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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Wade Crow

Research Physical Scientist

photo of Wade Crow
Wade T. Crow, Ph.D.
Research Physical Scientist
USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory
Bldg. 007, Rm. 104, BARC-West
Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 USA
Voice: (301) 504-6847
Fax: (301) 504-8931
Wade.Crow@ars.usda.gov


Research Interests:(click here to see a list of current research projects)

  • Land surface water and energy balance modeling.
  • Development of land data assimilation systems to ingest remote sensing retrievals.
  • Microwave and radar remote sensing of soil moisture.
  • Scale and scalability issues in land surface modeling and remote sensing.

Education:

  • 1995 B.A. (Physics) Carleton College, Northfield, MN USA.
  • 1998 M.S.E. (Civil and Environmental Engineering) Princeton University, Princeton, NJ USA.
  • 2001 Ph.D. (Civil and Environmental Engineering) Princeton University, Princeton, NJ USA.

Professional Experience:

  • 2001 - 2002: Post-doctoral research associate for Prof. Eric Wood, Depart. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University.
  • 2002 - present: Research physical scientist, Agricultural Research Service, Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Beltsville, MD.

Selected Awards:

  • 2007: Principal investigator for funded ARS Postdoctoral Research Associate Program proposal "Integration of USDA Remote Sensing Resources into Watershed and Regional-Scale Water Quality Models" ($50 K/year for two years)
  • 2007: Early Career Scientist of Year (ARS Beltsville Area).
  • 2008: Science Definition Team member for the NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission ($50 K/year for three years).
  • 2009: Principal investigator for funded NASA applied science grant proposal entitled "Enhancing the USDA global crop production decision support system with NASA’s Land Surface Information System and water cycle satellite observations" ($250 K/year for 4 years).
  • 2009: Editor's Award for the American Meteorological Society's Journal of Hydrometeorology.
  • 2010: Principal investigator for funded NASA Terrestrial Ecology grant proposal entitled "Ecological and agricultural productivity forecasting using root-zone soil moisture products derived from the NASA SMAP mission" ($130 K/year for 3 years).
  • 2010: Principal investigator for funded NASA Precipitation program grant proposal entitled "Enhancing satellite-based precipitation products using remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals and data assimilation tools" ($100 K/year for 3 years).
  • 2011: Principal investigator for funded NASA Aqua/Terra program grant proposal entitled "Development of a continuous multi-satellite land surface temperature product" ($120 K/year for 3 years).
  • 2013: Science Team member for the NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission ($140 K/year for 4 years).
  • 2014: Principal investigator for funded NASA Aqua/Terra program grant proposal entitled "Integrating microwave and thermal remote sensing for continuous dual source surface energy balance modeling" ($180 K/year for 3 years).


    Professional Service:

    • Science team member for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission.
    • Science team member for the NASA AirMOSS airborne mission.
    • Science team member for the NASA Precipitation Measurement Mission program.
    • Editor for the American Meteorological Society's Journal of Hydrometeorology.
    • Member of American Geophysical Union's technical committee on Hydrology and Remote Sensing.


    Selected Publications:(contact Wade.Crow@ars.usda.gov for unposted reprints)

    (view author's publications/interpretive summaries/technical abstracts since 1999)

    Crow, W.T., and E.F. Wood, "Multi-scale dynamics of soil moisture variability observed during SGP'97," Geophysical Research Letters, 26(23), 3485-3488, 1999.

    Crow, W.T., E.F. Wood and R. Dubayah, "Potential for downscaling soil moisture maps derived from spaceborne imaging radar data," Journal of Geophysical Research, 105(D2):2203-2212, 2000.

    View Paper in pdf formatCrow, W.T., M. Drusch and E.F. Wood, "An observation system simulation experiment for the impact of land surface heterogeneity on AMSR-E soil moisture retrieval," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39(8), 1622-1632, 2001.

    View Paper in pdf formatCrow, W.T., and E.F. Wood, "Impact of soil moisture aggregation on surface energy flux prediction during SGP97," Geophysical Research Letters, 29(1), 2001GL013796, 2002.

    Crow, W.T., and E.F. Wood, "The value of coarse-scale soil moisture observations for regional surface energy balance modeling," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 3, 467-482, 2002.

