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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

Abasiofiok Mark Ibekwe (Mark)
US Salinity Laboratory
Microbiologist

Phone: (951) 369-4828
Fax: (951) 342-4963

450 W BIG SPRINGS RD
RIVERSIDE, CA, 92507-4617

Projects
Protection of Food and Water Supplies from Pathogen Contamination
Appropriated (D)
  Accession Number: 420973
Algae for Conversion of Manure Nutrients to Energy and Animal Feed: Evaluation of Advanced Nutritional Value, Toxicity, and Zoonotic Pathogens
Reimbursable (R)
  Accession Number: 426025

Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Persistence of Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 strains in agricultural soils - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ma, J., Ibekwe, A.M., Crowley, D.E., Yang, C. 2014. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 strains in agricultural soils. Science of the Total Environment. 490:822-829.
Real-time isothermal detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli using recombinase polymerase amplification - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Murinda, S.E., Ibekwe, A.M., Zulkaffly, S., Cruz, A., Park, S., Razak, N., Paudzai, F.M., Ab Samad, L., Baquir, K., Muthaiyah, K., Santiago, B., Rusli, A., Balkcom, S. 2014. Real-time isothermal detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli using recombinase polymerase amplification. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 11(7):529-536.
A glimpse of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in soils from eastern China - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Wang, H., Ibekwe, A.M., Ma, J., Wu, L., Lou, J., Wu, Z., Liu, R., Xu, J., Yates, S.R. 2014. A glimpse of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in soils from eastern China. Science of the Total Environment. 476-477:49-56.
Potential human pathogenic bacteria in a mixed urban watershed as revealed by pyrosequencing Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Leddy, M., Murinda, S.E. 2013. Potential human pathogenic bacteria in a mixed urban watershed as revealed by pyrosequencing. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079490.
Assessing the diversity and composition of bacterial communities across a wetland, transition, upland gradient in Macon County Alabama Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shange, R., Haugabrooks, E.M., Ankumah, R.O., Ibekwe, A.M., Smith, R.C., Dowd, S. 2013. Assessing the diversity and composition of bacterial communities across a wetland, transition, upland gradient in Macon County Alabama. Diversity. 5(3):461-478.
Influence of bacterial communities based on 454-pyrosequencing on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soils Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ma, J., Ibekwe, A.M., Yang, C., Crowley, D.E. 2013. Influence of bacterial communities based on 454-pyrosequencing on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soils. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 84(3):542-554.
Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in major leafy green producing soils Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ma, J., Ibekwe, A.M., Crowley, D.E., Yang, C-H. 2012. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in major leafy green producing soils. Environmental Science and Technology. 46:12154-12161.
A framework for developing research protocols for evaluation of microbial hazards and controls during production that pertain to the quality of agricultural water contacting fresh produce that may be consumed raw Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Harris, L.J., Bihn, E.A., Bender, J., Blessington, T., Danyluk, M.D., Delaquis, P., Ibekwe, A.M., Goodridge, L., Ilic, S., Kniel, K., Lejeune, J.T., Schaffner, D., Stoeckel, D., Suslow, T. 2012. A framework for developing research protocols for evaluation of microbial hazards and controls during production that pertain to the quality of agricultural water contacting fresh produce that may be consumed raw. Journal of Food Protection. 75(12):2251-2273.
Distinct soil bacterial communities revealed under a diversely managed agroecosystem Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shange, R.S., Ankumah, R.O., Ibekwe, A.M., Zabawa, R., Dowd, S.E. 2012. Distinct soil bacterial communities revealed under a diversely managed agroecosystem. PLoS One. 7(7):e40338. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040338.
Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in soil water extracts using Vibrio Harveyi BB721 and its implication for microbial biomass Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ma, J., Ibekwe, A.M., Wang, H., Xu, J., Leddy, M., Yang, C., Crowley, D.E. 2012. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in soil water extracts using Vibrio Harveyi BB721 and its implication for microbial biomass. PLoS One. 7(5): e28519. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028519.
