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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

David I Shapiro Ilan
Fruit and Nut Research
Research Entomologist

Phone: (478) 956-6444
Fax: (478) 956-2929
21 DUNBAR RD
BYRON, GA, 31008-0000

Projects
MANIPULATING HOST- & MATE-FINDING BEHAVIOR OF PLUM CURCULIO: DVLPMNT OF A MULTI-LIFE STAGE MGMNT STRATEGY FOR A KEY FRUIT PEST -CFDA #10.309
General Cooperative Agreement (A)
  Accession Number: 418673
MANIPULATING HOST- & MATE-FINDING BEHAVIOR OF PLUM CURCULIO: DVLPMNT OF A MULTI-LIFE STAGE MGMNT STRATEGY FOR A KEY FRUIT PEST -CFDA #10.309
General Cooperative Agreement (A)
  Accession Number: 418692
MANIPULATING HOST- & MATE-FINDING BEHAVIOR OF PLUM CURCULIO: DVLPMNT OF A MULTI-LIFE STAGE MGMNT STRATEGY FOR A KEY FRUIT PEST -CFDA #10.309
General Cooperative Agreement (A)
  Accession Number: 418705
MANIPULATING HOST- & MATE-FINDING BEHAVIOR OF PLUM CURCULIO: DVLPMNT OF A MULTI-LIFE STAGE MGMNT STRATEGY FOR A KEY FRUIT PEST -CFDA #10.309
General Cooperative Agreement (A)
  Accession Number: 418706
Enhancing Natural Enemy Systems; Biocontrol Implementation for Peach Tree Borers
General Cooperative Agreement (A)
  Accession Number: 423306
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR KEY PESTS OF PECAN AND PEACH
Appropriated (D)
  Accession Number: 420177
ENHANCING NATURAL ENEMY SYSTEMS: BIOCONTROL IMPLEMENTATION FOR PEACHTREE BORERS
Reimbursable (R)
  Accession Number: 422009
Improvement and Implementation of Organic Pecan Systems in the Southeastern US.
Reimbursable (R)
  Accession Number: 422806
MANIPULATING HOST- AND MATE-FINDING BEHAVIOR OF THE PLUM CURCULIO: DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-LIFE STAGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
Reimbursable (R)
  Accession Number: 418365
MANIPULATING HOST- AND MATE-FINDING BEHAVIOR OF THE PLUM CURCULIO: DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-LIFESTAGE MGMT STRATEGY FOR A KEY TREE FRUIT
Reimbursable (R)
  Accession Number: 418959

Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Suppression of pecan and peach pathogens on different substrates using Xenorhabdus bovienii and Photorhabdus luminescens - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Bock, C.H., Hotchkiss, M.W. 2014. Suppression of pecan and peach pathogens on different substrates using Xenorhabdus bovienii and Photorhabdus luminescens. Biological Control. 77, 1-6.
Suppression of pecan scab and phytophthora using symbiotic bacteria and their byproducts - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Bock, C.H., Hotchkiss, M.W. 2014. Suppression of pecan scab and phytophthora using symbiotic bacteria and their byproducts. Pecan Grower. 25(4):66-74.
Breeding a super nematode for enhanced insect pest suppression - (Abstract Only) - (02-Feb-14)
Biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum and its symbiont Xenorhabdus indica against lepidopteran pests: virulence to egg and larval stages - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kalia, V., Sharma, G., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Ganguly, S. 2014. Biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum and its symbiont Xenorhabdus indica against lepidopteran pests: virulence to egg and larval stages . Journal of Nematology. 46,18-26.
Freezing and Desiccation Tolerance in Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Diversity and Correlation of Traits - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Brown, I., Lewis, E.E. 2014. Freezing and Desiccation Tolerance in Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Diversity and Correlation of Traits. Journal of Nematology. 46,27-34.
Earthworms enhance soil health and may also assist in improving biological insect pest suppression in pecans - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Brown, I. 2014. Earthworms enhance soil health and may also assist in improving biological insect pest suppression in pecans. Pecan Grower. 25(3)26-35.
Aggregative group behavior in insect parasitic nematode disperal - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Schliekelman, P., Lewis, E.E. 2014. Aggregative group behavior in insect parasitic nematode disperal. International Journal for Parasitology. 44: 49-54.
Using entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar: Effects of irrigation and species in apple orchards - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Wright, S.E., Tuttle, A.F., Cooley, D.R., Leskey, T.C. 2013. Using entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar: Effects of irrigation and species in apple orchards. Biological Control. 67:123-129.
Identification of the antifungal compound, trans-cinnamic acid, produced by Photorhabdus luminescens, a potential biopesticide against pecan scab - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bock, C.H., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Wedge, D.E., Cantrell, C.L. 2013. Identification of the antifungal compound, trans-cinnamic acid, produced by Photorhabdus luminescens, a potential biopesticide against pecan scab. Journal of Pest Science. 87(1): 155-162.
Identification of the antifungal compound, trans-cinnamic acid, produced by Photorhabdus luminescens, a potential biopesticide against pecan scab - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bock, C.H., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Wedge, D.E., Cantrell, C.L. 2014. Identification of the antifungal compound, trans-cinnamic acid, produced by Photorhabdus luminescens, a potential biopesticide against pecan scab. Journal of Pest Science. 87:155-162.
The potential for controlling Pangaeus bilineatus (Say) (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) using a combination of entomopathogens and an insecticide - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mbata, G.N., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2013. The potential for controlling Pangaeus bilineatus (Say) (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) using a combination of entomopathogens and an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology. 106:2072-2076.
Magnetic and electric fields induce directional response in Steinernema carpocapsae - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ilan, T., Kim-Shapiro, D., Bock, C.H., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2013. Magnetic and electric fields induce directional response in Steinernema carpocapsae. International Journal for Parasitology. 43:781-784.
Biorational pesticides for pecan pests - (Other)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Wood, B.W. 2013. Biorational pesticides for pecan pests. Available: http://sepga.com/files/3613/6510/4649/Shapiro-Ilan_SEPGA_2013.pdf.
Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gardner, W.A., Wells, L., Cottrell, T.E., Behle, R.W., Wood, B.W. 2013. Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes. Pecan Grower. 24(4):54-64.
Introduction chapter: Book on mass production for beneficial organisms - (Book / Chapter)
Leppla, N., Morales Ramos, J.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Rojas, M.G. 2014. Introduction chapter: Book on mass production for beneficial organisms. Book Chapter. pp.3-16.
Organic methods for control of insect pests and diseases of pecan and peach - (Other)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Bock, C.H. 2013. Organic Methods for Control of Insect Pests and Diseases of Pecan and Peach. eOrganic. http://www.extension.org/pages/66504.
Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Brown, I. 2013. Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control. Biological Control. 66, 41-48.
Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Morales Ramos, J. A., Rojas, M. G., Shapiro Ilan, D. I., Tedders, W. L. 2013. Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 48(3):206-221.
Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Jackson, M.A., Wood, B.W. 2013. Research Toward Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides. Pecan Grower. 24(3):30-38.
Production of entomopathogenic nematodes - (Book / Chapter)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Han, R., Xuehong, Q. 2014. Production of entomopathogenic nematodes. Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms: Invertebrates and Entomopathogens. Pp., 321-356.
Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Wood, B.W., Jackson, M.A. 2013. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides. Journal of Economic Entomology. 106:257-266.
Controlling insect pests & diseases in organic pecan and peach production - (Other)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Bock, C.H. 2012. Controlling insect pests & diseases in organic pecan and peach production. Georgia Organics Incorporated. http://vimeo.com/43396297.
Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gardner, W., Wells, L., Cottrell, T.E., Behle, R.W., Wood, B.W. 2013. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environmental Entomology. 42:253-261.
Susceptibility of adult nut curculio to entomopathogenic nematodes in a laboratory study - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Hall, M. 2012. Susceptibility of adult nut curculio to entomopathogenic nematodes in a laboratory study. Pecan Grower. 24(2):24-28.
Entomopathogenic nematodes: effects of the soil agroecosystem on biological control potential - (Abstract Only) - (30-Aug-12)
Laboratory virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to two ornamental plant pests, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and Stethobaris nemesis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Mizell III, R.F. 2012. Laboratory virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to two ornamental plant pests, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and Stethobaris nemesis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Entomologist. 95:922-927.
Susceptibility of adult nut curculio, Curculio hicoriae (Coleopter: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Hall, M.J. 2012. Susceptibility of adult nut curculio, Curculio hicoriae (Coleopter: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions. Journal of Entomological Science. 47:375-378.
Entomopathogenic nematode production and application technology - (Review Article)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Han, R., Dolinski, C. 2012. Entomopathogenic nematode production and application technology. Journal of Nematology. 44:206-217.
Using entomopathogenic nematodes for crop insect control - (Other)
Miles, C., Blethen, C., Gauger, R., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Murray, T. 2012. Using entomopathogenic nematodes for crop insect control. Oregon State University Extension Service. http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/PNW544.pdf
Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to plum curculio, Contrachelus nenuphar: Effects of strain, temperature, and soil type - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Leskey, T.C., Wright, S.E. 2012. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to plum curculio, Contrachelus nenuphar: Effects of strain, temperature, and soil type. Journal of Nematology. 43:187-195.
Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Morales Ramos, J.A., Rojas, M.G., Kay, S., Tedders, W., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2012. Impact of adult weight, density, and age on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 47:208-220.
Cumulative impact of a clover cover crop on the persistance and efficancy of Beauveria bassiana in suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gardner, W., Wells, L., Wood, B.W. 2012. Cumulative impact of a clover cover crop on the persistance and efficancy of Beauveria bassiana in suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environmental Entomology. 41:298-307.
Options for pest and disease control in organic pecan - (Trade Journal)
Bock, C.H., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Hotchkiss, M.W., Wood, B.W. Options for pest and disease control in organic pecan. The Pecan Grower. 23:32-46.2012.(Trade Journal).
Improved control of Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) through multi-stage pre-emergence applications of Steinernema carpocapsae - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gardner, W. 2012. Improved control of Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) through multi-stage pre-emergence applications of Steinernema carpocapsae. Journal of Entomological Science. 47:27-34.
Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical fields: Effects of species, magnitude of voltage, and infective juvenile age - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Campbell, J.F., Lewis, E.E., Kim-Shapiro, D.B. 2012. Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical fields: Effects of species, magnitude of voltage, and infective juvenile age. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 109:34-40.
Optimization of a host diet for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Rojas, M.G., Morales Ramos, J.A., Tedders, L.T. 2012. Optimization of a host diet for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Nematology. 44:264-273.
Application technology for entomopathogenic nematodes - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Claudia, D. 2011. Application technology for entomopathogenic nematodes [abstract]. Journal of Nematology. 43:279-280.
Principles of epizootiology and microbial control - (Book / Chapter)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Bruck, D.J., Lacey, L.A. 2012. Principles of epizootiology and microbial control. In: Vega, F., Kaya, H.K., editors. Insect Pathology. 2nd edition. San Diego, CA:Elsevier. 29-72.
Broad laboratory screening of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Leskey, T.C., Wright, S.E. 2011. Broad laboratory screening of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar. Journal of Nematology. 43:279.
Beneficial trait stability in entomopathogenic nematodes - (Proceedings)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2011. Beneficial trait stability in entomopathogenic nematodes. In: Proceedings of the 13th European Meeting in the IOBC/WPRS Working Group, Insect Pathogens and Insect Parasitic Nematodes, June 19-23, 2011, Innsbruck, Austria. 66:313-316.
The use of entomopathogenic nematodes in the US and issues related to genetic degradation - (Proceedings)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2011. The use of entomopathogenic nematodes in the US and issues related to genetic degradation. In: 13th European Meeting in the IOBC/WPRS Working Group, Insect Pathogens and Insect Parasitic Nematodes, June 19-23, 2011, Innsbruck, Austria. 66:29-32.
Making beneficial fungi resistant to fungicides - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Hotchkiss, M.W., Reilly, C.C. 2011. Making beneficial fungi resistant to fungicides. Pecan Grower. 23(2):16-23.
Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Morales Ramos, J.A., Rojas, M.G., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Tedders, W.L. 2011. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness. Environmental Entomology. 40(50): 1285-1294.
Interactions of a Rhabditis sp. on the virulence of Heterorhabditis and Steinernema in Puerto Rico - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Garcia, J., Jenkins, D.A., Chavarria, J.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Goenaga, R.J. 2011. Interactions of a Rhabditis sp. on the virulence of Heterorhabditis and Steinernema in Puerto Rico. Florida Entomologist. 94(3):704-705.
Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Wood, B.W. 2011. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Pecan Grower. 22(4):14-22.
Outcrossing and crossbreeding recovers deteriorated traits in laboratory cultured Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Chaston, J.M., Dillman, A.R., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Bilgrami, A., Gaugler, R., Hopper, K.R., Adams, B.J. 2011. Outcrossing and crossbreeding recovers deteriorated traits in laboratory cultured Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. International Journal for Parasitology. 41:801-809.
Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Wood, B.W. 2011. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 104:14-20.