    Crow, W.T., and E.F. Wood, "The assimilation of remotely sensed soil brightness temperature imagery into a land-surface model using ensemble Kalman filtering: a case study based on ESTAR measurements during SGP97," Advances in Water Resources, 26, 137-149, 2003.

    Crow, W.T., "Correcting land surface model predictions for the impact of temporally sparse rainfall rate measurements using an Ensemble Kalman filter and surface brightness temperature observations," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 4(5), 960-973, 2003.

    Crow, W.T., E.F. Wood and M. Pan, "Multiobjective calibration of land surface model evapotranspiration predictions using streamflow observations and spaceborne surface radiometric temperature retrievals," Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 108(D23), doi:10.1029/2002JD003292, 2003.

    Dery, S.T., W.T. Crow, M. Stieglitz and E.F. Wood, "Modeling snow-cover heterogeneity over complex Artic terrain for regional and global climate models," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5(1), 33-48, 2004.

    Gao, H., E.F. Wood, M. Drusch, W.T. Crow and T.J. Jackson, "Using a microwave emission model to estimate soil moisture from ESTAR observations during SGP99," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5(1), 49-63, 2004.

    View Paper in pdf formatEntekhabi D., E. Njoku, P. Houser, M. Spencer, T. Doiron, J. Smith, R. Girard, S. Belair, W. Crow and twelve others, "The Hydrosphere State (HYDROS) mission concept: An earth system pathfinder for global mapping of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 42(10), 2184-2195, 2004.

    View paper in pdf formatCrow, W.T., D. Ryu and J.S. Famiglietti, "Upscaling of field-scale soil moisture measurements using distributed land surface modeling," Advances in Water Resources, 28(1), 1-5, 2005.

    Crow, W.T., and W.P. Kustas, "Utility of assimilating surface radiometric temperature observations for evaporative fraction and heat transfer coefficient retrieval," Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 115, 105-130, 2005.

    Crow, W.T., T. Chen, D. Entekhabi, P. Houser, A. Hsu, T. Jackson, E. Njoku, P. O'Neill, J. Shi and X. Zhan, "An observing system simulation experiment for Hydros radiometer-only soil moisture products," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 43(6), 1289-1303, 2005.

    Crow, W.T., R. Bindlish and T.J. Jackson, "The added value of spaceborne passive microwave soil moisture retrievals for forecasting rainfall-runoff ratio partitioning," Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L18401, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023543, 2005.

    Crow, W.T., F. Li and W.P. Kustas, "Intercomparison of spatially explicit distributed models for predicting surface energy flux patterns during SMACEX,"  Journal of Hydrometeorology, 6(6), 941-953, 2005.

    Crow, W.T., R.D. Koster, R.H. Reichle and H. Sharif, "Relevance of time-varying and time-invariant retrieval error sources on the utility of spaceborne soil moisture products," Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L24405, doi:10.1029/2005GL024889, 2005.

    Crow, W.T., D. Entekhabi, R.D. Koster and R.H. Reichle, "Multiple spaceborne water cycle observations would aid modeling," EOS, 87, 15, 11 April 2006.

    Crow, W.T., and E. Van Loon, "The impact of incorrect model error assumptions on the sequential assimilation of remotely sensed surface soil moisture," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8(3), 421-431, 2006.

    Zhan, X., P.R. Houser, J.P. Walker and W.T. Crow, "A method of retrieving high resolution soil moisture from Hydros L-band radiometer and radar observations," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44(6), 1534-1545, 2006.

    Crow, W.T, "A novel method for quantifying value in spaceborne soil moisture retrievals," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8(1), 56-67, 2007.

    Crow, W.T., and J.D. Bolten, "Estimating precipitation errors using spaceborne surface soil moisture retrievals," Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L08403, doi:10.1029/2007GL029450, 2007.

    Crow, W.T., and X. Zhan, "Continental-scale evaluation of remotely-sensed soil moisture products," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 4(3), 451-455, 2007.

    Sharif, H.O., W.T. Crow, N. Miller and E.F. Wood, "Multi-decadal high-resolution modeling of the Arkansas/Red River Basin," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8(5), 1111-1127, 2007.

    Reichle, R.H., W.T. Crow, R. D. Koster, H. Sharif and S. Mahanama, "Contribution of soil moisture retrievals to land data assimilation products," Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L01404, doi:10.1029/2007GL031986, 2008.

