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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

Raymond Carruthers (Ray)
Exotic and Invasive Weeds Research
Research Leader

Phone: (510) 559-6127
Fax: (510) 559-5737
Room 2132
USDA, ARS, PWA, WRRC-EIW
800 BUCHANAN STREET
ALBANY, CA, 94710

Projects
Biological Control of Invasive Terrestrial and Riparian Weeds in the Far Western U.S. Region, with Emphasis on Thistles, Brooms and Cape-ivy
Appropriated (D)
  Accession Number: 420707
Landscape-Level Assessment and Management of Invasive Weeds and their Impacts in Agricultural and Natural Systems
Appropriated (D)
  Accession Number: 421093
Aquatic and Riparian Weed Management to Protect U.S. Water Resources in the Far West United States
Appropriated (D)
  Accession Number: 421095
Cooperation agreement and benefits sharing between the foundation for the study of invasive species & ARS exotic & invasive weeds res. unit
Nonfunded Cooperative Agreement (N)
  Accession Number: 423688
Socio-Economic Assessment of Areawide Pest Management of Aquatic Weeds in the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta
Specific Cooperative Agreement (S)
  Accession Number: 427246
INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH EURASIAN WATERMILFOIL
Specific Cooperative Agreement (S)
  Accession Number: 421989

Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Germination characteristics of Zannichellia palustris from a northern California spring-fed river Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bytnerowicz, T.A., Carruthers, R.I. 2014. Germination characteristics of Zannichellia palustris from a northern California spring-fed river. Aquatic Botany. 119(2014)44-50.
Temperature-dependent models of Zannichellia palustris seed germination for application in aquatic systems Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bytnerowicz, T.A., Carruthers, R.I. 2014. Temperature-dependent models of Zannichellia palustris seed germination for application in aquatic systems. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 104(2014)44-53.
Field testing Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) from Crete, Greece to assess potential impact to non-target native California plants in the genus Frankenia - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Herr, J.C., Reddy, A.M., Carruthers, R.I. 2014. Field Testing Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) from Crete, Greece to Assess Potential Impact to Non-Target Native California plants in the Genus Frankenia. Environmental Entomology. 43:642-653.
Predicting Eurasian watermilfoil's (Myriophylum spicatum L.) distribution and response to biological control in Fall River, California - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Spencer, D.F., Carruthers, R.I. 2013. Predicting Eurasian watermilfoil's (Myriophylum spicatum L.) distribution and response to biological control in Fall River, California. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 51:7-14.
Biological assessment:Egeria densa control program for the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta of California - (Government Publication)
Pratt, W.B., Gibson, J.A., Ely, T., Newman, G., Ryan, P., Yelle, K., Anderson, L.W., Carruthers, R.I. 2012. Biological assessment:Egeria densa control program for the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta of California. Department of State Internal Government Report. pp.1-212.
Biological assessment: water hyacinth control program for the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta of California - (Government Publication)
Pratt, W.B., Gibson, J.A., Ely, T., Newman, G., Ryan, P., Yelle, K., Anderson, L.W., Carruthers, R.I. 2012. Biological assessment: water hyacinth control program for the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta of California. Department of State Internal Government Report. p.1-202.
Biology and ecology of Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa) and its specific herbivore Hydrellia sp in Argentina - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cabrera Walsh, G., Dalto, Y., Mattioli, F., Carruthers, R.I., Anderson, L.W. 2013. Biology and ecology of Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa) and its specific herbivore Hydrellia sp in Argentina. Biocontrol. DOI 10.1007/s10526-012-9475-x.
Integrated management of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) using biological control - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Reddy, A.M., Carruthers, R.I., Mills, N.J. 2012. Integrated management of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) using biological control. Journal of Invasive Plant Science and Management. 5(1):69-82. DOI: 10.1614/IPSM-D-11-00048.1.
Volatiles emissions from the flea beetle Altica litigata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) associated with invasive Ludwigia hexapetala Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Carruthers, R.I., Franc, M.K., Gee, W.S., Cosse, A.A., Grewell, B.J., Beck, J.J. 2011. Volatiles emissions from the flea beetle Altica litigata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) associated with invasive Ludwigia hexapetala. Chemoecology. 21(4):253-259.
Classical biological control of invasive species: fighting fire with fire - (Review Article)
Carruthers, R.I. 2011. Classical biological control of invasive species: fighting fire with fire. Outlooks on Pest Management. 22(3):122-128.
