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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Phenolics:title page/contents

Survey of Phenolic Compounds Produced in Citrus

Mark Berhow, Brent Tisserat, Katherine Kanes, and Carl Vandercook *

 

United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
Technical Bulletin Number 1856
December 1998

 

Contents

Abstract
[Readme]
Abbreviations
Introduction
Experimental methods
Phenolic compounds studied
Plant materials analyzed
Sample preparation for phenolic analysis
High-performance liquid chromatography analysis
General phenolic analysis
Specific flavonoid peak assignments and quantification procedures
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
Identification of flavonoid–4'–glucosides by beta–glucosidase digestion
Phenolic patterns in citrus
Flavonoid composition of citrus
Summary
Tables
Illustrations
Appendixes
References

Tables

Table 1. HPLC peaks in chromatograms of extracts from Citrus and related species at 285 nm
Table 2. Percentage and total concentrations of phenolics in Citrus and related species
Table 3. Flavanone composition in Citrus and its near relatives
Table 4. Flavone composition in Citrus and its near relatives
Table 5. Comparison of similar (shared) and dissimilar (unique) peaks observed at 285 nm (to those observed at 325 nm) in various Citrus species and cultivars
Table 6. Comparison of similar (shared) and dissimilar (unique) peaks observed at 325 nm (to those observed at 285 nm) in various Citrus species and cultivars
Table 7. Flavonoid contents of the juice from diploid and tetraploid grapefruit cultivars
Table 8. Flavonoids in leaves from several grapefruit cultivars

Illustrations

Figure 1. Typical HPLC flavonoid analysis trace at 285 nm depicting a methanol:dimethylsulfoxide extract of grapefruit leaves
Figure 2. Structure and typical spectra of phenolic compounds found in citrus
Figure 3. Biosynthetic pathways yielding the phenolic classes analyzed in this survey
Figure 4. Structure of flavanone, flavone, and flavonol compounds examined in this survey
Figure 5. Chromatographic comparisons of flavonoid patterns of albedo extracts of various Citrus species at 285 nm and 325 nm detection wavelengths
Figure 6. Relationship between Citrus relatives and phenolic compounds

Appendixes

Appendix 1. Rutaceae members' geographic and genetic origin
Appendix 2. Taxonomic literature review of flavonoids found in citrus


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Agricultural Research Service

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Original posting: April 1, 1999.

Last Modified: 2/6/2002