1860 and before
Hog cholera first reported in the U.S. (more)
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia first introduced into the U.S.
Farmers made up 58 percent of the labor force.
Civil War began.
Proved that Phytophthora infestans caused Irish
Morrill Land-Grant College Act authorized public land grants
for colleges to teach agriculture and mechanic arts.
First man-made plastic invented.
First USDA research bulletin issued,
on sugar content of several varieties of grapes and their suitability for
Homestead Act passed.
Library of the USDA established.
First monthly crop report published by USDA.
Dry farming, as type of commercial agriculture, began in
Deficiency Act provided first statutory provision for
employment of women.
Slavery abolished by 13th amendment to the Constitution.
Gregor Mendel showed that traits pass from parents to offspring, the foundation
of modern genetics.
Patrons of Husbandry, later known as the
National Grange, organized by USDA
employee. This was the first general farmers organization to permit women
equality of membership and privilege.
First patent issued for barbed-wire fencing.
Division of Botany created to preserve herbarium material collected in
government expeditions. (more)
Refrigerator railroad car patented.
USDA began research on animal
First transcontinental railroad completed.
Gypsy moth accidentally brought into the U.S. from France;
established in Medford, MA. (more)
Suez Canal opened.
First practical spring-toothed harrow patented; eliminated
breaking teeth on roots and stones.
Dmitry Mendeleyev published the organizational groundwork
for the periodic table of elements.
First analysis of food published in
the U.S., for corn. (more)