Comparative impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunncum - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Reilly, C.C., Hotchkiss, M.W. 2011. Comparative impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunncum. Environmental Entomology. 40:59-65.
Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cottrell, T.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Horton, D.L., Mizell, R.F. 2011. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 104:47-53.
Improving formulations for biopesticides: Enhanced ultraviolet protection for beneficial microbes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Behle, R.W., Compton, D.L., Kenar, J.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2011. Improving formulations for biopesticides: Enhanced ultraviolet protection for beneficial microbes. Journal of ASTM International. 8(1):137-157.
Compatibility of beneficial nematodes and parasitic wasps for control of Indianmeal moth, a pest of stored pecans - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Mbata, G., Hudson, W. 2010. Compatibility of beneficial nematodes and parasitic wasps for control of Indianmeal moth, a pest of stored pecans. Pecan Grower. 22(2):10-17.
Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) - (Other) - (13-Aug-10)
A novel strain of Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) possesses superior virulence to subterranean termites (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Yu, H., Gouge, D.H., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2010. A novel strain of Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) possesses superior virulence to subterranean termites (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Nematology. 42:91-95.
Formulation to Enhance the Insecticidal Activity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of Insect Pests of Orchards - (Proceedings)
Lacey, L.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2010. Formulation to Enhance the Insecticidal Activity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of Insect Pests of Orchards. International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control Proceedings. July 11-14, 2010, Trabzon, Turkey. pp. 20-27.
Compatibility of Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Hebrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Mbata, G. 2010. Compatibility of Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Hebrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Biological Control. 54:75-82.
Post-Application of Anti-Desiccant Agents Improves Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Formulated Host Cadavers or Aqueous Suspension Against Diapausing Codling Moth Larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lacey, L.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Glenn, G.M. 2010. Post-Application of Anti-Desiccant Agents Improves Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Formulated Host Cadavers or Aqueous Suspension Against Diapausing Codling Moth Larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology. Vol 20:909-921.
Improved biological control of pecan weevil through pre-emergence applications - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2010. Improved biological control of pecan weevil through pre-emergence applications. Pecan Grower. 21(3):18-20.
Efficacy of Steinernema carpocapsae for control of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes: Improved above ground suppression with a novel gel application - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Mizzell III, R.F., Horton, D.L., Behle, R.W., Dunlap, C.A. 2010. Efficacy of Steinernema carpocapsae for control of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes: Improved above ground suppression with a novel gel application. Biological Control. 54:23-28.
Microbial control of the pecan weevil - (Proceedings)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Gardner, W. 2010. Microbial control of the pecan weevil. In: Proceedings of the 6th National Meetings of Pecan Scientists, May 26-29, 2010, Ardmore, Oklahoma. p. 26-35.
Integrating biological control into pecan weevil management: a sustainable approach Reprint Icon - (Experiment Station)
Hudson, W.G., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gardner, W.A., Cottrell, T.E., Behle, R.W. 2010. Integrating biological control into pecan weevil management: a sustainable approach. Extension Fact Sheets. www.sare.org/publications/factsheet.
Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Morales Ramos, J.A., Rojas, M.G., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Tedders, W.L. 2009. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets. J. Entomol. Sci. 45(2):75-90.
Improving Formulations for Biopesticides: Enhanced UV Protection for Beneficial Microbes - (Abstract Only)
Behle, R.W., Compton, D.L., Kenar, J.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2009. Improving Formulations for Biopesticides: Enhanced UV Protection for Beneficial Microbes. ASTM. p. 13.
Characterization of biocontrol traits in the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis georgiana (Kesah strain), and phylogenetic analysis of the nematode's symbiotic bacteria. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Mbata, G.N., Nguyen, K.B. 2009. Characterization of biocontrol traits in the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis georgiana (Kesah strain), and phylogenetic analysis of the nematode's symbiotic bacteria. Biological Control. 51:377-387.
Field persistence of EPNS and its importance for success in biocontrol - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2009. Field persistence of EPNS and its importance for success in biocontrol [abstract]. 2nd International Congress of Tropical Nematology, October 4-9, 2009, Maceio, Brazil. Available: http://www.ifns.org/membership/sbn.html.
Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical current - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Campbell, J.F., Lewis, E.E., Kim-Shapiro, D.B. 2009. Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical current [abstract]. 42nd Annual Meeting of Society for Invertebrate Pathology, August 16-21, 2009, Park City, Utah. Available: http//www.sipweb.org/pastmeetingsip.cfm
A comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil using beneficial fungi - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gardner, W.A., Cottrell, T.E., Behle, R.W., Hudson, W.G., Wood, B.W. 2009. A comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil using beneficial fungi. Pecan Grower. 21(1):20-24.
Evaluation of Soyscreen in an Oil-based Formulation for UV Protection of Beauveria bassiana Conidia Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Behle, R.W., Compton, D.L., Laszlo, J.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2009. Evaluation of soyscreen in an oil-based formulation for UV protection of Beauveria bassiana Conidia. Journal of Economic Entomology. 102(5):1759-1766.
Transcriptional profiling of trait deterioration in the insect pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Adhikari, B.N., Lin, C., Bai, X., Ciche, T.A., Grewal, P.S., Dillman, A.R., Chaston, J.M., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Bilgrami, A.L., Gaugler, R. 2009. Transcriptional profiling of trait deterioration in the insect pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Biomed Central (BMC) Genomics. 10:609.
Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in suppressing pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in commercial pecan orchards - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Gardner, W.A., Behle, R.W., Ree, B., Harris, M. 2009. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in suppressing pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in commercial pecan orchards. Southwestern Entomologist. 34:111-120.
Alternative pest control research - (Proceedings)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Reilly, C.C., Hotchkiss, M.W., Wood, B.W. 2009. Alternative pest control research. In: Proceedings of the Southeastern Pecan Growers Meeting. January 12-14, 2009, Savannah, Georgia. 102:50-61.
Mortality and mycosis of adult Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) following application of Metarhizium anisopliae: laboratory and field trials - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Gardner, W.A., Leland, J., Behle, R.W. 2009. Mortality and mycosis of adult Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) following application of Metarhizium anisopliae: laboratory and field trials. Journal of Entomological Science. 44:24-36.
The ability of insect-killing fungi to kill pecan aphids under laboratory conditions - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Jackson, M.A., Wood, B.W. 2009. The ability of insect-killing fungi to kill pecan aphids under laboratory conditions. Pecan Grower. 20(3):18-21.
Directional movement of parasitic nematodes in response to electrical current - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Campbell, J.F., Lewis, E.E., Elkon, J.M., Kim-Shapiro, D.B. 2009. Directional movement of parasitic nematodes in response to electrical current. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 100:134-137.
