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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

GARY G.. CLARK

Research Leader

gclark_00.png

Gary G. Clark

Research Leader

Telephone: (352)374-5910
Fax: (352)374-5922
Email: Gary.Clark@ars.usda.gov
http://www.ars.usda.gov/saa/cmave/mfru/gclark

CV Links
Education | Experience
Memberships | Career Assignments
Honors/Awards | Volunteer Activities
Invitations | Publications

Education

PostDoc
Field Arbovirology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, 1975

Ph.D.
Veterinary Entomology/Parasitology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado, 1972. Dissertation: "The role of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in the transmission of Elaeophora schneideri in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico," 164 pp.

M.S.
Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado, 1969. Thesis: "Big Game Values to Colorado Ranches" 125 pp.

B.A.
Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, 1967
 

Work Experience

  • Chief, Dengue Branch and Director, San Juan Laboratories, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico; January 1990-January 2006.
    • Supervised staff of 25 professional, technical and administrative personnel in the planning and conduct of entomological, epidemiological, virological, serological, social science and health communications investigations of dengue and West Nile viruses and prevention and control of their vectors in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean Basin. Results of these studies have contributed to a better understanding of mosquito-borne viral diseases and their control in the Americas. They have also stimulated substantial research into various aspects of dengue viruses in many countries. The current budget for this Branch exceeds $2.5 million.
    • Director of World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, frequent consultant for the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and periodic consultant for the WHO with substantial interactions with many health ministries in the region.
    • Hosted the first international DengueNet meeting for WHO and an Aedes aegypti workshop in San Juan, Puerto Rico for WHO's Tropical Disease Research (TDR) Program. The meeting was a presentation of a web-based reporting program for national programs and was attended by 40 persons from 15 countries from Latin America and Asia. The workshop initiated an international, multi-country study of container productivity for Aedes aegypti, as a possible prelude to more focused control of the containers where this mosquito is produced, and was attended by participants from 12 countries.
    • Provided assistance and advice on vector surveillance and control procedures, epidemic investigations, and epidemic control responses to several countries in Latin America and elsewhere (Mexico-Texas 1999; El Salvador, 2000; Hawaii, 2001; Brazil, 2002), as well as training for their senior public health officials.
    • Provided technical supervision for a $500,000 grant to Rotary Clubs in Puerto Rico, Colorado, Colombia, and the Philippines for prevention and control of epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in eastern Colombia and the Philippines.
    • Provided consultation to the Puerto Rico Department of Health about potential pest mosquito problems following Hurricane Hortense in 1996 and responses to epidemic dengue transmission during 1994 and 1998.
    • Provided direction for a field project funded by the Rockefeller Foundation on community based strategies for the control of the Aedes aegypti mosquito that transmits dengue and yellow fever viruses; coordinated field activities for professional staff, medical teams from Honduras and Mexico, and Puerto Rico Health Department employees assigned to the project in Puerto Rico; and served as project officer and consultant to these teams after they returned to their home countries.
    • Provided technical supervision for a $400,000 grant to the Rotary Club of San Juan for prevention and control of epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Puerto Rico and established dengue prevention projects in the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Panama, Colombia, and the Caribbean Basin.
    • Developed close liaison with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO); served as consultant for the PAHO in the development and final editing of the "Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in the Americas;" and participated in four subregional meetings to present these guidelines (especially the sections on vector surveillance and control) to specialists from PAHO member countries that were brought together in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Barbados; Havana, Cuba; and Maracay, Venezuela.
    • Served on Advisory Committees for PAHO's Office of Caribbean Program Coordination in Barbados that provided oversight for the Caribbean Cooperation in Health-Government of Italy "Project for Aedes aegypti Control in the Caribbean" and critiqued a new initiative for the development of more effective information systems for the surveillance of Aedes aegypti.
    • Consulted with the PAHO's Caribbean Epidemiology Research Centre (CAREC) in Trinidad about a new initiative for laboratory-based dengue surveillance in the Caribbean and reviewed a World Bank-Venezuelan Ministry of Health and Social Assistance plan for prevention and control of dengue.
    • Coordinated the CDC response to a dengue fever outbreak among members of the emergency response team assigned to St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands following the passage of Hurricane Hugo in September, 1989.
    • Coordinated the CDC response to requests for direct technical and professional assistance and consultation regarding aerially-applied emergency vector control measures for the Minister of Health and Social Assistance of Venezuela where an epidemic of DHF began in August, 1989.
  • Research Entomologist, Dengue Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico; August 1986- December 1989.
    • Planned and conducted field and laboratory research on biology and behavior of mosquito vectors of dengue in Puerto Rico and applied both traditional and innovative approaches to study the ecology of important mosquito vectors with the ultimate objective of identifying effective methods of control.