Microbiological evaluation of water quality from urban watersheds for domestic water supply improvement - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Murinda, S.E., Graves, A.K. 2011. Microbiological evaluation of water quality from urban watersheds for domestic water supply improvement. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8:4460-4476.
Bacterial composition in sediment and surface water as indicators for pollution in a mixed watershed Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Leddy, M.B., Bold, R.M., Graves, A.K. 2011. Bacterial composition in sediment and surface water as indicators for pollution in a mixed watershed. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 79:155-166.
Bacterial community composition in low-flowing river water with different sources of pollutants - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Leddy, M.B., Bold, R.M., Graves, A.K. 2011. Bacterial community composition in low-flowing river water with different sources of pollutants. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 79:155-166.
Variations of indicator bacteria in a large urban watershed - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Lesch, S.M., Bold, R.M., Leddy, M.B., Graves, A.K. 2011. Variations of indicator bacteria in a large urban watershed. Transactions of the ASABE. 54(6):2227-2236.
Persistence of escherichia coli O157:H7 and its mutants in soils - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ma, J., Ibekwe, A.M., Yi, X., Wang, H., Yamazaki, A., Crowley, D.E., Yang, C. 2011. Persistence of escherichia coli O157:H7 and its mutants in soils. PLoS One. 6(8):1-8.
Effects of Fumigants on Microbial Diversity and Persistence of E. coli O15:H7 in Contrasting Soil Microcosms - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Ma, J. 2011. Effects of Fumigants on Microbial Diversity and Persistence of E. coli O15:H7 in Contrasting Soil Microcosms. Science of the Total Environment. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711006589.
Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli from human and animal sources uncovers multiple resistances from human sources - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Murinda, S.E., Graves, A.K. 2011. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli from human and animal sources uncovers multiple resistances from human sources. PLoS One. 6(6):1-12.
Commensal effect of pectate lyases secreted from Dickeya dadantii on the proliferation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce leaves - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Yamazaki, A., Li, J., Hutchins, W.C., Wang, L., Ma, J., Ibekwe, A.M., Yang, C. 2011. Commensal effect of pectate lyases secreted from Dickeya dadantii on the proliferation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce leaves. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77(1):156-162.
Quantification of persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in contrasting soils Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Papiernik, S.K., Grieve, C.M., Yang, C. 2010. Quantification of persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in contrasting soils. Internationl Journal of Microbiology. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmb/2011/421379.html.
Influence of Soil fumigation by Methyl Bromide and Methyl Iodide on Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere Microbial Community Structure Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Papiernik, S.K., Yang, C. 2010. Influence of Soil Fumigation by Methyl Bromide and Methyl Iodide on Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere Microbial Community Structure. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. 45(5):427-436.
Regulatory mechanisms of exoribonuclease PNPase and regulatory small RNA on T3SS of dickeya dadantii Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Zeng, Q., Ibekwe, A.M., Biddle, E., Yang, C.H. 2010. Regulatory mechanisms of exoribonuclease PNPase and regulatory small RNA on T3SS of dickeya dadantii. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 23(10):1345-1355.
Influence of fumigants on soil microbial diversity and survival of E. coli O157:H7 Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Papiernik, S.K., Grieve, C.M., Yang, C. 2010. Influence of fumigants on soil microbial diversity and survival of E. coli O157:H7. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. 45(5):416-426.
Bacterial diversity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rhizosphere in response to salinity, soil pH and boron Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Poss, J.A., Grattan, S.R., Grieve, C.M., Suarez, D.L. 2010. Bacterial diversity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rhizosphere in response to salinity, soil pH and boron. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 42(4):567-575.
Persistence of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on the Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere of lettuce. Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Grieve, C.M., Papiernik, S.K., Yang, C.H. 2009. Persistence of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on the Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere of lettuce. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 49:784-790.
An assessment of environmental conditions for control of downy brome by Pseudomonas fluorescens D7 Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Kennedy, A.C., Stubbs, T. 2010. An assessment of environmental conditions for control of downy brome by Pseudomonas fluorescens D7. International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management(IJETM). 12:27-46.
