...From the pages of Agricultural Research magazine
TAMEing Melaleuca With IPM
Aerial herbicide applications
are often used by land
management agencies to control
invasive melaleuca trees on
large, remote areas of the
Everglades. If not controlled,
the melaleuca trees in the
foreground will soon invade
the sawgrass-dominated area
in the background, which is
more representative of the
way the Everglades looks
before melaleuca invasion.
Melaleuca is an exotic invasive plant species that was introduced into
South Florida in the late 19th century. The tree was used extensively
as an ornamental plant and as a soil stabilizer near lakes and canals.
At that time, no one guessed that it would one day displace native plants
and animals, dry up wetlands, and create a fire hazard.
Now, over a century later, melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) is seen as one of the Florida Everglades ecosystem's worst enemies, causing as much as $168 million in environmental losses every year and taking over 14 to 15 acres a day. During the dry season in South Florida, huge forest firesaggravated by the high oil content of melaleuca leavesscorch thousands of acres of natural areas and encroach on developed ones, endangering lives, homes, and businesses.
Melaleuca quinquenervia, also
known as the "paperback
tree," forms dense forests
that can reach heights of over
In 1990, the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) began
an aggressive campaign to lower melaleuca populations across South Florida.
As a result, melaleuca acreage on public lands has decreased dramatically.
But the 60- to 100-foot-tall trees continue to spread at such a high
rate on private property that there has been little decrease in overall
"That's because controlling melaleuca is tricky," says Cressida Silvers, an entomologist with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Invasive Plant Research Laboratory (IPRL) in Fort Lauderdale. "The high volume of seeds held in the tree's canopy helps this species to disperse and establish." Any stress to the trees, such as fire, cutting, or spraying, causes millions of little seeds to fall from the canopy and quickly germinate. This creates what looks like "a carpet of tiny seedlings," according to Silvers.
Seven years after its Florida
release, the melaleuca leaf
weevil (Oxyops vitiosa) has
significantly reduced melaleuca
flowering and growth.
Traditional controls, such as spraying the trees with herbicide or cutting them down and applying herbicide to the remaining stumps, were effective, but a comprehensive approach was needed to increase the long-term efficacy of management efforts.
In 2001, ARS created The Areawide Management and Evaluation of Melaleuca
(TAME Melaleuca) project. Paul Pratt, an entomologist at IPRL, is the
project's director. Silvers serves as coordinator, and John Scoles is
the writer for the project's publications. The purpose of the project
is to promote areawide melaleuca management on both public and private
lands and to demonstrate effective integration of biological control
into current management strategies.
IPRL has a long history of researching, developing, and evaluating the effectiveness of biological control agents, especially their use in integrated pest management (IPM).
ARS entomologists Paul Pratt
(left) and Cressida Silvers
(center) discuss melaleuca
treatments used at the Prairie
Pines demonstration site, one
of the largest in the The
Areawide Management and Evaluation
of Melaleuca (TAME Melaleuca)
project, with Anik Smith, Lee
County land manager.
IPM involves strategic use of a combination of methods to achieve long-term results. Extensive knowledge of melaleuca's life cycle drives the selection of biological agents and application of control treatments that reduce existing infestations and prevent new ones, while minimizing risks to nontarget organisms.
A Trio of Biocontrols
By February 2005, the TAME Melaleuca project will have several demonstration
sites across southern Florida.
"One of the project's major goals is to show land managers and homeowners how to control melaleuca," says Amy Ferriter, a team leader for the project and a SFWMD scientist. "We hope our demonstration sites will get the word out that we're here to help."
Entomologist Greg Wheeler and
technician Kelly Macdonald
collect emissions from melaleuca
plants in search of compounds
that may cue the melaleuca
leaf weevil to feed and lay eggs.
When the sites are up and running, public and private landowners will
be able to see firsthand how biological control works in conjunction
with various traditional control methods.
"There is no way to effectively control melaleuca with just one
treatment," says Silvers. "You need a combination of treatment
methodsnot just herbicide, not just mechanical, not just biological
control. Limiting yourself to just one treatment type might eventually
cause more harm than good."
Two insect biological control agents are currently at work on melaleuca, and a third is about to be released.
In a biological control impact
study, research leader Ted
Center climbs up to inspect a
melaleuca tree that is protected
from biocontrol agents with
insecticides, while entomologist
Cressida Silvers checks one that
was planted at the same time
and inoculated with biocontrol
agents. Note that the biocontrol-
inoculated tree is much smaller.
The first biological control agentthe melaleuca leaf weevil,
Oxyops vitiosawas released in 1997. At that time, more
than 8,000 weevils were distributed at 13 melaleuca-infested locations
in South Florida. Today, millions of the quarter-inch-long weevils are
eating the young leaves of melaleuca trees. This little workhorse of
a critter is a natural enemy of melaleuca in Australiahome to
"Feeding by the melaleuca weevil results in an 80-percent decrease in the tree's ability to reproduce," says Pratt. "But the weevil matures underground and has not flourished in areas that are permanently flooded."
Melaleuca's compound flowers
give rise to clusters of
seed capsules. Each capsule
contains 200 to 300 tiny
seeds that release when
the tree is stressed.
