness by Near-Infrared Multispectral Scattering - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R. 2004. Prediction of apple fruit firmness by near-infrared multispectral scattering. Journal of Texture Studies. (35)3:263-276.
Force/deformation Techniques for Measuring Texture - (Book / Chapter)
Lu, R., Abbott, J.A. 2004. Force/Deformation Techniques for Measuring Texture. In: Kilcast, D., editor. Texture in Food: Volume 2: Solid Foods. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Limited. p. 109-145.
Near Infrared Multispectral Scattering for Assessing Internal Quality of Apple Fruits - (Proceedings)
Lu, R. 2004. Near infrared multispectral scattering for assessing internal quality of apple fruits. Proceedings of SPIE. 5271:313-320.
Imaging Spectroscopy for Assessing Fruit Quality - (Trade Journal)
Lu, R. 2003. Imaging spectroscopy for assessing fruit quality. Fruit Processing.
Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness and Sugar Content Using Near-Infrared Scattering Properties - (Proceedings)
Lu, R. 2003. Predicting apple fruit firmness and sugar content using near-infrared scattering properties. Agricultural Engineering International Conference Proceedings.
Imaging Spectroscopy for Assessing Internal Quality of Apple Fruit - (Proceedings)
Lu, R. 2003. Imaging spectroscopy for assessing internal quality of apple fruit. Agricultural Engineering International Conference Proceedings.
Multispectral Imaging for Predicting Firmness and Soluble Solids Content of Apple Fruit - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lu, R. 2004. Multispectral imaging for predicting firmness and soluble solids content of apple fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 31(2):147-157.
Detection of Bruises on Apples Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LU, R. DETECTION OF BRUISES ON APPLES USING NEAR-INFRARED HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS. v. 46(2). p. 523-530.
Near Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy for Detecting New and Old Bruises on Apples - (Proceedings)
Lu, R. 2002. Near infrared imaging spectroscopy for detecting new and old bruises on apples. Agricultural Engineering International Conference Proceedings.
A Near-Infrared Sensing Technique for Measuring Internal Quality of Apple Fruit - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LU, R., ARIANA, D. A NEAR-INFRARED SENSING TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING INTERNAL QUALITY OF APPLE FRUIT. APPLIED ENGINEERING IN AGRICULTURE. v. 18(5). p. 585-590.
Development of a Low Cost Portable Near-Infrared Sensor for Predicting Internal Quality of Apples - (Proceedings) - (15-Jan-02)
Detection of Bruises on Apples Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging - (Abstract Only) - (29-Jul-01)
A Near-Infrared Sensing Technique for Measuring Firmness and Sugar Content of Apples - (Abstract Only) - (29-Jul-01)
Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for Nondestructive Measurement of Firmness and Sugar Content of Sweet Cherries - (Abstract Only) - (23-Jun-01)
Predicting Firmness and Sugar Content of Sweet Cherries Using Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LU, R. PREDICTING FIRMNESS AND SUGAR CONTENT OF SWEET CHERRIES USING NEAR-INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS. 2001. v. 44(5). p. 1265-1271.
Determination of Sugar Content and Firmness of Apples Using Nir Diffuse Reflectance - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LU, R., GUYER, D.E., BEAUDRY, R. DETERMINATION OF SUGAR CONTENT AND FIRMNESS OF APPLES USING NIR DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE. JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES. v. 31(6):615-630.
Detection of Bruises on Apples Using Hyperspectral Imaging - (Abstract Only) - (28-Apr-00)
Hyperspectral Imaging for Detecting Bruises in Apples - (Proceedings) - (28-Jul-99)
Shear Properties and Warner-Bratzler Tenderness Measurement of Beef - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (17-Jun-99)
Rheological Characterization of the Tensile Behavior of Bovine Muscle - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (16-Jul-98)
Tensile Properties of Raw and Cooked Beef and Their Relationship with Warner-Bratzler Tenderness Measurement - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (15-Jun-98)
Technologies for Nondestructive Quality Evaluation of Fruits and Vegetables - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (13-Jun-97)
Last Modified: 9/29/2013
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