     Crow, W.T, W.P. Kustas and J. Prueger, "Monitoring root-zone soil moisture through the assimilation of a thermal remote sensing-based soil moisture proxy into a water balance model," Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 1268-1281, 2008.

    Reichle, R.H., W.T. Crow, and C.L. Keppenne, "An adaptive ensemble Kalman filter for soil moisture data assimilation," Water Resources Research, 44, W03423, doi:10.1029/2007WR006357, 2008.

    Zhan, X., W.T. Crow, T.J. Jackson, and P.E. O'Neill, "Improving space-borne radiometer soil moisture retrievals with alternative aggregation rules for ancillary parameters in highly heterogeneous vegetated areas," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 5(2), 261-265,  2008.

    Crow, W.T., and R.H. Reichle, "Comparison of adaptive filtering techniques for land surface data assimilation," Water Resources Research, 44, W08423, doi:10.1029/2008WR006883, 2008.

    Kumar, S.V., R.H. Reichle, C.D. Peters-Lidard, R.D. Koster, X. Zhan, W.T. Crow, J.B. Eylander and P.R. Houser, "A land surface data assimilation framework using the Land Information System: Description and application," Advances in Water Resources, 31, 1419-1432, 2008.

    Reichle, R.H., M.G. Bosilovich, W.T. Crow, R.D. Koster, S.V. Kumar, S.P.P. Mahanama and B.F. Zaitchik, "Recent advances in land data assimilation at the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office," Data Assimilation for Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Hydrologic Applications, S.K. Park (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, 407-428, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-71056-1, 2008.

    Bolten, J., W.T. Crow, X. Zhan, C. Reynolds and T.J. Jackson, "Assimilation of a satellite-based soil moisture product in a two-layer water balance model for a global crop production decision support system," Data Assimilation for Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Hydrologic Applications, S.K. Park (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, 449-465, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-71056-1, 2008.

    http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/13/1/2009/hess-13-1-2009.pdfCrow, W.T., and D. Ryu, "A new data assimilation approach for improving runoff prediction using remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals," Hydrologic and Earth System Sciences, 13, 1-16, 2009. 

    Bindlish, R., W.T. Crow and T.J. Jackson, "The role of passive microwave remote sensing in improving flood forecasts," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 6(1), 112-116, 2009.

    Crow, W.T., G.F. Huffman, R. Bindlish and T.J. Jackson, "Improving satellite rainfall accumulation estimates using spaceborne soil moisture retrievals," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 10(1), 199-212, 2009.

    Ryu, D., W.T. Crow, X. Zhan and T.J. Jackson, "Correcting unintended perturbation biases in hydrologic data assimilation using Ensemble Kalman filter," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 10(3), 734-750, 10.1175/2008JHM1038.1, 2009.

    Kumar, S.V., R.H. Reichle, R.D. Koster, W.T. Crow and C.D. Peters-Lidard, "Role of subsurface physics in the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 10, 1534-1547, 10.1175/2009JHM1134.1, 2009.

    Li, F., W.T. Crow and W.P Kustas, "Towards the estimation of root-zone soil moisture via the simultaneous assimilation of thermal and microwave soil moisture retrievals," Advances in Water Resources, 33, 201-214, 10.1016/j.advwatres.2009.11.007, 2010.

    Bolten, J.D., W.T. Crow, T.J. Jackson, X. Zhan and C.A. Reynolds,"Evaluating the utility of remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals for operational agricultural drought monitoring," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 3, 57-66, 10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2037163, 2010.

    Entekhabi, D., E. Njoku, P. O'Neill, K. Kellogg, W. Crow, W. Edelstein, J. Entin, S. Goodman, T. Jackson, J. Johnson, J. Kimball, J. Piepmeier, R. Koster, K. McDonald, M. Moghaddam, S. Moran, R. Reichle, J. C. Shi, M. Spencer, S. Thurman, L. Tsang, and J. Van Zyl, "The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission," Proceedings of the IEEE, 98(5), 704-716, 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2043918, 2010.

    Crow, W.T., D.G. Miralles and M.H. Cosh, "A quasi-global evaluation system for satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 48(6), 2516-2527, 10.1109/IGARSS.2008.4779051, June 2010. 

    Crow, W.T., W. Wagner and V. Naeimi, "The impact of radar incidence angle on soil moisture retrieval skill," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 7(3), 501-505, 10.1109/LGRS.2010.2040134, 2010. 