    • Organized and coordinated major, multi agency projects to carefully evaluate the efficacy of "emergency" vector control methodologies available for Aedes aegypti . The projects involved the U.S. Air Force Reserve using its Hercules C-130 aircraft and the U.S. Navy using its PAU-9 unit which is mounted inside of UH-1 helicopters. Both of these projects demonstrated that the insecticide (Dibrom 14; Naled) that was delivered aerially reached the ground but did not adequately penetrate the indoor resting site of this mosquito species and have a substantial impact on the local population.
    • Conducted surveillance for dengue and control of its mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, in Puerto Rico; in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in collaboration with CAREC-Trinidad staff; in Honduras with Ministry of Health personnel and U.S. Army entomologists; and in the Dominican Republic with Ministry of Health personnel and U.S. Army entomologists.
    • Provided technical assistance to international health agencies in the investigation and/or response to epidemics of dengue (Ecuador, 1988; Venezuela, 1989).
    • Provided technical training in vector biology and control for visiting scientists from many countries in Latin America, Southeast Asia and the South Pacific.
  • Medical Entomologist (Military occupational specialty - 68G), Department of Arboviral Entomology, Disease Assessment Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Ft. Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, January 1983 - July 1986.
    • Planned, organized and initiated studies of the ecology of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Jamestown Canyon, and La Crosse viruses on the Delaware Maryland Virginia Peninsula. Results provided insight on the actual or potential vectors for these pathogenic arboviruses.
    • Participated in an investigation of an outbreak of EEE virus in a captive flock of endangered whooping cranes at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland and evaluated an experimental vaccination regime. This vaccine produced neutralizing antibodies thought to protect young cranes from this fatal disease. As a result, the vaccine was incorporated into the whooping crane propagation program at Patuxent and used on chicks produced by a flock that had been established in the wild in Florida.
    • Conducted a field and laboratory investigation following an episode of unexplained deaths in 29 free-ranging horses at a remote location on the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Mosquitoes were collected and identified for laboratory assay. Several pathogenic arboviruses, including western equine encephalitis (WEE), and a new mosquito-borne virus were isolated. These results provided the basis for additional studies of several arboviruses pathogenic to wildlife and domestic livestock in southern New Mexico.
  • Consultant (part-time), Clarke Outdoor Spraying Company, Inc., Roselle, Illinois; Summer months, 1982-1984.
    Established a surveillance program for St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus and its potential mosquito vectors for the Chicago Department of Health; provided input for formal plans for prevention of SLE in an urban environment; and helped prepare contingency vector control strategies for dealing with a possible SLE epidemic in Chicago.
  • Lecturer, Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, llinois, 1978-1982.
    Served as guest speaker in infectious disease classes and advised students on projects relating to vector borne diseases.
  • Assistant Division Chief and Laboratory Manager, Division of Laboratories, Illinois Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, 1980-1982.
    Provided general administrative guidance, and direction for a laboratory with staff of 90 persons.
  • Chief, Arbovirus Surveillance Program, Division of Laboratories, Illinois Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, 1976-1982.
    • Designed and implemented a statewide arbovirus surveillance program with primary emphasis on early detection of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus and arboviral antibodies in its mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts, respectively. This program successfully detected SLE virus activity in young birds and/or mosquitoes prior to its detection in humans. Initiated a longitudinal study of Aedes triseriatus in a focus of La Crosse virus transmission. Defined the diel biting activity of Ae. triseriatus and demonstrated its important role in the transovarial and transstadial transmission and maintenance of this virus in north central Illinois.
    • Supervised and participated in collection of field specimens, laboratory testing, interpretation of data, preparation of administrative reports (including appropriate mosquito control recommendations) while establishing a close working relationship with local health departments, mosquito control agencies, and appropriate state and federal agencies.
    • Participated in numerous training programs for mosquito control workers; maintained liaison with news media sources in radio, television, and newspapers; and presented results of program to audiences ranging from small town forums for the public to international scientific meetings.
  • Assistant Professor of Biology, Department of Biology, Missouri Western State College, St. Joseph, Missouri, 1975-1976.
    Presented courses on Public Health Microbiology, Human Ecology, and Environmental Biology. Developed and taught a new course on Microbiology of Human Disease which required organization of lectures and laboratory sessions for pathogenic bacteriology, parasitology, virology, and mycology.
  • Postgraduate Researcher/Postdoctoral Scholar, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, 1973-1975.
    • Managed the field research program studying mosquito borne viruses in southern California. This required coordination of logistics and scheduling of personnel for lengthy field studies utilizing specialized techniques for collection of mosquitoes and trapping and bleeding of wild and domestic mammals.
    • Laboratory studies involved identification and assay of mosquitoes for virus, testing of mammal sera for arboviral antibodies, and data analysis.
  • Research Parasitologist, Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama, 1972-1973.
    Participated in a program for evaluation of experimental antimalarial compounds and included administration of freshly prepared drugs to Rhesus monkeys; preparation, staining, and reading of blood smears for Plasmodium cynomolgi malaria; and management and maintenance of insectary with Anopheles freeborni mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were fed on gametocytemic monkeys and held for development of sporozoites needed for subsequent experimental primate infections.