A novel approach to biological control with entomopathogenic nematodes: Prophylactic control of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Mizell III, R.F., Horton, D.L., Davis, J. 2009. A novel approach to biological control with entomopathogenic nematodes: Prophylactic control of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa. Biological Control. 48:259-263.
Microbial control of insect pests in temperate orchard systems: status and future prospects - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lacey, L.A. 2008. Microbial control of insect pests in temperate orchard systems: status and future prospects [abstract]. 41st Meeting of Society for Invertebrate Pathology, August 3-7, 2008, Warwick, UK. p. 92. Available: http://www.sipweb.org/Meeting_Abstracts/2008abstracts.pdf.
Stability issues: maintenance of beneficial traits in entomopathogenic nematodes - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gaugler, R., Adams, B. 2008. Stability issues: maintenance of beneficial traits in entomopathogenic nematodes [abstract]. 5th International Congress of Nematology, July 13-18, 2008, Brisbane, Australia. p. 167. Available: http://www.ifns.org/pdf/ABSTRACTS_for_51CN_2008.pdf.
Status and future for incorporation of entomopathogenic nematodes in temperate orchard IPM systems - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lacey, L.A. 2008. Status and future for incorporation of entomopathogenic nematodes in temperate orchard IPM systems [abstract]. 5th International Congress of Nematology, July 13-18, 2008, Brisbane, Australia. p. 26. Available: http://www.ifns.org/pdf/ABSTRACTS_for_51CN_2008.pdf.
Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Reilly, C.C., Hotchkiss, M.W. 2008. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan [abstract]. 41st Annual Meeting of Society for Invertebrate Pathology, August 3-7, 2008, Warwick, UK. p. 35. Available: http://www.sipweb.org/Meeting_Abstracts/2008abstracts.pdf.
Virulence of Hypocreales fungi to pecan aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Jackson, M.A., Wood, B.W. 2008. Virulence of Hypocreales fungi to pecan aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 99:312-317.
State-space based mass event-history model I: many decision-making agents with one target - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Fushing, H., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Campbell, J.F., Lewis, E. 2008. State-space based mass event-history model I: many decision-making agents with one target. Annals of Applied Statistics. 2:1503-1522.
Using good nematodes to kill bad nematodes: Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of the pecan root-knot nematode - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Nyczepir, A.P. 2008. Using good nematodes to kill bad nematodes: Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of the pecan root-knot nematode. Pecan Grower. 20(1):36-39.
Role of symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria in carbon dioxide production from hosts infected with Steinermena riobrave Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Christen, J.M., Campbell, J.F., Zurek, L., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E., Ramaswamy, S.B. 2008. Role of symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria in carbon dioxide production from hosts infected with Steinermena riobrave. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 99(1): 35-42. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2008.05.008.
Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes versus Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) larvae in a high clay-content Oxisol soil: Greenhouse trials with potted Litchi chinensis - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Jenkins, D.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Goenaga, R.J. 2008. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes versus Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) larvae in a high clay-content Oxisol soil: Greenhouse trials with potted Litchi chinensis. Florida Entomologist. 91:75-78.
Susceptibility of endemic and exotic North American lady birds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to endemic fungal entomopathogens - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cottrell, T.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2008. Susceptibility of endemic and exotic North American lady birds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to endemic fungal entomopathogens. European Journal of Entomology. 105(3): 455-460.
The slithering bullet: beneficial nematodes for suppression of peach insect pests - (Proceedings)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Mizell, R.F., Horton, D.L. 2008. The slithering bullet: beneficial nematodes for suppression of peach insect pests. In: Proceedings of Southeastern Peach Convention, January 11-13, 2008, Savannah, Georgia. p. 16-18.
A comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with Beauveria bassiana under field conditions - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gardner, W.A., Cottrell, T.E., Behle, R.W., Wood, B.W. 2008. A comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with Beauveria bassiana under field conditions. Environmental Entomology. 37:162-171.
Heterorhabditis georgiana n. sp. (Rhabditia: Heterorhabditidae) from Georgia, USA - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nguyen, K.B., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Mbata, G.N. 2008. Heterorhabditis georgiana n. sp. (Rhabditia: Heterorhabditidae) from Georgia, USA. Nematology. 10:433-448.
Testing the potential to suppress pecan disease using byproducts from bacteria - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Reilly, C.C., Hotchkiss, M.W. 2008. Testing the potential to suppress pecan disease using byproducts from bacteria. Pecan Grower. 19(3):20-25.
Naturally-occurring pathogens and invasive insects - (Book / Chapter)
Cottrell, T.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2008. Naturally-occurring pathogens and invasive insects. In: Hajek, A.E., et al., editors. Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods. New York, NY:Springer. p. 19-32.
Influence of symbiotic bacteria on entomopathogenic nematode--host interactions - (Abstract Only)
Campbell, J.F., Christen, J.M., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E. 2007. Influence of symbiotic bacteria on entomopathogenic nematode--host interactions (abstract). National Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA., December 7-12, 2007.
Group dynamics of entomopathogenic nematodes: What we can learn from the slithering herd? - (Abstract Only)
Lewis, E.E., Heish, F., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Stevens, G., Campbell, J.F. 2007. Group dynamics of entomopathogenic nematodes: What we can learn from the slithering herd? (abstract). National Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, December 7-12, 2007.
Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers - (Other)
Morales Ramos, J.A., Tedders, W.L., Dean, C.B., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Rojas, M.G. 2007. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers. Software and User Manual Public Release.
Control of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar with entomopathogenic nematodes: effects of application timing, alternate host plant, and nematode strain - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Mizell, R.F., Cottrell, T.E., Horton, D.L. 2007. Control of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar with entomopathogenic nematodes: effects of application timing, alternate host plant, and nematode strain. Biological Control. 44:207-215.
Microscopic evaluation of the fate of Conidia of two entomogenous fungi in soil - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Scocco, E.A., Gardner, W.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2007. Microscopic evaluation of the fate of Conidia of two entomogenous fungi in soil. Journal of Entomological Science. 42:413-414.
Microbial Control of Insect Pests in Temperate Orchard Systems: Potential for Incorporation into IPM - (Review Article)
Lacey, L.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2007. Microbial Control of Insect Pests in Temperate Orchard Systems: Potential for Incorporation into IPM. Annual Review Of Entomology 53:121-144.
Entomopathogenic nematodes and insect management - (Book / Chapter)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Grewal, P. 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes and insect management. In: Capinera, J.L., editor. Encyclopedia of Entomology. 2nd edition. Dordrecht:Springer. p. 1336-1340.