Microbiological Evaluation of fecal bacterial Composition from surface water through Aquifer Sand Material - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Lyon, S.R. 2008. Microbiological Evaluation of fecal bacterial Composition from surface water through Aquifer Sand Material. Journal of Water and Health. Vol 6 No 3:411-421
Characterization of Developing Microbial Communities in Mount St. Helen's Pyroclastic Substrate Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Kennedy, A.C., Halvorson, J.J., Yang, C. 2007. Characterization of developing microbial communities in Mount St. Helen's pyroclastic substrate. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Vol 39:2496-2507
Survival of Escherichia Coli O157:h7 in Soil and on Lettuce after Fumigation Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Grieve, C.M., Yang, C. 2007. Survival of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in soil and on lettuce after fumigation. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. Vol. 53:623-635
Global Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis on Multiple Virulence Factors of Erwinia Chrysanthemi 3937 Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Yang, S., Zhang, Q., Chorkowski, A.O., Glick, B.R., Ibekwe, A.M., Cooksey, D.A., Yang, C.H. 2007. Global effect of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis on multiple virulence factors of erwinia chrysanthemi 3937. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Feb 2007: 1079-1088
Fate of E. coli O157:H7 in the Environment - (Abstract Only)
Ibekwe, A.M. 2006. Fate of E. coli O157:H7 in the Environment. Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting in Indianapolis, IN Nov 12-16, 2006. Paper No. 88-4
Bacterial Composition in Urban Watershed Creeks Impacted by Contaminants from different Sources. - (Abstract Only)
Ibekwe, A.M., Lyon, S.R. 2006. Bacterial Composition in Urban Watershed Creeks Impacted by Contaminants from different Sources. Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting in Indianapolis, IN Nov 12-16, 2006. Paper No. 186-2
Soil Diversity Along a Forest Profile Using PCR-DGGE - (Abstract Only)
Thompson, M., Moss, E., Ibekwe, A.M., Senwo, Z., Taylor, R. 2006. Soil Diversity Along a Forest Profile Using PCR-DGGE. Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting in Indianapolis, IN Nov 12-16, 2006. CD-ROM
Evaluation of the Effect of Arsenic Contamination on Selected Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Diversity - (Abstract Only)
Garuba, I., Ankumah, R., Ibekwe, A.M., Corley, M., Egnin, M. 2006. Evaluation of the Effect of Arsenic Contamination on Selected Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Diversity. Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting in Indianapolis, IN Nov 12-16, 2006. CD-ROM.
Evaluation of the Effects of Tillage on Selected Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Diversity - (Abstract Only)
Durant, M., Ankumah, R., Corley, M., Ibekwe, A.M., Mcintyre, S.C. 2006. Evaluation of the Effects of Tillage on Selected Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Diversity. Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting in Indianapolis, IN Nov 12-16, 2006. CD-ROM
Microbial Characteristics Through Drinking Water Aquifer Sand Material Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Lyon, S.R. 2007. Microbial characteristics through drinking water aquifer sand material. Engineering in Life Sciences. 1:81-89
Quantification of survival of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on Plants affected by Contaminated Irrigation Water - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Shouse, P.J., Grieve, C.M. 2006. Quantification of survival of Escherichia Coli 0157:H7 on Plants affected by Contaminated Irrigation Water. Engineering in Life Sciences. Vol. 6:566-572
Impact of Plant Density and Microbial Composition on Water Quality from a Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Lyon, S.R., Leddy, M., Jacobson-Meyers, M. 2007. Impact of plant density and microbial composition on water quality from a free water surface constructed wetland. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 102:921-936
Impact of Plant Density and Microbial Composition on Water Quality from a Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland - (Abstract Only)
Ibekwe, A.M. 2006. Impact of plant density and microbial composition on water quality from a free water surface constructed wetland. American Society of Agronomy Abstracts, annual meeting, Salt Lake City, UT. [CD-ROM]
Persistence of Escherichia Coli O157:h7 in Soil after Fumigations - (Abstract Only)
Ibekwe, A.M., Grieve, C.M., Yang, C.-. 2006. Persistence of escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil after fumigations. [CD-ROM] American Society for Microbiology Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Real-Time Pcr Quantification of Persistence of Escherichia Coli O157:h7 in Soil Impacted by Fumigations - (Abstract Only)
Ibekwe, A.M., Grieve, C.M. 2006. Real-time pcr quantification of persistence of escherichia coli o157:h7 in soil impacted by fumigations. (Abstract) CD-ROM. Annual Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Meeting.
