First Report of Pin and root lesion nematodes impacting dry pea and lentil production in the Pacific Northwest
Pratylenchus neglectus, P. thornei, and Paratylenchus hamatus Nematodes Causing Yield Reduction to Dryland Peas and Lentils in Idaho
E. Riga, Washington State University, IAREC, 24106 N. Bunn Road, Prosser 99350; L. D. Porter and H. Mojtahedi, USDA-ARS, 24106 N. Bunn Rd., Prosser, WA; and D. Erickson, George F. Brocke and Sons Inc, Kendrick, ID
In June 2006, stunted and chlorotic plants were observed in large patches in two 40.5-ha fields of dryland peas (Pisum sativum) in Latah County, Idaho, which resulted in 90 and 75% crop loss. In the same region, a 121.4-ha field of dryland lentils (Lens culinaris) also had plants showing poor growth, wilting, and yellowing in large patches, which resulted in 40% crop loss. Two species of lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei) and one species of pin nematode (Paratylenchus hamatus) were extracted from rhizosphere soil and the roots of symptomatic plants from these fields. In a subsequent survey of seven dryland pea fields, under cv. Columbian, in Latah and Nez Perce counties and one dryland pea field, under cv. Small Sieve, in Latah County, plant samples had means of 551 and 2,178 mixed species of lesion nematodes per gram of dry root, respectively. Plant samples from 12 lentil fields in Latah County, six planted with cv. Red Chief and six with cv. Pardina, had means of 279 and 987 mixed species of lesion nematodes per gram of dry root, respectively. Soil samples from the same fields had a mean of 628 and 671 pin nematodes, Paratylenchus hamatus, per 250 cm3 soil for Red Chief and Pardina, respectively. Lentils cv. Pardina and peas cv. Columbian were planted separately in six pots, five seeds per pot containing 250 g of infested soil brought from the field to the greenhouse. Fumigated sandy loam soil was used as control. These assays were repeated three times. In addition, peas and lentils were planted to pots infested singly with each of the three nematode species. For this assay, nematodes were extracted from field soil, surface sterilized, and used to infest 250 g of fumigated sandy loam soil at two nematodes per gram of soil. Six plants per nematode species and an uninoculated control were used in the greenhouse assays, which were repeated three times. Nematodes in all of the assays reduced plant growth in comparison with controls; an average of 50 to 70% reduction in plant height was noted. The lesion nematode populations increased in all pots. The greenhouse assays verified the negative impact of these nematodes on growth of dryland peas cvs. Columbian and Small Sieve and lentils cvs. Red Chief and Pardina. P. neglectus, P. thornei, and Paratylenchus spp. previously have been reported from the semi-arid Pacific Northwest (1). However, to our knowledge, this is the first report attributing plant growth and yield reduction of certain cultivars of lentils and peas to these two species of lesion nematodes and pin nematodes, identified to species level as Paratylenchus hamatus.
Reference: (1) R. W. Smiley et al. J. Nematol. 36:54, 2004.