Soil moisture and strain effects on entomopathogenic nematode suppression of the pecan weevil - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Brown, I., Gardner, W.A., Hubbard, R.K., Wood, B.W. 2007. Soil moisture and strain effects on entomopathogenic nematode suppression of the pecan weevil. Pecan Grower 19(1):32-38.
Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against Diaprepes Abbreviatus in An Oxisol - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Jenkins, D.A., Shapiro Ilan, D., Goenaga, R. 2007. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes against Diaprepes abbreviatus in an oxisol. Florida Entomologist. 90(2):401-403
Trait Modification in Entomopathogenic Nematodes - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gaugler, R., Adams, B., Hopper, K.R. 2007. Trait Modification in Entomopathogenic Nematodes. Society of Invertebrate Pathology Annual Meeting, August 12-16, 2007, Quebec City, Canada. p. 71-72. Available: http://www.sipweb.org/Meeting_Abstracts/2007abstracts.pdf.
Microbial Control of Plum Curculio and Peachtree Borers - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Mizell, R., Horton, D. 2007. Microbial Control of Plum Curculio and Peachtree Borers. Society for Invertebrate Pathology Annual Meeting, August 12-16, 2007, Quebec City, Canada. p. 75. Available: http://www.sipweb.org/Meeting_Abstracts/2007abstracts.pdf.
Differential susceptibility of lady beetles to Beauveria bassiana - (Abstract Only)
Cottrell, T.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2007. Differential susceptibility of lady beetles to Beauveria bassiana [abstract). In: Abstracts of Ecology of Aphidophaga Conference, September 4-11, 2007, Athens, Greece. p. O37.
Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Reilly, C.C., Hotchkiss, M.W. 2009. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 42:715-728.
Entomopathogenic nematodes and bacteria applications for control of the pecan root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne partityla, in the greenhouse - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Nyczepir, A.P., Lewis, E.E. 2006. Entomopathogenic nematodes and bacteria applications for control of the pecan root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne partityla, in the greenhouse. Journal of Nematology. 38:449-454.
Alternative Management Strategy for Peachtree Borer and Lesser Peachtree Borer - (Proceedings)
Cottrell, T.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2007. Alternative Management Strategy for Peachtree Borer and Lesser Peachtree Borer. In: Proceedings of the Southeastern Peach Convention. Southeastern Peach Convention, January 5-7, 2007, Savannah, Georgia. p. 39-40.
Effect of soil moisture and a surfactant on entomopathogenic nematode suppression of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Brown, I., Gardner, W.A., Hubbard, R.K., Wood, B.W. 2006. Effect of soil moisture and a surfactant on entomopathogenic nematode suppression of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae. Journal of Nematology. 38:474-482.
Responses of the Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema Riobrave, to Its Insect Hosts, Galleria Mellonella and Tenebrio Molitor - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Christen, J.M., Campbell, J.F., Lewis, E.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Ramaswamy, S.B. 2007. Responses of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema riobrave, to its insect hosts, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor. Parasitology 134:889-898.
Longevity of insect-killing nematodes in soil from a pecan orchard - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Stuart, R.J., Mccoy, C.W. 2007. Longevity of insect-killing nematodes in soil from a pecan orchard. Pecan Grower. 18(3):14-16.
Microbial control of insect pests of stone fruit and nut crops - (Book / Chapter)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lacey, L.A., Siegel, J.P. 2007. Microbial control of insect pests of stone fruit and nut crops. In: Lacey, L., Kaya, H.K., editors. Field Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology. Vol. II. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 547-566.
Application and evaluation of entomopathogens for citrus pest control - (Book / Chapter)
Mccoy, C.W., Stuart, R.J., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Duncan, L.W. 2007. Application and evaluation of entomopathogens for citrus pest control. In: Lacey, L., Kaya, H.K., editors. Field Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology. Vol II. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 567-582.
Attraction Behavior of Three Entomopathogenic Nematode Species Towards Infected and Uninfected Hosts - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ramos-Rodriguez, O., Campbell, J.F., Christen, J.M., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E., Ramaswamy, S.B. 2007. Attraction behavior of three entomopathogenic nematode species towards infected and uninfected hosts. Parasitology 134: 729-738.
Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Release from Insects Infected with Entomopathogenic Nematodes Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ramos-Rodriguez, O., Campbell, J.F., Lewis, E.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Ramaswamy, S.B. 2007. Dynamics of carbon dioxide release from insects infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 94: 64-69.
Invertebrate Predators and Parasitoids of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus Nenuphar (Herbst)(coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Georgia and Florida - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Jenkins, D.A., Russ, M. Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Horton, D. 2006. Invertebrate predators and parasitoids of plum curculio, conotrachelus nenuphar (herbst) (coleoptera: curculionidae) in Georgia and Florida. Florida Entomologist. Volume 89(4):435-440.
Stability of entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens, during in vitro culture - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Wang, Y., Bilgrami, A.L., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gaugler, R. 2007. Stability of entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens, during in vitro culture. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 34:73-81.
Entomopathogenic Nematode Infectivity Enhancement Using Physical and Chemical Stressors - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Brown, I.M., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gaugler, R.R. 2006. Entomopathogenic nematode infectivity enhancement using physical and chemical stressors. Biological Control. 39:147-153.
An Abridged Glossary of Terms Used in Invertebrate Pathology, 3rd Edition - (Other)
Onstad, D.W., Fuxa, J.R., Humber, R.A., Oestergaard, J., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gouli, V.V., Anderson, R.S., Andreadis, T.S., Lacey, L.A. 2006. An Abridged Glossary of Terms Used in Invertebrate Pathology, 3rd Edition. Society of Invertebrate Pathology. Available: http://www.sipweb.org/glossary.
Source of Trait Deterioration in Entomopathogenic Nematodes Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora and Steinernema Carpocapsae During in Vivo Culture - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bilgrami, A.L., Gaugler, R., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Adams, B. 2006. Source of trait deterioration in entomopathogenic nematodes heterorhabditis bacteriophora and steinernema carpocapsae during in vivo culture. Nematology. 8:397-409
Control of Pests in Pecan and Peach Using Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Challenges and Successes - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E. 2006. Control of pests in pecan and peach using entomopathogenic nematodes: challenges and successes [abstract]. Journal of Nematology. 38:292.
Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Insects: Direct and Active Infection - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Campbell, J.F., Lewis, E.E. 2006. Entomopathogenic nematodes and insects: direct and active infection [abstract]. Journal of Nematology. 38:292.
Effect of Steinernema glaseri-infected host exudates on movement of conspecific infective juveniles - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kunkel, B.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Campbell, J.F., Lewis, E.E. 2006. Effect of Steinernema glaseri-infected host exudates on movement of conspecific infective juveniles. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 93:42-49.