Impact of Plant Species and Density on Microbial Community Composition in a Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland - (Abstract Only)
Ibekwe, A.M., Leddy, M., Lyon, S.R., Jacobson, M. 2005. Impact of plant species and density on microbial community composition in a free water surface constructed wetland. American Society for Microbiology Annual Meeting. CD-ROM, Atlanta, GA.
Determining Rate of Change in Cucumber Rhizosphere Microbial Community Composition in Response to Soil Ph, Salinity, and Boron Reprint Icon - (Proceedings)
Ibekwe, A.M., Grieve, C.M., Poss, J.A., Grattan, S., Suarez, D.L. 2005. Determining rate of change in cucumber rhizosphere microbial community composition in response to soil pH, salinity, and boron. In: Proceedings of the International Salinity Forum, Managing Saline Soils and Water: Science, Technology, and Soil Issues. April 25-27, 2005. Riverside, CA pp:77-80.
Persistence of Escherichia Coli O157:h7 in Rhizosphere and Non-Rhizosphere Soils after Fumigation - (Abstract Only)
Ibekwe, A.M. 2005. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils after fumigation. International Union of Microbiological Societies Proceedings/Abstracts. Page 18.
Fate of Escherichia Coli O157:h7 in Irrigation Water on Soils and Plants - (Proceedings)
Ibekwe, A.M., Watt, P.M., Shouse, P.J., Grieve, C.M. 2005. Fate of escherichia coli o157:h7 in irrigation water on soils and plants. In: First International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, January 23-26, 2005, New Orleans, LA. 2:11-17.
Impact of Dairy Production on Microbial Characteristics Through Drinking Water Aquifer Material - (Proceedings)
Ibekwe, A.M., Lyon, S. 2005. Impact of dairy production on microbial characteristics through drinking water aquifer material. In: Proceedings of First International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, January 23-26, 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana. 1:215-221.
Fate of Escherichia Coli O157:h7 in Irrigation Water on Soils and Plants As Validated by Culture Method and Real-Time Pcr - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Watt, P.M., Shouse, P.J., Grieve, C.M. 2005. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in irrigation water on soils and plants as validated by culture method and real-time PCR. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 50:1007-1014.
Enrichment and Molecular Characterization of Chloropicrin and Metam-Sodium-Degrading Microbial Communities - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Papiernik, S.K., Yang, C. 2004. Enrichment and molecular characterization of chloropicrin- and metam-sodium-degrading microbial communities. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 66:325-332.
Genome-Wide Identification of Plant-Up-Regulated Genes of Erwinia Chrysanthemi 3937 Using a Gfp Based Ivet Leaf Array - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Yang, S., Perna, N.T., Coksey, D.A., Okinaka, Y., Lindow, S.E., Ibekwe, A.M., Keen, N.T., Yang, C.H. 2004. Genome-wide identification of plant-up-regulated genes of erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 using a gfp based ivet leaf array. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions. 2004. 17(9):999-1008.
Impact of Dairy Production on Microbial Characteristics Through Drinking Water Aquifer Materials - (Abstract Only)
Ibekwe, A.M., Lyon, S. 2004. Impact of dairy production on microbial characteristics through drinking water aquifer materials. (CD-ROM). American Society for Microbiology Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA. May, 2004.
Changes in Developing Plant Microbial Community Structure As Affected by Contaminated Irrigation Water - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Grieve, C.M. 2004. Changes in developing plant microbial community structure as affected by contaminated irrigation water. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 48:239-248.