Does superior competitive ability explain yellow starthistle's invasion of annual grasslands? - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Spencer, D.F., Enloe, S.F., Ksander, G.G., Liow, P., Carruthers, R.I. 2011. Does superior competitive ability explain yellow starthistle's invasion of annual grasslands?. Journal of Invasive Plant Science and Management. 4(3):284-295.
No evidence for increased performance of a specialist psyllid on invasive French broom - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Reddy, A.M., Carruthers, R.I., Mills, N.J. 2011. No evidence for increased performance of a specialist psyllid on invasive French broom. Acta Oecologica. 37:79-86.
Dynamics of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and estimates in coastal northern California Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ge, S., Smith, R.G., Kramer, M.G., Carruthers, R.I., Jacovides, C.P. 2010. Dynamics of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and estimates in coastal northern California. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 105(1-2):107-118. DOI: 10.1007/s00704-010-0368-6.
Integrated management of Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius: is control enhanced when seed predation is combined with prescribed fire or mowing? - (Abstract Only) - (13-Sep-10)
Multiple-level defoliation assessment with hyperspectral data: integration of continuum-removed absorptions and red edges - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ge, S., Carruthers, R.I., Everitt, J.H., Kramer, M.G., Anderson, G.L. 2011. Multiple-level defoliation assessment with hyperspectral data: integration of continuum-removed absorptions and red edges. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 32(21):6407-6422. DOI:10.1080/01431161.2010.510492.
Introduced populations of Genista monspessulana (French broom) are more dense and produce a greater seed rain in California, USA, than native populations in the Mediterranean Basin of Europe - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Reddy, A.M., Carruthers, R.I., Mills, N.J. 2011. Introduced populations of Genista monspessulana (French broom) are more dense and produce a greater seed rain in California, USA, than native populations in the Mediterranean Basin of Europe. Biological Invasions. 13:369-380.
Classical biological control for the protection of natural ecosystems - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Van Driesche, R.G., Carruthers, R.I., Center, T.D., Hoddle, M., Hough-Goldstein, J., Morin, L., Smith, L., Wagner, D.L., Fuester, R.W., Goolsby, J., Pemberton, R.W., Pratt, P.D., Rayamajhi, M.B., Tipping, P.W., et al. 2010. Classical biological control for the protection of natural ecosystems. Biological Control. 54(SUPPL. 1):S2-S33.
Classical biological control for the protection of native ecosystems - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Van Driesche, R.G., Carruthers, R.I., Center, T.D., Smith, L. 2010. Classical biological control for the protection of native ecosystems. Biological Control. 54:502-533.
Host preference between saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and native non-target Frankenia spp. within the Diorhabda elongata species complex (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Herr, J.C., Carruthers, R.I., Bean, D.W., Deloach Jr, C.J. 2009. Host preference between Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and native non-target Frankenia spp. within the Diorhabda elongata species complex (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae). Biological Control. 51:337-345.
Invasive species change detection using artificial neural networks and CASI hyperspectral imagery Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pu, R., Gong, P., Tians, Y., Miao, X., Carruthers, R.I., Anderson, G.L. 2008. Invasive species change detection using artificial neural networks and CASI hyperspectral imagery. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.140:15-32.
Canopy assessment of biochemical features by ground-based hyperspectral data for an invasive species, giant reed (Arundo donax) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ge, S., Carruthers, R.I., Spencer, D.F., Yu, Q. 2008. Canopy assessment of biochemical features by ground-based hyperspectral data for an invasive species, giant reed (Arundo donax). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 147:271-278.
Using classification and NDVI differencing methods for monitoring sparse vegetation coverage: a case study of saltcedar in Nevada, USA. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pu, R., Gong, P., Tians, Y., Miao, X., Carruthers, R.I., Anderson, G.L. 2008. Using classification and NDVI differencing methods for monitoring sparse vegetation coverage: a case study of saltcedar in Nevada, USA.. International Journal of Remote Sensing.29(14):3987-4011.
Saltcedar Areawide Pest Management in the Western United States - (Book / Chapter)
Carruthers, R.I., Deloach, C.J., Herr, J.C., Anderson, G.L., Knutson, A.E. 2008. Saltcedar Areawide Pest Management in the Western United States. In: Koul, O., Cuperus, G., Elliott, N., Editors. Areawide Pest Management: Theory and Implementation. Wallingford, UK; Cambridge, MA: CABI. p. 271-299.
Saltcedar areawide pest management in the western United States - (Book / Chapter)
Carruthers, R.I., Deloach Jr, C.J., Herr, J.C., Anderson, G.L., Knutseon, A.E. 2008. Saltcedar areawide pest management in the western United States. In: Areawide Pest Management: Theory and Implementation. Koul, Cuperus, Elliott, editors. Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: Council of Applied Biology International (CABI). p. 271-299.