Special Career Assignments

Because dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are emerging infections in the Americas and the CDC's Dengue Branch is recognized as the leading group working on this Aedes aegypti-borne disease in the Americas, I have served as a consultant for 18 years for a variety of programs in the following countries:
  • Anguilla - Participated in research project on biological control of mosquitoes with staff from PAHO-Barbados and Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC)-Trinidad.
  • Antigua and Barbuda - Participated in the evaluation of the national dengue program.
  • Argentina and Bolivia - Reviewed Chagas' Disease prevention programs sponsored by the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International.
  • Bolivia - Consulted with health officials about development of a Dengue Prevention Program in Santa Cruz. Reviewed activities of the national public health laboratory for the Ministry of Health.
  • Brazil - Evaluated the national dengue control program for the Ministry of Health and the National Health Foundation in Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia. Met with the Minister of Health to discuss dengue problems in Brazil. Played an important leadership role in a PAHO Task Force charged with evaluating a proposal to change the hemispheric strategy/policy for controlling Aedes aegypti in the Americas from "control" to "eradication.".
  • Colombia - Supported diagnostic laboratory and helped organize and establish community-based dengue prevention project with Rotarians and other groups in several cities. Reviewed the national dengue program and contingency plans for dengue/DHF epidemics in Bogotá. Participated in site visit for World Bank to gather information for a possible loan to the government of Colombia for prevention and control of dengue and its mosquito vector. Facilitated interactions with mosquito control professionals in the U.S. to provide specialized technical advice to officials responsible for controlling Culex spp. produced in a large reservoir containing water with high organic content that comes from the Bogotá River.
  • Costa Rica - Provided frequent consultation on dengue surveillance, prevention and control for the Ministry of Health.
  • Dominican Republic - Provided consultation for vector control research projects conducted by Ministry of Health and U.S. Army personnel; provided advice on laboratory-based surveillance program; facilitated establishment of community-based prevention project with Rotarians and other groups; and consulted on the possible eradication of Aedes albopictus. Facilitated development of a control plan for Culex mosquitoes at a major site urban site in Santo Domingo. Evaluated the national dengue control program.
  • Ecuador - Provided technical assistance and advice on vector control response to the Ministry of Health during a dengue epidemic in Guayaquil and supported national diagnostic laboratory. At the invitation of the Charles Darwin Research Station, conducted a field assessment of conditions contributing to a dengue outbreak in the Galapagos Islands and made recommendations for preventing future outbreaks.
  • El Salvador - Provided consultation during dengue epidemic and reviewed the national dengue program. Developed a World Bank proposal for long-term prevention of dengue.
  • Grenada - Participated in evaluation of national dengue program and lectured at the St. Georges Medical School.
  • Guatemala - Reviewed vector control and dengue surveillance programs and facilitated laboratory training program. Evaluated the national dengue program twice.
  • Haiti - Reviewed dengue surveillance and control activities for USAID.
  • Honduras - Participated in vector control research project involving Ministry of Health and U.S. Army personnel; supported national dengue diagnostic laboratory; facilitated Rockefeller Foundation-sponsored Aedes aegypti and dengue prevention project in El Progreso; and helped organize and establish community-based dengue prevention project with Rotarians and other groups in Puerto Cortes. Consulted and helped develop a plan for the infectious (dengue) disease surveillance and prevention programs with USAID-Honduras in Tegucigalpa. Evaluated the national dengue program following separate requests from PAHO and USAID.
  • Mexico - Facilitated Rockefeller Foundation-sponsored project in the Yucatan, reviewed laboratory-based surveillance program and assessed medical entomology program in Monterrey. Assisted as consultant in the analysis of pre-intervention surveys, entomological evaluation, and field observation of the mosquito surveys associated with the Dengue Prevention and Control Project in Merida. Evaluated the national dengue program twice. Provide ongoing consultation on issues related to dengue surveillance, prevention, Aedes aegypti control and West Nile virus surveillance.
  • Panama - Supported national diagnostic laboratory, helped organize and established community-based dengue prevention project with Rotarians and other groups. Evaluated Panama Canal Authority's vector control program and presented a mini-workshop on vector control.
  • Paraguay - Reviewed the dengue diagnostic capability at the national public health laboratory for the Ministry of Health.
  • Peru - Evaluated (twice) the national dengue control program for the Ministry of Health.
  • Singapore - Provided consultation on dengue surveillance and Aedes aegypti control program for Ministry of the Environment.
  • St. Kitts and Nevis - Participated in evaluation of the national dengue program and promoted school-based dengue prevention program with local Rotarians.
  • Trinidad and Tobago - Participated on the scientific advisory committee for the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) and participated in evaluation of the Ministry of Health's national dengue program. Facilitated COMBI (Communications for Behavioral Impact) workshop sponsored by PAHO/WHO for four Caribbean countries.
  • Turks and Caicos Islands - Reviewed vector control program and promoted dengue surveillance at the request of the Ministry of Health.
  • Union Island (St. Vincent and the Grenadines) - Participated in research project on biological control using Toxorhynchites moctezuma to control Aedes aegypti with entomologists from CAREC in Trinidad.
  • Venezuela - Provided consultation to the Minister of Health on the use of aerially applied emergency mosquito control measures during DHF epidemic in 1989. Reviewed the national dengue program with PAHO consultants for the Ministry of Health.

