Cataloguing Natural Pesticides' Modes of Action
By Luis Pons
November 17, 2004
Precisely how genes in fungi and
weeds respond to natural pesticides, and cataloguing these responses, is the
focus of cutting-edge studies by Agricultural Research Service scientists in
O. Duke, molecular biologist Scott Baerson and plant molecular geneticist
Zhiqiang Pan at the ARS
Products Utilization Research Unit are using gene microarray technology to
study how natural fungicides and herbicides affect a genetic process called
Most genes are expressed as proteins. Transcription is the first of two
stages most genes undergo during this process. During transcription, genetic
information from DNA is transferred to messenger RNA (mRNA). The second step,
in which mRNA data is transferred to the protein, is called translation.
The researchers are currently cataloguing the effects, called "modes of
action" or MOAs, of natural fungicides and herbicides on genes. This
information will be gathered in a gene transcription library for fungicides. A
similar library for herbicides will eventually be assembled, according to Duke.
Over time, plants and fungi have developed resistance to many agricultural
pesticides, creating a need for the discovery of biologically based compounds,
or biocides, with new modes of action.
Organisms treated with pesticides respond by altering the transcription of
their genes, and different pesticides cause different transcription patterns.
The results are "transcription fingerprints" that can be documented
According to Duke, libraries of these "fingerprints" will make it
possible to screen new biocides whose MOAs are unknown, to see if their
fingerprints are similar to those of other known MOAs and thus warrant further
testing. Also, the approach can help researchers identify previously unknown
targets of novel biocides, based on which genes are affected by the compound.
DNA microarray technology helps to identify MOAs because it simultaneously
provides transcription data for every gene in an organism.
Any libraries developed will be publicly available once they are considered
reliable. But Duke stressed that much work still needs to be done.
ARS is the U.S. Department of
Agriculture's chief scientific research agency.