    Entekhabi, D., R.H. Reichle, R.D. Koster and W.T. Crow, "Performance metrics for soil moisture retrievals and applications requirements," Journal of Hydrometeorology,11(3), 832-840, 10.1175/2010JHM1223.1, 2010. 

    Crow, W.T. and M.J. van den Berg, "An improved approach for estimating observation and model error parameters for soil moisture data assimilation," Water Resources Research, 46, W12519, 10.1029/2010WR009402, 2010.

    Miralles, D.G., W.T. Crow and M.H. Cosh, "A technique for estimating spatial sampling errors in coarse-scale soil moisture estimates derived from point-scale observations," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 11(6), 1404-1410,10.1175/2010JHM1285.1, 2010.

    Chen, F., W.T. Crow, P.J. Starks, and D.N. Moriasi, "Improving hydrologic predictions of a catchment model via assimilation of surface soil moisture," Advances in Water Resources, 34(4), 526-536, 2011.

    Crow, W.T., M.J. van Den Berg, G.F. Huffman and T. Pellarin "Correcting rainfall using satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals: The soil moisture analysis rainfall tool (SMART)," Water Resources Research, 47, W08521, doi:10.1029/2011WR010576, 2011.

    Qing, L., R. Reichle, R. Bindlish, M.H. Cosh, W.T. Crow, R. de Jeu, G. de Lannoy, G.J. Huffman and T.J. Jackson, "The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to the skill of soil moisture estimates in a land data assimilation system," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 12(5), 750-765, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-10-05000.1, 2011.

    Hain, C.R., W.T. Crow, J.R. Mecikalski, M.C. Anderson and T. Holmes, "An intercomparison of available soil moisture estimates from thermal-infrared and passive microwave remote sensing and land-surface modeling," Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 116, D15107, doi:10.1029/2011JD0156332012, 2011.

    Parinussa, R., T. Holmes and W.T. Crow, "The impact of land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations," Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences, 15, 3135-3151, doi:10.5194/hess-15-3135-2011, 2011.

    Crow, W.T., A.A. Berg, M.H. Cosh, A. Loew, B.P. Mohanty, R. Panciera, P. de Rosnay, D. Ryu and J.P. Walker, "Upscaling sparse ground-based soil moisture observations for the validation of coarse-resolution satellite soil moisture products," Reviews of Geophysics, 50, RG2002, doi:10.1029/2011RG000372, 2012.

    Nearing, G.S., W.T. Crow, K.R. Thorp, M.S. Moran, R.H. Reichle and H.V. Gupta, "Assimilating remote sensing observations of leaf area index and soil moisture for wheat yield estimates: An observing system simulation experiment," Water Resources Research, 48, W05525, doi:10.1029/2011WR011420, 2012.

    Crow, W.T., "Estimating model and observation error covariance information for land data assimilation systems," in press, Land Surface Observation, Modeling and Data Assimilation, S. Liang (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, 2012.

    Crow, W.T., S.V. Kumar and J.D. Bolten, "On the utility of land surface models for agricultural drought monitoring," Hydrologic and Earth System Sciences, 16, 3451-3460, doi:10.5194/hess-16-3451-2012, 2012.

    Bolten, J.D. and W.T. Crow, "Improved prediction of quasi-global vegetation conditions using remotely-sensed surface soil moisture," Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L19406, doi:10.1029/2012GL053470, 2012.

    Yilmaz, M.T., W.T. Crow, M.C. Anderson and C. Hain, "An objective methodology for merging satellite and model-based soil moisture products," Water Resources Research, 48, W11502, doi:10.1029/2011WR011682, 2012.

    Hain, C.R., W.T. Crow, M.C. Anderson and J.R. Mecikalski, "An EnKF dual assimilation of thermal-infrared and microwave satellite observations of soil moisture into the Noah land surface model," Water Resources Research, 48, W11517, doi:10.1029/2011WR011268, 2012.

    Yilmaz, M.T. and W.T. Crow, "The optimality of potential rescaling approaches in land data assimilation," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14, 650–660, 10.1175/JHMD12052.1, 2013.

    Chen, F., W.T. Crow and T. Holmes, "Improving long-term, retrospective precipitation datasets using satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals and the Soil Moisture Analysis Rainfall Tool (SMART)," Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 6(1), 063604, doi:10.1117/1.JRS.6.063604, 2013.