Relevant Volunteer Activities

  • I have been the principal organizer of the Spanish Language Symposium at the American Mosquito Control Association's last 15 annual meetings. Financial support has been obtained from various sources to bring young scientists and vector control specialists from Latin America to this U.S.-based meeting. This successful symposium with simultaneous translation has generated many fruitful and productive interactions between colleagues from Latin America and their North American counterparts. I organized a major international symposium on "Current status of vector control strategies" for the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. I worked with the participants to prepare a refereed supplement to the Society's Journal, which was published in 1994.
  • In 1989, I became a member of the Rotary Club of San Juan (Puerto Rico) and actively participate as a technical advisor to the Club's Dengue Prevention Committee. Community-based programs have been initiated in Puerto Rico with the elementary schools, the Head Start program for economically disadvantaged children, the Boy Scouts, and the Children's Museum in San Juan. I have presented and promoted the Club's dengue prevention program to Rotary Clubs in the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Panama, Colombia (Medellin, Bucaramanga, and Puerto Berrio), St. Kitts, Anguilla, Barbados, and Martinique. I was President of the Rotary Club of San Juan in 1999-2000.
  • At the request of the Rotary Foundation, I served as a site visitor for major 3-H (Health, Hunger and Humanity) Projects to review project progress in Argentina and Bolivia (Chagas' Disease) and Mexico (tuberculosis). I was also a reviewer of project proposals that were subsequently funded for dengue and malaria prevention in Honduras. I am also part of an evaluation team for a malaria prevention project in Vanuatu supported by the Rotary Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The last project promotes the use of long-lasting, insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria prevention in villages throughout this South Pacific country.

