Puccinia substriata Ell. & Barth. var. indica
Ramachar & Cumm.
Symptoms: On pearl millet: small, reddish brown to reddish
orange, round to elliptical uredinia develop mainly on foliage.
As severity of infection increases, leaf tissue will wilt and
become necrotic from the leaf apex to base. In infection sites
developing late in the season, uredinia are replaced by telia,
which are black, elliptical, and subepidermal.
Pathogen and disease characteristics: P. substriata
var. indica is a macrocyclic rust with the uredinial, telial,
and basidial stages formed on pearl millet. Urediniospores are
generally elliptical, measuring 35 × 25 µm, with four
equatorial germpores. Spores have yellowish brown walls and are
sparely echinulate, more predominantly near the apex. Teliospores
are generally two celled, although this can vary. Dark brown,
club-shaped spores measure 49 × 21 µm, and are borne
on a pedicel. The spermagonial and aecial stages develop on the
alternate Solanum hosts.
Uredinial sori may occasionally be parasitized by Darluca
filum (Biv.), which forms pycnidia with two-celled conidia
(Ramakrishnan and Narasimhalu 1941).
Host range: Uredinial hosts: Pearl millet, Panicum
antidotale, P. maximum, Pennisetum orientale,
P. violaceum. Also Pennisetum polystachyon (Ramakrishnan and Sundaram 1956).
Aecial hosts: Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), S.
torvum Sw., S. xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl., S.
anguivi Lam., S. ferox L., S. incanum L., S.
linnaeanum Hepper & P. Jaeger, S. gilo Raddi, S.
nodiflorum Jacq., S. rostratum Dunal (Wilson
et al. 1996b), S. melongena var. insanum Prain,
and S. pubescens Willd. (Ramakrishnan
and Sundaram 1956). Euphorbia pulcherimma Willd. (Rao et al. 1986) has also been reported
as an aecial host, but the report is subject to some question.
Geographic distribution: United States; also Brazil
(C.T. Hash, personal communication, 1999).
Asia: India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan.
Africa: Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast,
Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Also
Burkina Faso (S.B. King, personal communication, 1995).
Infection of the aecial host has been reported in Brazil (Figueiredo et al. 1971), India (Dalela
and Mathur 1970), and the United States (Wilson
and Williamson 1997).
Nomenclature discrepancies: Synonyms: Puccinia
penniseti Zimm., Puccinia substriata Ell. & Barth.
var. penicillariae (Speg.) Stat.
Other rust pathogens reported on pearl millet: Puccinia
stenotaphri Cummins (Sathe 1969)
[probably a synonym; the description of the fungus is similar
to that in Wells et al. (1973)], Puccinia
substriata Ell. & Barth. var. decrospora (Eboh
Seed transmission: Not known to occur.
Primary citation: Singh and
Department of Agriculture
The material on this page is in the public
Original posting: June 5, 1999.