Biological Control of Saltcedar (Cedro salado) (Tamarix spp.) in the United States, with Implications for Mexico - (Proceedings)
Deloach Jr, C.J., Knutson, A.E., Moran, P.J., Michels, G.J., Thompson, D.C., Carruthers, R.I., Nibling, F., Fain, T.G. Biological Control of Saltcedar (Cedro salado) (Tamarix spp.) in the United States, with Implications for Mexico. 2007. In: Lira-Saldivar, R.H., editor. Bioplaguicidas Y Control Biologico. International Symposium of Sustainable Agriculture, 24-26 October 2007, Saltillo, Coahula, Mexico. p. 142-172.
A Test of the EICA hypothesis using French broom (Genista monspessulana) - (Abstract Only)
Smith, R.G., Herrera, A. M., and Carruthers, R. I. 2008. A test of the EICA hypothesis using French broom (Genista monspessulana). Ecological Society of America. [abstract] PS: 30-108
Estimating Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) Leaf Area Index and Aboveground Biomass with the Use of Hyperspectral Data Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ge, S., Xu, M., Anderson, G.L., Carruthers, R.I. 2007. Estimating Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) Leaf Area Index and Aboveground Biomass with the Use of Hyperspectral Data. Weed Science.55:671-678.
Invasive species change detection using artificial neural networks and CASI hyperspectral imagery - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pu, R., Gong, P., Yong, T., Xin, M., Carruthers, R.I., Anderson, G.L. 2007. Invasive species change detection using artificial neural networks and CASI hyperspectral imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 140:15-32.
The past, present, and future of biologically-based weed management on rangeland watersheds in the western United States - (Abstract Only)
Williams III, L.H., Carruthers, R.I., Snyder, K.A., Longland, W.S. 2007. The past, present, and future of biologically-based weed management on rangeland watersheds in the western United States. International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. p.44.
Applying Class-Based Feature Extraction Approaches for Supervised Classification of Hyperspectral Imagery - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Miao, X., Ge, S., Gong, P., Anderson, G.L., Carruthers, R.I. 2007. Applying Class-Based Feature Extractopm Approaches for Supervised Classification of Hyperspectral Imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 33 (3): 162-175.
A brief overview of the biological control of saltcedar - (Proceedings)
Carruthers, R.I., Herr, J.C., Knight, J., Deloach, C.J. 2007. A brief overview of the biological control of saltcedar. In: Hoddle, M., Johnson, M., editors. Proceeding of Fifth California Conference on Biological Control, University of California, 2006, Riverside, California p. 71-77.
An Overview of the Biological Control of Saltcedar - (Proceedings)
Carruthers, R.I., Herr, J.C., Deloach, C.J. 2007. An Overview of the Biological Control of Saltcedar. Proceedings of California Weed Science Society. 59:128-134/
Comparison of Laboratory and Ecological Host Range of the Saltcedar Leaf Beetle with Respect to Native Non-Target Frankenia species - (Proceedings)
Herr, J.C., Carruthers, R.I., Deloach Jr, C.J. 2007. Comparison of Laboratory and Ecological Host Range of the Saltcedar Leaf Beetle to Native Non-Target Frankenia species. in: Hoodle, M., Johnson, M. Editors. Proceedings Fifth California Conference on Biological Control, University of California, Riverside, California, p. 148-151.
Biologically-based integrated management of salt cedar on western rangeland watersheds - (Abstract Only)
Williams Iii, L.H., Snyder, K.A., Longland, W.S., Blank, R.R., Young, J.A., Carruthers, R.I. 2006. Biologically-based integrated management of salt cedar on western rangeland watersheds [abstract]. In: 2006 Tamarisk Research Conference. Current Status and Future Directions. p. 6.
Estimating leaf area index and aboveground biomass of an invasive weed (yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitalis L.) using airborne hyperspectral data - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ge, S., Xu, M., Anderson, G.L., Carruthers, R.I. 2007. Estimating leaf area index and aboveground biomass of an invasive weed (yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitalis L.) using airborne hyperspectral data. Weed Science. 55:671-678.
Research and Initial Success on Biological Control of Saltcedar in the United States, with Emphasis on Texas and New Mexico - (Proceedings) - (13-Feb-06)
Estimation of Yellow Starthistle Cover Through Casi Hyperspectral Imagery Using Linear Spectral Mixture Models - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Miao, X., Gong, P., Swope, S.M., Pu, R., Carruthers, R.I., Anderson, G.L. 2006. Estimation of yellow starthistle cover through casi hyperspectral imagery using linear spectral mixture models. Remote Sensing of Environment. 101:329-341.