Awards

Public Health Service (PHS) Awards
  • PHS Outstanding Unit Citation (Support for CDC-Mexico BIDS project), 2004
  • National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC,"James H. Nakano Award" for publication "Community-based dengue prevention programs in Puerto Rico: Impact on knowledge, behavior and residential mosquito infestation" by Winch, Leontsini, Rigau-Perez, Ruiz-Perez, Clark and Gubler in Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2002) 67:363-370. 2003.
  • PHS Unit Commendation (Support for dengue outbreak in Hawaii), 2002
  • PHS Unit Commendation (Support for dengue outbreak in Texas and Mexico), 2001
  • PHS Unit Commendation (Y2K Transition Support Activities), 2000
  • National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, "James H. Nakano Award" for publication "Using disability-adjusted life years to assess the economic impact of dengue in Puerto Rico, 1986-1994" by Meltzer, Rigau-Perez, Clark, Reiter and Gubler in Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1998) 59:265-271. 1999.
  • PHS Bicentennial Unit Citation, 1998
  • CDC Group Award to the Dengue Branch for outstanding response to the 1994 dengue epidemic in Puerto Rico, 1995
  • Surgeon General's Exemplary Service Medal, 1993
  • PHS Regular Corps Assimilation Ribbon, 1993
  • PHS Foreign Duty Service Ribbon, 1993 and 1991
  • PHS Commendation Medal, 1990
  • PHS Special Assignment Service Ribbon (Hurricane Hugo relief effort), 1990
  • Certificate of Appreciation, Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1987
  • PHS Citation (Direction and coordination of major aerial control project for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes), 1987
Non-Public Health Service Awards
  • Recipient of "Medal of Honor" American Mosquito Control Association, 2001
  • President of "Club of Excellence" Rotary District 7000 (Puerto Rico), 2000
  • President, Rotary Club of San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1999-2000
  • Recipient of Rotary International's "Service Above Self" Award given annually to about 125 of 1.2 million Rotarians. 1998.
  • President, American Mosquito Control Association, 1997-1998
  • Rotarian of the Year, Rotary Club of San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1993
  • Rotary Service Award, Avenue of Service Award, and Presidential Citation, Rotary Club of San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1990-1992
  • Armed Forces Reserve Medal, U.S. Army (USA), 1982
  • Army Reserve Components Overseas Ribbon, USA, 1981
  • Vice President and President, Illinois Mosquito Control Association, 1980 and 1982
  • Difco Award for Best Paper in the Laboratory Section at Annual Meeting of American Public Health Association, 1980
  • Army Reserve Components Achievement Medal, USA Army Service Ribbon, USA, 1977
  • Best Paper, Rocky Mountain Conference of Parasitologists, Laramie, Wyoming, 1972
  • Distinguished Military Graduate, U.S. Army R.O.T.C., Colorado State University, 1971
  • Hibbs Memorial Award for "Outstanding contribution to big game management in Colorado," Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, 1969

Professional Memberships and Activities

Professional Societies
  • American Mosquito Control Association - President, 1997-1998 and co-organizer of Spanish Language Symposium for Annual Meetings from 1991-2009; served as member of Editorial Board and Bylaws, International, Nominations, Awards and Central Office Committees.
  • American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) - Co-chairman of Local Arrangements Committee for joint meeting with American Society of Parasitologists, Chairman of Young Investigator Award Committee, and member of Nominating Committee.
  • American Society of Tropical Veterinary Medicine (Member of local organizing committee for international meeting- not currently active).
  • Entomological Society of America (Subject Editor for Journal of Medical Entomology)
  • Sigma Xi (not currently active)
  • Society for Vector Ecology (former member of Editorial Board).
  • Wildlife Disease Association (former member of Local Organizing Committee).
Committees and Working Groups
  • American Committee on Arthropod-borne Viruses (ACAV) --Member.
  • American Committee of Medical Entomology (ACME) --Member, former chairman of Executive Council, and organizer of International Symposium on "Prevention of tropical disease: Status of new and emerging vector control strategies" which was published as a Supplement to the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
  • RELCOV (Red Latinoamericana de Control de Vectores) [Latin American Network for Vector Control] - member of Investigation and Human Resources Committees.
Reviewer for the following journals:
  • American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - periodic
  • Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association - frequent
  • Journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases - frequent
  • Journal of Medical Entomology - frequent
  • Journal of Vector Ecology - periodic
  • Journal Wildlife Diseases - infrequent
  • Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine - infrequent
  • Pan American Journal of Public Health (PAHO) - periodic
Membership in Organizations Related to Commissioned Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service
  • Commissioned Officers Association
  • Military Officers Association
  • Reserve Officers Association