Potential Use of Soyscreen in Formulations of Beauveria Bassiana for Uv Protection - (Abstract Only)
Behle, R.W., Compton, D.L., Laszlo, J.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2006. Potential use of SoyScreen in formulations of Beauveria bassiana for UV protection. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting North Central Branch. Paper No. D-215.
Alternative Pest Control Tactics in Pecan - (Proceedings)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Gardner, W., Behle, R.W., Nyczepir, A.P., Wood, B.W. 2006. Alternative pest control tactics in pecan. Proceedings of the Southeastern Pecan Growers Meeting. 99:86-94.
Susceptibility of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon Exitiosa, to Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrave in laboratory and field trials - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cottrell, T.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2006. Susceptibility of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon Exitiosa, to Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrave in laboratory and field trials. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 92:85-88.
Management strategies for borers - (Proceedings)
Cottrell, T.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2006. Management strategies for borers. In: Proceedings of the Southeastern Peach Convention, January 5-8, 2006, Savannah, Georgia. p. 17.
Susceptibility of the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E. 2006. Susceptibility of the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions. Environmental Entomology. 35:358-365.
A Comparison of Entomopathogenic Nematode Longevity in Soil under Laboratory Conditions - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Stuart, R.J., Mccoy, C.W. 2006. A comparison of entomopathogenic nematode longevity in soil under laboratory conditions. Journal of Nematology. 38:119-129.
Taxonomic and biological characterization of Steinernema rarum found in the Southeastern United States - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nguyen, K.B., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Fuxa, J.R., Wood, B.W., Bertolotti, M.A., Adams, B.J. 2006. Taxonomic and biological characterization of Steinernema rarum found in the Southeastern United States. Journal of Nematology. 38:28-40.
Protein Changes in the Symbiotic Bacterium Photorhabdus Luminescens During in Vitro Serial Culture - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bai, C., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Wang, Y., Gaugler, R., Crowles, E.A., Yi, S. 2005. Protein changes in the symbiotic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens during in vitro serial culture. International Journal of Nematology. 15:126-135.
Application technology and environmental considerations for use of entomopathogenic nematodes in biologican control. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gouge, D.H., Piggott, S.J., Patterson Fife, J. 2006. Application technology and environmental considerations for use of entomopathogenic nematodes in biological control. Biological Control. 38:124-133.
Evaluation of Application Technologies of Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of the Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus Sulcatus - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bruck, D.J., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E. 2005. Evaluation of application technologies of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(6):1884-1889.
To What Extent Can Beneficial Insect-Killing Nematodes Reproduce in Pecan Weevils? - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Dutcher, J.D. 2005. To what extent can beneficial insect-killing nematodes reproduce in pecan weevils?. Pecan Grower. 17(1):15-18.
Targeted Improvement of Steinernema Carpocapsae for Control of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio Caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Through Hybridization and Bacterial Transfer - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Stuart, R.J., Mccoy, C.W. 2005. Targeted improvement of steinernema carpocapsae for control of the pecan weevil, curculio caryae (horn) (coleoptera: curculionidae) through hybridization and bacterial transfer. Biological Control. 34:215-221.
Formulations and Methods for Enhancing Post-Application Survival - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2006. Formulations and methods for enhancing post-application survival [abstract]. In: Program and Abstracts. 38th Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology, July 7-11, 2006, Anchorage, Alaska. p. 96.
Improved Strains of Steinernema Carpocapsae for Control of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio Caryae - (Abstract Only) - (10-Apr-05)
Susceptibility of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E. 2005. Susceptibility of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 89:150-156.
Critical Issues and Research Needs for Expanding the Use of Nematodes in Biocontrol - (Book / Chapter)
Grewal, P.S., Ehlers, R., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2005. Critical issues and research needs for expanding the use of nematodes in biocontrol. In Grewal, P., Ehlers, R-U, Shapiro-Ilan, D. (eds.) Nematodes as Biological Control Agents. p. 479-489. CABI Publishing.
Laboratory Evaluation of Virulence of Heterorhabditid Nematodes to Plodia Interpunctella Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mbata, G.N., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2005. Laboratory evaluation of virulence of heterorhabditid nematodes to plodia interpunctella hubner (Lepidoptera: pyralidae). Environmental Entomology. 34:676-682.
Biologically-Based Insecticides for Pecan Pest Management - (Proceedings)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Gardner, W.A., Wood, B.W. 2005. Biologically-based insecticides for pecan pest management. Western Pecan Growers Association Proceedings. 39:4-12.
Recycling Potential and Fitness in Steinernematid Nematodes Cultured in Curculio Caryae - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Dutcher, J.D., Hatab, M. 2005. Recycling potential and fitness in steinernematid nematodes cultured in curculio caryae. Journal of Nematology. 37:12-17.
Definitions of Pathogenicity and Virulence in Invertebrate Pathology - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Fuxa, J.R., Lacey, L.A., Onstad, D.W., Kaya, H.K. 2005. Definitions of pathogenicity and virulence in invertebrate pathology. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 88:1-7.
Stabilization of Beneficial Traits in Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora Through Creation of Inbred Lines - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bai, C., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gaugler, R., Hopper, K.R. Stabilization of beneficial traits in heterorhabditis bacteriophora through creation of inbred lines. Biological Control. 2005. 32:220-227.
Effect of Application Method on Fitness of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Emerging at Different Times - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Perez, E.E., Lewis, E.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2004. Effect of application method on fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes emerging at different times. Journal of Nematology. 36:534-539.
Characterization of Biocontrol Traits in the Entomopahogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Mexicana (Mx4) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Stuart, R.J., Mccoy, C.W. 2005. Characterization of biological control traits in the entomopahogenic nematode Heterorhabditis mexicana (MX4). Biological Control. 32:97-103.
Potential for Application of Infected Hosts in Microbial Control - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E. 2004. Potential for application of infected hosts in microbial control. Society for Invertebrate Pathology Annual Meeting Proceedings. p.48.
Genetic Improvement for Prevention of Beneficial Trait Deterioration in Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora Through Creation of Inbred Lines - (Abstract Only)
Bai, C., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gaugler, R., Hopper, K.R. 2004. Genetic improvement for prevention of beneficial trait deterioration in heterorhabditis bacteriophora through creation of inbred lines. Society for Invertebrate Pathology Annual Meeting Proceedings. p.104.
In Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro-Ilan, D.I. 2004. In vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes. International Journal Nematology. 14(13-18).