Biological Control - Theory and Application of Pest Management - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Carruthers, R.I., D'Antonio, C.M. 2005. Biological control - theory and application of pest management. Biological Control. 35(3):181-388
Science and Decision Making in Biological Control of Weeds: Benefits and Risks of Biological Control - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Carruthers, R.I., D'Antonio, C.M. 2005. Science and decision making in biological control of weeds: benefits and risks of biological control. Biological Control. 35(3):181-182.
Detection of Yellow Starthistle Through Band Selection and Feature Extraction from Hyperspectral Imagery - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Miao, X., Gong, P., Pu, R., Carruthers, R., Heaton, J. 2007. Detection of Yellow Starthistle Through Band Selection and Feature Extraction from Hyperspectral I magery. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 73(9): 1005­1015
Hyperspectral Characteristics of Canopy Components and Structure for Phenological Assessment of An Invasive Weed - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ge, S., Everitt, J.H., Carruthers, R.I., Gong, P., Anderson, G.L. 2006. Hyperspectral characteristics of canopy components and structure for phenological assessment of an invasive weed. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 120:109-126
Hyperspectral Characteristics of Canopy Components and Structure for Phonological Assessment of An Invasive Weed. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ge, S., Everitt, J.H., Carruthers, R.I., Gong, P., Anderson, G.L. 2006. Hyperspectral characteristics of canopy components and structure for phonological assessment of an invasive weed. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. p. 1-18
Estimating Temperature-Dependent Developmental Rates of Diorhabda Elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a Biological Control Agent of Saltcedar (Tamarix, SPP.) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Herrera, A.M., Dahlsten, D.D., Tomic-Carruthers, N., Carruthers, R.I. 2005. Estimating temperature-dependent developmental rates of diorhabda elongata (coleoptera: chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of saltcedar (tamarix, spp.). Environmental Entomology. 34(4):775-784.
Remote Sensing of Saltcedar Biological Control Effectiveness - (Proceedings)
Carruthers, R.I., Anderson, G.L., Deloach Jr, C.J., Knight, J., Peng, G., Ge, S. 2005. Remote sensing of saltcedar biological control effectiveness. In: Proceedings for the Monitoring Science & Technology Symposium September 20-24, 2004, Denver, Colorado. RMRS-P-37 CDROM.
Texture analysis for mapping Tamarix parviflora using aerial photographs along the Cache Creek, California - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ge, S., Carruthers, R.I., Reddy, A.M., Gong, P. 2006. Texture analysis for mapping Tamarix parviflora using aerial photographs along the Cache Creek, California. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 114:65-83.
Saltcedar - (Book / Chapter)
Deloach Jr, C.J., Carruthers, R.I. 2004. Saltcedar. In: Coombs, Clark, Piper and CoFrancesco, editors. Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the United States. Eugene, Oregon: Oregon State University Press. p. 311-316.
First Results for Control of Saltcedar (Tamarix SPP.) in the Open Field in the Western United States - (Proceedings)
Deloach, C.J., Carruthers, R.I., Dudley, T.L., Eberts, D., Kazmer, D.J., Knutson, A.E., Bean, D.W., Knight, J., Lewis, P.A., Milbrath, L.R., Tracy, J.L., Knight, J., Tomic-Carruthers, N., Herr, J.C., Abbott, G., Prestwich, S., Harruff, G., Everitt, G.H., Thompson, D.C., Mityaev, I., Jashenko, R., Li, B., Sobhian, R., Kirk, A., Robbins, T.O., Delfosse, E.S. 2004. First results for control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the open field in the western United States. In: Cullen, J.M., Briese, D.T., Kriticos, D.J., Lonsdale, W.M., Morin, L., Skott, J.K., editors. Proceedings of XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia. p. 505-513.
Biological Control Programs for Integrated Invasive Plant Management - (Proceedings)
Deloach, C.J., Carruthers, R.I. 2004. Biological control programs for integrated invasive plant management. In: Proceedings of Weed Science Society of America Meeting. Kansas City, MO: Weed Science Society of America. 2004 CDROM.
Monitoring the Dynamics of Saltcedar Biological Control in Lovelock, Nevada - (Proceedings)
Anderson, G.L., Knight, J., Carruthers, R.I. 2004. Monitoring the dynamics of saltcedar biological control in Lovelock, Nevada. In: Proceedings of the 19th Biennial Workshop on Color Photography Videography and Airborne Imaging for Resource Assessment. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, October 6-8, 2003, Logan, Utah. 2004 CDROM.
