Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Psocid ID: Introduction
headline bar
psocid icon  Psocid ID:   Introduction | Picture Key           (G. Opit, J. Throne, and K. Friesen)

STORED-PRODUCT PSOCID IDENTIFICATION WEBSITE
(George Opit, James Throne, and Kenlee Friesen)


Over the last decade, psocids have emerged worldwide as serious stored-product pests. Most psocid pests of stored products are in the genus Liposcelis (Liposcelididae). Psocid species known to infest grain in North America (Sinha 1988, Mockford 1993, Lienhard and Smithers 2002) are Lepinotus reticulatus, Liposcelis bostrychophila, Liposcelis brunnea, Liposcelis corrodens, Liposcelis decolor, Liposcelis entomophila, Liposcelis paeta, and Liposcelis rugosa; all except Liposcelis rugosa have been reported in the United States. It is common knowledge that effective pest management begins with proper pest identification. In the case of psocids, which are tiny and infestations usually comprise multiple species, identification is not straightforward. Therefore, the goal of this website is to facilitate identification of stored-product psocids and to provide information on psocid biology and control.

The identification of stored-product psocids presented is based on the infra-generic classification of Badonnel where a given species is placed in a section, group, and subgroup based on morphological characteristics; the descriptions of various morphological characters presented in this website are based on Mockford (1993). The psocids featured here are those that have, to date, been found associated with grain storages and grain processing facilities in the U.S. by our research group.

Links
  • Picture Key
  • Genus Lepinotus
  • Psocid fact sheet
  • Our Psocid Publications:
  • Athanassiou, C.G., F.H. Arthur, N.G. Kavallieratos, and J.E. Throne. 2011. Efficacy of pyriproxyfen for control of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera) on concrete surfaces. Journal of Economic Entomology 104: 1765-1769.
  • Athanassiou, C.G., F.H. Arthur, and J.E. Throne. 2010. Efficacy of methoprene for control of five species of psocids (Psocoptera) on wheat, rice, and maize. Journal of Food Protection 73: 2244-2249.
  • Athanassiou, C.G., G.P. Opit, and J.E. Throne. 2010. Influence of commodity type, percentage of cracked kernels, and wheat class on population growth of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 103: 985-990.
  • Opit, G.P., J.E. Throne, and M.E. Payton. 2010. Reproductive parameters of the parthenogenetic psocid Lepinotus reticulatus (Psocoptera: Trogiidae) at constant temperatures. Environmental Entomology 39: 1004-1011.
  • Athanassiou, C.G., F.H. Arthur, G.P. Opit, and J.E. Throne. 2009. Insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth against three species of stored-product psocids on maize, rice, and wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 1673-1680.
  • Athanassiou, C.G., F.H. Arthur, and J.E. Throne. 2009. Efficacy of grain protectants against four psocid species on maize, rice and wheat. Pest Management Science 65: 1140-1146.
  • Opit, G.P., and J.E. Throne. 2009. Population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis brunnea (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities. Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 1360-1368.
  • Opit, G.P., J.E. Throne, and P.W. Flinn. 2009a. Sampling plans for the psocids Liposcelis entomophila and Liposcelis decolor (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) in steel bins containing wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 1714-1722.
  • Opit, G.P., J.E. Throne, and P.W. Flinn. 2009b. Evaluation of five sampling methods for the psocids Liposcelis entomophila and L. decolor (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) in steel bins containing wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 1377-1382.
  • Opit, G.P., J.E. Throne, and P.W. Flinn. 2009c. Temporospatial distribution of the psocids Liposcelis entomophila and L. decolor (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) in steel bins containing wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 1369-1376.
  • Guedes, R.N.C., J.F. Campbell, F.H. Arthur, G.P. Opit, K.Y. Zhu, and J.E. Throne. 2008. Acute lethal and behavioral sublethal responses of two stored-product psocids to surface insecticides. Pest Management Science 64: 1314-1322.
  • Guedes, R.N.C., K.Y. Zhu, G.P. Opit, and J.E. Throne. 2008. Differential heat shock tolerance and expression of heat-inducible proteins in two stored-product psocids. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 1974-1982.
  • Opit, G.P. and J.E. Throne. 2008a. Effects of diet on population growth of the psocids Lepinotus reticulatus and Liposcelis entomophila. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 616-622.
  • Opit, G.P. and J.E. Throne. 2008b. Population growth and development of the psocid Lepinotus reticulatus at constant temperatures and relative humidities. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 605-615.
  • Literature cited
  • Lienhard, C., and C. N. Smithers. 2002. Psocoptera world catalogue & bibliography. Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Genève, Switzerland.
  • Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera. Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., Gainesville, FL.
  • Sinha, R. N. 1988. Population dynamics of psocoptera in farm-stored grain and oilseed. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66: 2618-2627.

  • Last Modified: 9/24/2013