    Holmes, T., W.T. Crow, M.T. Yilmaz, T.J. Jackson and J.B. Basara, "Enhancing model-based land surface temperature estimates using multi-platform microwave observations," Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 11, 577-591, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50113, 2013.

    Holmes, T., W.T. Crow and C. R. Hain, "Timing of the diurnal temperature cycle in remote sensing and modeling," Hydrology and Earth Systems Science, 17, 3695-3706, doi:10.5194/hess-17-3695-2013, 2013

    Nearing, G.S., H.V. Gupta, W.T. Crow and W. Gong, "An approach to quantifying the efficiency of a Bayesian filter," Water Resources Research, 49(4), 2164-2173, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20177, 2013.

    Nearing, G.S., H.V. Gupta and W.T. Crow, "Information loss in approximately Bayesian estimation techniques: A comparison of generative and discriminative approaches to estimating agricultural productivity," Journal of Hydrology, 507, 163-173, 2013.

    Crow, W.T. and M.T. Yilmaz, "The Auto-Tuned Land Assimilation System (ATLAS)," in press, Water Resources Research, 50(1), 371-384, doi:10.1002/2013WR0145502014, 2014. 

    Bruscantini, C., P. Perna, P. Ferrazzoli, F. Grings, H. Karszenbaum and W.T Crow, "Effect of forward/inverse model asymmetries over retrieved soil moisture assessed with an OSSE for the Aquarius/SAC-D," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 7(3), 943-949, doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2013.2265076, 2014.

    Bruscantini, C., W.T. Crow, F. Grings, M. Maas and H. Karszenbaum, "An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for the Aquarius/SAC-D soil moisture product," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 52(10), 6086-6094, doi: 10.1109/TGARS.2013.2294915, 2014.

    Han, E., W.T. Crow, T. Holmes and J.D. Bolten, "Benchmarking a soil moisture data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 15, 1117-1134, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-13-0125.1, 2014.

    Yilmaz, M.T., M.C. Anderson, B. Zaitchik, C.R. Hain, W.T. Crow, M. Ozdogan, J.A. Chun and J. Evans, "Comparison of prognostic and diagnostic surface flux modeling approaches over the Nile River Basin," Water Resources Research, 50(1), 386-408, doi:10.1002/2013WR014194, 2014.

    Yilmaz, M.T. and W.T. Crow, "Evaluation of assumptions in soil moisture triple collocation analysis," Journal of Hydrometeorology, 15, 1293-1302, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-0158.1, 2014.

    Su. C., D. Ryu, W.T. Crow and A.W. Western, "Beyond triple collocation: Applications to satellite soil moisture," in press, Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 2014.

    Qiu, J., W.T. Crow, G.S. Nearing, X. Mo and S. Liu, "The impact of vertical measurement depth on the information content of soil moisture times series data," in press, Geophysical Research Letters, 2014.

    Wardlow, B., M. Anderson, T. Tadesse, C. Hain, W.T. Crow and M. Rodell, "Remote Sensing of Drought: Emergence of a Satellite-Based Monitoring Toolkit for the United States," chapter in Remote Sensing Handbook, P. Thenkabail (Ed.), Taylor and Francis, in press, 2015.

    Chen, F., W.T. Crow and D. Ryu, "Simultaneous state and forcing data correction for improved rainfall-runoff modeling," accepted, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2015.

    Alvarez-Garreton, C, D. Ryu, A.W. Western, W.T. Crow and D.E. Robertson, "The impacts of assimilating satellite soil moisture into a rainfall-runoff model in a semi-arid catchment," accepted, Journal of Hydrology, 2015.

    Qiu, J., W.T. Crow, X. Mo and S. Liu, "The impact of temporal auto-correlation mismatch on the assimilation of satellite-derived surface soil moisture retrievals," submitted, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 2015.

    Hain, C.R., W.T. Crow, M.C. Anderson and M.T. Yilmaz, "Diagnosing neglected soil moisture source/sink processes via a thermal infrared-based two-source energy balance model," in revision, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2015.

    Su. C., D. Ryu, W.T. Crow and A.W. Western, "Stand-alone error characterisation of microwave satellite soil moisture using a Fourier method," in revision, Remote Sensing of Environment, 2015.


Last Modified: 7/9/2014
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