Invited Presentations

United States
2004

"West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2004" at the Puerto Rico Pest Control Association, San Juan, PR.

"Dengue in the Americas: its possible transmission in the U.S." at the 17th International Congress of Antiviral Research, Tucson, AZ

"The West Nile virus in the Americas: 1999-2003" at the Annual Meeting of the Puerto Rico Society of Microbiologists, San Juan, PR

"Update: West Nile virus activity in the Americas" at the Annual Meeting of the Puerto Rico Chapter of the American College of Physicians, San Juan, PR

"Update on West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2004" at the 2nd Puerto Rican Public Health Conference, San Juan, PR.

2003

"Threat of dengue to the southeastern United States" in a symposium "Emerging vector-borne diseases threats to public health in the southeastern United States" at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America, Baton Rouge, LA.

"Community control for dengue in Puerto Rico" at the Harvard School of Public Health "Forum on Dengue: The Cuban Experience," Boston, MA.

"The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its role in public health" at the National Meeting of National Pest Management Association, New Orleans, LA.

"Dengue: surveillance, epidemiology prevention and control" at graduate seminar at the School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.

2002

"West Nile virus in the Americas" for staff from the U.S. Virgin Islands Department of Health, St. Thomas and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.

"West Nile virus in the Americas" at Arizona Department of Health training program for Santa Cruz County, Nogales, AZ.

"West Nile virus: its presence in the Americas, 1999-2001" at the 1st Puerto Rican Public Health Conference, San Juan, PR.

Lectures on "Surveillance, prevention and control of dengue and West Nile viruses" at Mosquito Control Workshops, Key West and Clearwater, FL.

"Dengue and its surveillance" and "Update on West Nile virus in the Americas" at the CDC-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA.

"West Nile virus in the Americas and its surveillance in Puerto Rico" at the Puerto Rico College of Veterinarians, San Juan, PR.

2000

"Arthropod-borne disease problems in the U.S." at the Chemical Specialties Manufacturing Meeting, Chicago, IL.

Moderated the American Mosquito Control Association Emergency Response Workshop in Atlantic City, NJ.v

"The threat of infectious diseases in the U.S." at the Virginia Mosquito Control Association meeting, Williamsburg, VA.

"Emerging infectious diseases" at U.S. Navy Occupational Health and Preventive Medicine Workshop, Norfolk, VA.

1999

"The threat of infectious diseases in the United States- a view towards the 21st Century" at the First Annual American Mosquito Control Association "Day in Washington," Washington, DC.

"Dengue fever and its prevention and control" at the Annual Dodd Training Course for Florida Mosquito Control Association members, Gainesville, FL.

1998

"Future Florida mosquito-borne disease prospects," at the State of Florida conference on "Urban growth and its impact on mosquito control problems and opportunities in the future," Orlando, FL.

"Mosquito control issues in the United States and Latin America" at the West Central Mosquito and Vector Control Association Meeting, Grand Junction, CO and the Mid-Atlantic and Virginia Mosquito Control Association Conference, Williamsburg, VA.

"An update on dengue in the Americas and prospects for transmission in the continental U.S." at the California Mosquito and Vector Control Association Annual Meeting, Fish Camp, CA.

1997

"Mosquito control issues in the United States and Latin America" at the Florida Mosquito Control Association, St. Augustine, FL.

"The emergence of viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti and the global response" at the 2nd International Congress of Vector Ecology, Orlando, FL.

"Mosquito biology and control: Education to the public and community participation" and "Emerging infectious diseases" (lectures in Spanish) at a special training course at the University of Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero Beach, FL.

"Tactics for educating individual homeowners in regard to their role in dengue prevention and control" at the Texas Mosquito Control Association Workshop, Weslaco, TX.

