Detailed infection studies were conducted by Wilson et al. (1945) and Neill and Hyde (1939). Infections occurred at the base of the stigma in ovaries within 1 week of fertilization (Wilson et al. 1945). Hyphae invaded the inner epidermis, nucellus, and embryo sac. Within 9 days, conidia were produced between inner epidermis and outer integument and appeared on the surface. The endosperm and embryo filled with hyphae. The resulting grains were as long as healthy seeds but thinner. Hyphae invaded the embryo and endosperm when infections occurred after the embryo was differentiated into scutellum, plumule, radicle, and endosperm.
Neill and Hyde (1939) observed greater ramification and degradation of endosperm and embryonic tissues than Wilson et al. (1945), who observed extensive invasion of both embryonic and endosperm tissues. Wilson et al. (1945) observed hyphal penetration through the epithelial and aleurone layers, while Neill and Hyde (1939) reported that G. temulenta did not appear to penetrate cells of the aleurone layer. Systemic infections beyond the seed were not observed (Cunningham 1940, 1941; Neill and Hyde 1942; Wilson et al. 1945).
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Original posting: October 2001.