Picking the Best Nematode for Controlling the Pecan Weevil - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Stuart, R., Mccoy, C.W. 2004. Picking the best nematode for controlling the pecan weevil. Pecan Grower. 15(4):11-15.
Orchard Crops - (Book / Chapter)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Duncan, L.W., Lacey, L.A., Han, R. 2005. In Grewal, P., Ehlers, R-U, Shapiro-Ilan, D. (eds.) Orchard crops. Nematodes as Biological Control Agents. p. 215-230. CABI Publishing.
Mixing Insect Diseases to Kill Pecan Weevils - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Jackson, M.A., Reilly, C.C., Hotchkiss, M.W. 2004. Mixing insect diseases to kill pecan weevils. Pecan Grower. 15(3):10-13.
Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematode Concentration on Survival During Cryopreservation in Liquid Nitrogen - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bai, Cheng, Shapiro-Ilan, David, Gaugler, Randy, Yi, Shu-xia. 2004. Effect of entomopathogenic nematode concentration on survival during cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen. Journal of Nematology. 36:281-284.
Mass Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes - (Book / Chapter)
Ehlers, R-U., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2005. Mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes. In Grewal, P., Ehlers, R-U., Shapiro-Ilan, D. (eds.) Nematodes as Biological Control Agents. p. 65-79. CABI Publishing.
Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Mesocriconema Xenoplax Populations in Peach and Pecan - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nyczepir, A.P., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E., Handoo, Z.A. 2004. Effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on mesocriconema xenoplax populations in peach and pecan. Journal of Nematology. 36:181-185.
Heterorhabditis Mexicana N. Sp. (Heterorhabditidae: Rhabditida) from Tamaulipas, Mexico, and Morphological Studies of the Bursa of Heterorhabditis Spp. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nguyen, K.B., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Stuart, R.J., James, R.R., Adams, B.J. 2004. Heterorhabditis mexicana n. sp. (heterorhabditidae: rhabditida) from tamaulipas, mexico, and morphological studies of the bursa of heterorhabditis spp. Nematology. 6:231-244.
Observations on the Use of Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Suppressing Ring Nematode, Mesocriconema Xenoplax, on Peach and Pecan - (Proceedings)
Nyczepir, A.P., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E. 2004. Observations on the use of entomopathogenic nematodes for suppressing ring nematode, mesocriconema xenoplax, on peach and pecan. National and Southeast Peach Convention Proceedings. p.21.
Measuring Field Efficacy of Steinernema Feltiae and Steinernema Riobrave for Suppression of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus Nenuphar, Larvae - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Mizell, R.F., Cottrell, T.E., Horton, D.L. 2004. Measuring field efficacy of steinernema feltiae and steinernema riobrave for suppression of plum curculio, conotrachelus nenuphar, larvae. Biological Control. 30:496-503.
Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests in Orchards: Tools for Integrated Pest Management and Sustainable Agriculture - (Book / Chapter)
Lacey, L.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2006. Microbial control of insect and mite pests in orchards: Tools for integrated pest management and sustainable agriculture. In: R. Dris (Ed.), "Crops: Quality, Growth and Biotechnology", pp. 1-24. WFL Publisher, Helsinki, Finland.
Virulence of new and mixed strains of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema riobrave to larvae of the citrus root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stuart, R.J., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., James, R.R., Nguyen, K.B., Mccoy, C.W. 2004. Virulence of new and mixed strains of the entomopathogenic nematode steinernema riobrave to larvae of the citrus root weevil diaprepes abbreviatus. Biological Control. v.30. p.439-445.
Trunk Perimeter Applications of Beauveria Bassiana to Suppress Adult Curculio Caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Gardner, W.A. 2004. Trunk perimeter applications of beauveria bassiana to suppress adult curculio caryae (coleoptera: curculionidae). Journal of Entomological Sciences. 39:337-349.
New Strains of the Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema Riobrave: Are They Better for Biological Control of the Citrus Root Weevil, Diaprepes Abbreviatus? - (Proceedings)
Stuart, R.J., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Mccoy, C.W. 2003. New strains of the entomopathogenic nematode, steinernema riobrave: are they better for biological control of the citrus root weevil, diaprepes abbreviatus?. Society for Invertebrate Pathology Annual Meeting Proceedings. p.61.
Effects of Combining An Entomopathogenic Fungi Or Bacterium with Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Mortality of Curculio Caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Jackson, M.A., Reilly, C.C., Hotchkiss, M.W. 2004. Effects of combining an entomopathogenic fungi or bacterium with entomopathogenic nematodes on mortality of curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biological Control. 30:119-126.
Susceptibility of a Native and An Exotic Lady Beetle (Coleoptera: (Coccinellidae) to Beauveria Bassiana - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cottrell, T.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2003. Susceptibility of a native and an exotic lady beetle (Coleoptera: (Coccinellidae) to Beauveria bassiana. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 84:137-144.
Use of Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Suppressing Ring Nematode on Peach and Pecan - (Proceedings)
Nyczepir, A.P., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E. 2003. Use of entomopathogenic nematodes for suppressing ring nematode on peach and pecan. Proceedings of International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives. p.119, 1-2.
The Potential Role for Microbial Control of Orchard Insect Pests in Sustainable Agriculture - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lacey, L.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2003. The potential role for microbial control of orchard insect pests in sustainable agriculture. International Journal of Food, Agriculture, and the Environment. 1:326-331.
A Comparison of Beneficial Traits among Strains of Steinernema Carpocapsae - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Stuart, R., Mccoy, C.W. 2003. A comparison of beneficial traits among strains of steinernema carpocapsae. Journal of Nematology. v.35:Abstract p.363.
Superior Efficacy Observed in Entomopathogenic Nematodes Applied in Infected-Host Cadavers Compared with Application in Aqueous Suspension - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E., Tedders, W.L., Son, Y. 2003. Superior efficacy observed in entomopathogenic nematodes applied in infected-host cadavers compared with application in aqueous suspension. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 83:270-272.
Entomopathogenic Nematode Production - (Abstract Only)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2003. Entomopathogenic nematode production. Society for Invertebrate Pathology Annual Meeting. p.37. Abstract.
Impact of An Endemic Entomopathogenic Fungus on Lady Beetles in Pecan Orchards - (Proceedings)
Cottrell, T.E., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2003. Impact of an endemic entomopathogenic fungus on lady beetles in pecan orchards. Southeastern Pecan Growers Meeting Proceedings. v. 96:53-60.
The Beneficial Insect-Killing Fungus, Beauveria Bassiana, Can Overcome Effects of Fungicide Sprays - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Reilly, C.C., Hotchkiss, M.W., Wood, B.W. 2003. The beneficial insect-killing fungus, beauveria bassiana, can overcome effects of fungicide sprays. Pecan Grower. 14(4):24-27.