"Dengue- a public health problem in the Americas" at the Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control Association Meeting, Kennewick, WA.

1996

"Public-private partnerships to develop and implement community-based prevention programs" at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Baltimore, MD.

"The changing panorama of dengue in the Americas" at the 37th Navy Occupational Health and Prevention Medicine Workshop, Virginia Beach, VA.

"Dengue in the Americas and the new hemispheric response" at the Louisiana Mosquito Control Association Meeting, Covington, LA.

1994

"Community-based prevention of dengue fever in Latin America" at the South Central Mosquito Control Conference, Lake Charles, LA.

"Dengue and other arboviruses" at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Vector Ecology, Gainesville, FL.

"The CDC Dengue Branch's community-based prevention programs" at the Annual Meeting of Ohio Mosquito Control Association, Dayton, OH.

1993

"The epidemiology of EEE virus on the Delmarva Peninsula" at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association, Ft. Myers, FL.

"Necessary components for implementing a successful community-based health program." 4th Millennium Conference, International Medical Service for Health, Washington, DC.

"Dengue hemorrhagic fever and the urban crisis in Latin America." 20th Annual International Health Conference, National Council of International Health, Arlington, VA.

1990 - 1993

During this period, I was invited to give presentations on dengue and dengue prevention to several Rotary Clubs in Puerto Rico

1976 - 1993

During this period, I gave presentations at most Annual Meetings of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the American Mosquito Control Association.

1992

"Reinvasion of Aedes aegypti in the Americas and the Aedes albopictus situation: potential impact on public health." Annual Meeting Entomology Society of America, Baltimore, MD.

1991

"Vector-borne disease threat to the southeastern United States: Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever" at the Florida Mosquito Control Association, Clearwater, FL.

"Community-based, integrated Aedes aegypti control in Puerto Rico" at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Vector Ecology, Reno, NV.

1979

"Virus in search of a host" at the Illinois Public Health Association, Peoria, IL.

1977

"Field and laboratory studies in arbovirology" at the Illinois Academy of Science, St. Louis, MO.

1976 - 1981

During this period, I gave numerous invited presentations on arbovirus surveillance and vector biology and control to the Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Virginia Mosquito Control Associations.

1975

"Arboviral disease surveillance and control in California" at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the U.S.-Mexico Border Public Health Association, Los Angeles, CA.

International
2007

"USDA involvement in repellent development: past and future" and "National and international recommendations for the use of repellents to prevent dengue and malaria" at workshop sponsored by the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) and funded by the Gates Foundation on repellents in London, England.

"Control of dengue vectors: challenges and limitations" (in Spanish) at the 1st International Seminar on New Technologies for Prevention and Control of Dengue in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

"How to respond to a dengue epidemic" in symposium "Strategies for surveillance and control Aedes aegypti in Latin America" at the 7th Latin American Entomology Congress in Acapulco, Mexico

2006

"Mosquito surveillance, control and prevention techniques developed at the US Department of Agriculture" and "Responding to a dengue epidemic" at the 3rd International Dengue Course, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil. Discussions were held about renewal of an expired memorandum of agreement between the MOH and the ARS/USDA focusing on surveillance and biological control of Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever.

"Dengue: A reemerging arboviral disease in the world" at international workshop on "Microbial Control of Dengue Vectors" in Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico

2004

"West Nile virus: a potential problem for Central and South America" and "Hemispheric efforts in the control of dengue" at 3rd International Symposium on Tropical Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Belem, Brazil

"Present and future of dengue in Central America and the Caribbean" and "West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2004" at the 3rd Central American and Caribbean Infectious Disease and 7th Dominican Infectious Disease Congress, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

"Hemispheric forces in the control of dengue" in the "Symposium about community level dengue prevention" sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica.

2003

"West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2002" for senior public health officials from 7 Central American countries convened to discuss SARS, Managua, Nicaragua.