Effects of Fumigants on Non-Target Organisms in Soils - (Book / Chapter)
Ibekwe, A.M. 2004. Effects of fumigants on non-target organisms in soils. In: Sparks, D.L., editor. Advances in Agronomy. Vol. 83. San Diego, CA:Academic Press. p. 1-35.
Identifying and Quantifying Sources of Bacteria - (Proceedings)
Ibekwe, A.M., Jenkins, M. 2004. Identifying and quantifying sources of bacteria. In: Hargrove, W.L., editor. Pathogens in the Environment Workshop Proceedings, Feb. 23-25, 2004, Kansas City, MO. p. 18-21.
Impact of Fumigants on Soil Bacteria and E. Coli O157:h7 - (Abstract Only)
Ibekwe, A.M., Watt, P.M., Papiernik, S.K. 2003. Impact of fumigants on soil bacteria and E. coli O157:H7. (CD-ROM) American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting. Denver, CO, November, 2003.
Constructed Wetlands for the Removal of Contaminants - (Proceedings)
Ibekwe, A.M., Lyon, S.R. 2003. Constructed wetlands for the removal of contaminants. Proceedings of Watershed Management Conference, Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Environmental Regulations-II:477-485.
Characterization of Microbial Communities and Composition in Constructed Dairy Wetland Wastewater Effluent - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ibekwe, A.M., Grieve, C.M., Lyon, S.R. 2003. Characterization of microbial communities and composition in constructed dairy wetland wastewater effluent. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69(9):5060-5069.
Impact of Fumigants on the Survival of Escherichia Coli O157:h7 in Animal Manure - (Proceedings)
Ibekwe, A.M., Papiernik, S.K., Grieve, C.M. 2003. Impact of fumigants on the survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 in animal manure. Abstract. 103rd General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. May 18-22, 2003. P. 596.
Effect of Organic Mulches on Soil Microbial Activities and Communities One Year after Applicaton - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
YANG, Y., DUNGAN, R.S., IBEKWE, A.M., VALENZUELA-SOLANO, C., CROHN, D.M., CROWLEY, D.E. 2003. EFFECT OF ORGANIC MULCHES ON SOIL MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND COMMUNITIES ONE YEAR AFTER APPLICATON. BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS. 38:273-281.
Effect of Propargyl Bromide and 1,3-Dichloropropene on Soil Microbial Communities Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
DUNGAN, R.S., IBEKWE, A.M., YATES, S.R. EFFECT OF PROPARGYL BROMIDE AND 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES. 2003. FEDERATION OF EUROPEAN MICROBIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES (FEMS) MICROBIOLOGY ECOLOGY. 43:75-87.
Multiplex Fluorogenic Real-Time (Taqman) Pcr for Detection and Quantification of Escherichia Coli O157:h7 in Dairy Wastewater Wetlands - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (17-Jul-02)
Microbial Community Changes with Amendments - (Abstract Only) - (01-Nov-98)
Lipids As Biological Indicators of Soil - (Abstract Only) - (01-Nov-98)
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (Fame) Profiles As a Tool to Investigate Community Structure of Two Agricultural Soils - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (01-Jun-98)
Characterization of Microbial Communities in Mount St. Helens Pyroclastic Substrate Using Fame Analyses - (Abstract Only) - (01-Apr-98)
Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles and Carbon Utilization Patterns for Analysis of Microbial Community Structure under Fiedld and Greenhouse Conditions - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (01-Feb-98)
Characterization of Microbial Communities in Mount St. Helens Pyroclastic Substrate Using Fame Analyses - (Abstract Only)
Frohne, P.S. Havorson, J., Ibekwe, A.M., and Kennedy, A.C. Characterization of microbial communities in Mount St. Helens pyroclastic substrate using FAME analyses. Ecol. Soc. Amer. Abstracts. Spokane, WA. p. 251. 1999.
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Last Modified: 9/2/2014