Entomopathogenic Nematodes - (Other)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2004. Entomopathogenic nematodes. Encyclopedia of Entomology. p.781-784.
Update on Research Toward Microbial Control of the Pecan Weevil - (Proceedings)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Gardner, W., Reilly, C.C., Hotchkiss, M.W., Wood, B.W. 2003. Update on research toward microbial control of the pecan weevil. Southeastern Pecan Growers Meeting Proceedings. 96:103-108
Comparison of Beneficial Traits among Strains of the Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema Carpocapsae, for Control of Curculio Caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Stuart, R., Mccoy, C.W. 2003. Comparison of beneficial traits among strains of the entomopathogenic nematode, steinernema carpocapsae, for control of curculio caryae (coleoptera: curculionidae). Biological Control. 28:129-136.
Impact of Host Cadaver on Survival and Infectivity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) under Desiccating Conditions - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PEREZ, E.E., LEWIS, E.E., SHAPIRO ILAN, D.I. IMPACT OF HOST CADAVER ON SURVIVAL AND INFECTIVITY OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES (RHABDITIDA: STEINERNEMATIDAE AND HETERORHABDITIDAE) UNDER DESICCATING CONDITIONS. JOURNAL OF INVERTEBRATE PATHOLOGY. 2003. v.82. p.111-118.
The Potential for Enhanced Fungicide Resistance in Beauveria Bassiana Through Strain Discovery and Artificial Selection - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
SHAPIRO ILAN, D.I., REILLY, C.C., HOTCHKISS, M.W., WOOD, B.W. THE POTENTIAL FOR ENHANCED FUNGICIDE RESISTANCE IN BEAUVERIA BASSIANA THROUGH STRAIN DISCOVERY AND ARTIFICIAL SELECTION. JOURNAL OF INVERTEBRATE PATHOLOGY. 2002. v.81. p.86-93.
Survey of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Fungi Endemic to Pecan Orchards Ofthe Southeastern Us and Their Virulence to the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
SHAPIRO ILAN, D.I., GARDNER, W.A., FUXA, J.R., WOOD, B.W., NGUYEN, K.B., ADAMS, B.J., HUMBER, R.A., HALL, M.J. SURVEY OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES AND FUNGI ENDEMIC TO PECAN ORCHARDS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN US AND THEIR VIRULENCE TO THE PECAN WEEVIL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE). ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY. 2003. v.34. p.187-195.
Host Cadavers Protect Entomopathogenic Nematodes During Freezing - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEWIS, E.E., SHAPIRO ILAN, D.I. HOST CADAVERS PROTECT ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES DURING FREEZING. JOURNAL OF INVERTEBRATE PATHOLOGY. 2003. v.81. p.25-32.
Optimization of Inoculation for in Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
SHAPIRO ILAN, D.I., BROWN, I., TEDDERS, L.W., GAUGLER, R. OPTIMIZATION OF INOCULATION FOR IN VIVO PRODUCTION OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES. Journal of Nematology. 2002. v.34. p.343-350.
Development of Entomopathogenic Nematodes As a Management Tactic for Citrus Root Weevils in Florida - (Proceedings)
Mccoy, C.W., Duncan, L.W., Stuart, R.J., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2002. Development of entomopathogenic nematodes as a management tactic for citrus root weevils in florida. Invertebrate Pathology International Colloquium Proceedings.
Microbial Control of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio Caryae, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2003. Microbial control of the pecan weevil, curculio caryae, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Southwestern Entomologist Supplement. p.100-114.
Susceptibility of the Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus Nenuphar, to Entomopathogenic Nematodes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
SHAPIRO ILAN, D.I., MIZELL, R.F., CAMPBELL, J.F. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE PLUM CURCULIO, CONOTRACHELUS NENUPHAR, TO ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES. JOURNAL OF NEMATOLOGY. 2002. v.34. p.246-249.
Microbial Control Research for Suppression of the Pecan Weevil - (Proceedings)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gardner, W.A., Fuxa, J.R., Wood, B.W., Cottrell, T.E., Nguyen, K.B., Adams, B.J., Humber, R.A., Hall, M.J. 2002. Microbial control research for suppression of the pecan weevil. Pecan Western Conference Proceedings. p.2-15.
A Survey for Insect-Killing Nematodes and Fungi Endemic to Pecan Orchards of the Southeastern U.S. and Their Virulence to the Pecan Weevil - (Trade Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gardner, W.A., Fuxa, J.R., Wood, B.W., Nguyen, K.B., Adams, B.J., Humber, R.A., Hall, M.J. 2002. A survey for insect-killing nematodes and fungi endemic to pecan orchards of the southeastern u.s. and their virulence to the pecan weevil. Pecan Grower. v.13(3). p.6-8.
Automated Technology for in Vivo Mass Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gaugler, R., Brown, I., Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Atwa, A. 2002. Automated technology for in vivo mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes. Bological Control. v.24. p.199-206.
Production Technology for Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Their Bacterial Symbionts - (Abstract Only) - (24-Nov-01)
Development Rates in Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Infected Hosts Versus Aqueous Suspension - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEWIS, E.E., SHAPIRO ILAN, D.I., MCCOY, D.W. DEVELOPMENT RATES IN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES: INFECTED HOSTS VERSUS AQUEOUS SUSPENSION. JOURNAL OF NEMATOLOGY. 2002. Journal of Nematology. v.34. p.340-342.
Production Technology for Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Their Bacterial Symbionts - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Gaugler, R. 2002. Production technology for entomopathogenic nematodes and their bacterial symbionts. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. v.28. p.137-146.
Formulated Arthropod Cadavers for Pest Suppression - (Patent Application)
U.S. Patent 6,524,601 B1, February 25, 2003.
Formulation of Entomopathogenic Nematode-Infected-Cadavers - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (24-Apr-01)
Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Pecan Weevil, Curculio Caryae (Horn), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adults in the Laboratory - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2001. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to pecan weevil adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Entomological Science. v.36. p.325-328.
Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Pecan Weevil Larvae, Curculio Caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the Laboratory - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2001. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to pecan weevil larvae, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the laboratory. Journal of Economic Entomology. v.94. p.7-13.
Nitrogen Partitioning in Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora-Infected Hosts and the Effects of Nitrogen on Attraction/repulsion - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E., Paramasivam, S., Mccoy, C.W. 2000. Nitrogen partitioning in Heterorhabditis bacteriophora-infected hosts and the effects of nitrogen on attraction/repulsion. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. v.76. p.43-48.
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