"Diseases transmitted by blood transfusion: West Nile virus" at the 33rd Mexican Congress of Clinical Pathology, Veracruz, Mexico

"Emerging infectious diseases in the Americas: West Nile virus" at the 6th International Symposium on the Epidemiological Control of Vectors, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

"West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2003" at Annual Meeting of CDC-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) Project, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

"West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2003" for Honduras Ministry of Health staff, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

"Community-based dengue prevention programs in Puerto Rico: impact on knowledge, behavior and mosquito infestation," APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Community) Control of Dengue Outbreaks Regional Cooperation Workshop, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

"West Nile virus: its presence in the Americas 1999-2003" and "Social sciences in the prevention of dengue and the programs in Puerto Rico and their evaluation" at the International Seminar "Prevention and control of dengue and West Nile virus encephalitis in Mexico and Central America," Acapulco, Mexico.

2002

"Dengue surveillance: A program in Puerto Rico," "Dengue prevention and control," "West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2002," and "Latest advances in the development of dengue vaccines" at the 28th Venezuelan Microbiology Workshop, Barquisimeto, Venezuela.

"West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2002" at the 2nd National Health Congress at the National Institute of Health, Bogotá, Colombia.

"Current dengue situation and strategies for community participation in the prevention and control of dengue" and "West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2002" at the 1st International Scientific Congress at the National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru.

"Dengue surveillance and prevention in the Americas" and "West Nile virus in the Americas, 1999-2002" for Sonoran state public health officials in Hermosillo and Nogales, Mexico.

"West Nile virus in the Americas" and "Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas: a review of the current situation" at the 33rd Mexican National Congress of Microbiology, Monterrey, Mexico.

"West Nile virus in the Americas,1999-2001" at the 2nd National Congress of the Tropical Medicine Society of Mexico, Monterrey, Mexico.

"Dengue prevention and control" at PAHO-sponsored workshop to review dengue "country plans" and harmonize them with local resources following guidance in the WHO/PAHO recommendations, St. Lucia, West Indies.

2001

"The importance of the social sciences in the dengue prevention" at the 2nd International Surveillance and Vector Control Symposium, Veradero, Cuba.

"Dengue, a challenge of the third millennium" at the 7th International Dengue Course at the Instituto "Pedro Kouri," Havana, Cuba.

"Under appreciated infectious risks in travel medicine: dengue" at the 7th Conference of the International Society of Travel Medicine, Innsbruck, Austria.

"Global dengue dynamics" and "The dengue prevention program in Puerto Rico" at the 2nd International Course on Dengue Prevention, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

"Experiences in community participation in Puerto Rico" at the Mexican Ministry of Health Workshop on National Strategies for Dengue Control and Prevention, Guadalajara, Mexico.

"The distribution and impact of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever" at the 32nd Mexican National Congress of Microbiology, Guanajuato, Mexico.

"Experiences obtained in the evaluation of dengue programs in the Americas" at a workshop sponsored by the Brazilian Health Foundation to determine if successful dengue prevention experiences could be incorporated into other programs, Brasilia, Brazil.

2000

"Global dynamics of dengue" and "Dengue prevention programs in Puerto Rico" at the 1st International Course on the Prevention of Dengue, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

"The importance of social sciences in the prevention of dengue" at the 1st International Conference on Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

"Surveillance and prevention of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever" at the Regional Action Conference for Surveillance and Response to Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Southeast Asia, Bali, Indonesia.

"Dengue hemorrhagic fever in the world: epidemiology and case management" at International Dengue Conference, Fort-de-France, Martinique.

Various lectures at Vector Control Workshop sponsored by Panama Canal Authority, Panama City, Panama.

"The importance and impact of dengue fever in our time" at PAHO-sponsored Workshop on Emergency Planning for Dengue Epidemics, Barbados, West Indies.

1999

"Integrated vector control in developed countries" and "Global regional and national collaborative efforts for protecting public health" at the International Scientific congress on Pest Management of urban diseases vectors-scientific and regulatory consideration, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

"The dengue situation in the Americas" at the 5th Dominican Infectious Disease Congress, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

"Dengue Control" at the 6th International Course on Dengue at the Instituto "Pedro Kouri," Havana, Cuba.

"Aedes aegypti: A challenge for the control and the importance of the social sciences in its resolution" at the 1st International Surveillance and Vector Control Symposium, Veradero, Cuba.

"Current status and impact of emerging diseases on public health" at 8th National Congress on Public Health Research, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

1998

"Dengue con


Last Modified: 8/11/2014