Symptoms: Infection of seedlings results in 1- to 3-mm long coalescing lesions with extensive necrosis (Wilson and Hanna 1992).
Pathogen and disease characteristics: Conidia are 20-70 × 10-16 µm, straight, cylindrical to clavate, and rounded at the ends; golden brown to dark brown; and thick-walled, with 2 to 7 (commonly 3 or 4) septae.
Host range: Pearl millet, Agrostis, Anthoxanthum, Avena, Cynodon, Dactylis, Eragrostis, Festuca, Hordeum, Lolium, Paspalum, Phleum, and Triticum. Also isolated from Iris, Leucospermum, Pinus, and Pseudotsuga.
Geographic distribution: Australia, Europe, India, New Zealand, North America, South Africa.
Nomenclature discrepancies: Synonyms or similar pathogens: Helminthosporium dematioideum Bubak & Wroblewski, Helminthosporium tetramera McKinney (Yadav et al. 1975).
Seed transmission: Seedborne.
Primary citation: Sivanesan 1990b.
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Original posting: June 5, 1999.