Biological Control of Saltcedar (Tamarix: Tamaricaceae) in the United States Could Be Extended to Include Control in Northern Mexico - (Proceedings)
Deloach, C.J., Carruthers, R.I., Rodriguez-del-Bosque, L.A. 2003. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix: Tamaricaceae) in the United States could be extended to include control in northern Mexico. In: Memoirs of the XXVI Congresso Nacional de Control Biologico, November 3-8, 2003, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. p. 228-230.
Suitability of Diorhabda Elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) for Biological Control of Saltcedars (Tamarix SPP.) in the Southern United States and Northern Mexico - (Proceedings)
Milbrath, L.R., Herr, J.C., Knutson, A.E., Tracy, J.L., Bean, D.W., Rodriguez-del-Bosque, L.A., Carruthers, R.I., Deloach, C.J. 2003. Suitability of Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) for biological control of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the southern United States and northern Mexico. In: Memoirs of the XXVI Congresso Nacional de Control Biologico, November 3-8, 2003, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. p. 225-227.
First results for control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the open field in the western United States - (Proceedings)
Deloach Jr, C.J., Carruthers, R.I. 2004. In: Cullen, Briese, Kriticos, Lonsdale, Morin and Scott (Eds). First results for control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the open field in the western United States. Proceeding of the XI Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, CSIRO Cambera. p.506-513.
Saltcedar: Tamarix Ramosissima, T. Chinensis, T. Parviflora, T. Canariensis, T. Gallica, and Hybrids - (Book / Chapter)
DeLoach, C.J., Carruthers, R.I. 2004. Saltcedar - Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis, T. parviflora, T. canariensis, T. gallica, and hybrids. In: Coombs, E.M., Clark, J.K., Piper, G.L., Cofrancesco Jr., A.F. Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the United States. Western Society of Weed Science. Corvallis, OR:Oregon State University Press. p. 311-316.
Monitoring of Invasive Tamarix Distribution and Effects of Biological Control with Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Anderson, G.L., Carruthers, R.I., Ge, S., Gong, P. 2004. Monitoring of invasive tamarix distribution and effects of biological control with airborne hyperspectral remote sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 26(12):2487-2489.
Biological Control of Invasive Species, a Personal Perspective - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Carruthers, R.I. 2004. Biological Control of Invasive Species, A Personal Perspective. Conservation Biology. 18(1):54-57
Zoophthora Radicans (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) Spore Production from Naturally-Infected Empoasca Kraemeri Cadavers and Dry-Formulated Mycelium under Laboratory and Field Conditions - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Wraight, S.P., Galaini-Wraight, S., Carruthers, R.I., Roberts, D.W. 2003. Zoophthora radicans (zygomycetes: entomophthorales) spore production from naturally-infected empoasca kraemeri cadavers and dry-formulated mycelium under laboratory and field conditions. Biological Control. 28(1):60-77.
Host Specificity of the Leaf Beetle, Diorhabda Elongata Deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Asia, a Biological Control Agent for Saltcedars (Tamarix: Tamaricaceae) in the Western United States - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
DeLoach, C.J., Lewis, P.A., Herr, J.C., Carruthers, R.I., Tracy, J.L., Johnson, J. Host specificity of the leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Asia, a biological control agent for saltcedars (Tamarix: Tamaricaceae) in the Western United States. Biological Control. 2003. v. 27. p. 117-147.
Assessment of Risk to Native Frankenia Shrubs from An Asian Leaf Beetle, Diorhabda Elongata Deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Introduced for Biological Control of Saltcedars (Tamarix SPP.) in the Western United States - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lewis, P.A., DeLoach, C.J., Herr, J.C., Dudley, T.L., Carruthers, R.I. Assessment of risk to native Frankenia shrubs from an Asian leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), introduced for biological control of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States. Biological Control. 2003. v. 27. p. 148-166.
Invasive Species Research in the USDA Agricultural Research Service - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
CARRUTHERS, R.I. INVASIVE SPECIES RESEARCH IN THE USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE. PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE. 2003. p. 827-834.
Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria Bassiana and Paecilomyces Fumosoroseus for Microbial Control of the Silverleaf Whitefly,bemisia Argentifolii - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (18-Oct-99)
Foreign Exploration for Natural Enemies of Bemisia Tabaci from Southeast Asia - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (01-Oct-97)
Efficacy of Early-Season Foliar Applications of Beauveria Bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for Control of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations in Virginia, Usa - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (11-Apr-97)
The Hierarchical Environment for Research Modeling of Ecological Systems: Object-Oriented Simulation Modeling for the Entomologist - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (22-Aug-96)
ARS News Articles
Last Modified: 8/21/2014