ARS scientists and colleagues have found great success with the second
biological control agent, the aphid-like psyllid Boreioglycaspis
melaleucae. This tiny insect is another natural enemy of melaleuca
from Australia, and both adults and young psyllids feed on the tree's
sap. Young seedlings are the most vulnerable to the psyllids' attack,
but the insects can also stunt growth of bigger trees and reduce flowering
and seed production.
To date, some 350,000 psyllids have been released at a variety of South Florida locations. The psyllids' presence there is the result of more than 5 years of research by IPRL scientists in cooperation with the Australian Biological Control Laboratory in Indooroopilly, Australia, near Brisbane, and their colleagues with Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization.
In areas where melaleuca is
interspersed with native trees,
mechanical removal with the
brontosaurus is an option.
The device, a set of steel
blades, is mounted onto a
normal excavator in place
of the excavator's scoop.
The brontosaurus blades grind
the trees into mulch, starting
from the tops of the trees
down to the soil.
Biological control agent number three is the melaleuca bud gall fly, Fergusonina turneri, which may prove effective in attacking melaleuca flower and leaf buds but in an entirely different way. The female gall fly lays her eggs in young buds, causing the plant to form galls. The gall fly larvae feed on this gall material. Because the plant must expend resources to form the galls, it devotes fewer resources to producing flower and leaf buds.
Adding the New to the Old
Currently, applying herbicide is the most common method used to control melaleuca in South Florida. Mechanical control is popular and effective but can be cost prohibitive and may damage environmentally sensitive areas.
In Broward County, environmental
scientist Amy Ferriter of the
South Florida Water Management
District, and entomologist
Cressida Silvers inspect
melaleuca mulch left over from
mechanical grinding. The mulch
can vary from 12 to 24 inches
in depth and may inhibit
emergence of melaleuca seedlings.
Biological control agents have been proven to be a successful complement
to these and other melaleuca treatment methods and are, in fact, a crucial
part of the IPM process. A major function of TAME Melaleuca is not only
making land managers and homeowners aware of the uses of IPM, but also
instructing them on how to implement an effective program from start
One of the more popular methods of combining control treatments is what is known in the industry as "hack and squirt." Manual laborers use machetes to cut into the bark of melaleuca trees to where the living, nutrient-conducting tissue is located, and then they apply herbicide to the exposed area. A shower of seeds inevitably falls from the canopy, but biological control agents will feed on and suppress any new seedlings. Land managers can significantly reduce costs and additional effort that would have been required for follow-up treatments of the seedlings.
Plant pathologist Min Rayamajhi
studies interactions between
the melaleuca leaf weevil
(Oxyops vitiosa) and the
melaleuca rust (Puccinia psidii).
Herbicide is also sprayed from aircraft over large areas where melaleuca
is dense or hard to reach by other means. Aerial applications kill standing
melaleuca, but after the treated trees release their seeds, the emerging
seedlings require treatment. Because biocontrol populations are self-perpetuating,
they are an ideal tool for locations that are difficult to reach.
In some cases, mechanical treatment might be the right approach for
control. Which type to use depends on the land manager's budget, tree
densities, land size, and conditions.
The biggest of them is the brontosaurus, a monster of a machine that chips a standing tree from the top down to the ground using a grinder attached to the machine's head. All that's left of the once-gigantic tree is mulch that contains melaleuca seedlingswhich may soon sprout. But biological control then attacks the new growth.
Entomologists Paul Pratt
(right, of ARS) and William
Overholt (of the University
of Florida) study colonies
of melaleuca psyllid
(Boreioglycaspis melaleucae) on
a melaleuca sapling.
The feller buncher is a smaller machine, with pinchers and a saw at
the end. It saws off the tree at the trunk, applies herbicide to the
stump, takes multiple trees at a time with its pinchers, carriers them
like a flower bunch, and stacks them in piles. Piling up the melaleuca
trees limits the area where seeds will fall, making the inevitable carpet
of seedlings smaller and more manageable.
The Barko chipper is very similar to a bulldozer, except that it has
a grinder. The machine pushes the tree down, and then the grinder mulches
it. Then the biological controls can get to work.
The TAME Melaleuca team is still collecting and analyzing data on the effectiveness of the melaleuca management strategies demonstrated and will publicize the results on the project's website (http://tame.ifas.ufl.edu), in handbooks and brochures, and at outreach events after the demonstration sites open next year across South Florida. The website will also have contact information for private landowners interested in applying the technology. Project staff members will supply biological control agents to those interested in participating in TAME Melaleuca.
The melaleuca psyllid
first released in Florida
in 2002, can kill small
seedlings, stunt new vegetative
growth, and accelerate aging
of mature leaves.
Site locations include the Everglades buffer strip near Fort Lauderdale,
Prairie Pines State Preserve in Lee County, Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary
in Naples, Lake Worth near West Palm Beach, and Fort Myers. The TAME
Melaleuca team picked these sites for their ability to demonstrate the
different control methods to various audiences.
Once completed, the TAME Melaleuca demonstration sites will show just
how effective biological control and integrated pest management can
be in taming melaleuca.By Alfredo
Flores, Agricultural Research Service Information Staff.
This research is part of Crop Protection and Quarantine, an ARS
National Program (#304) described on the World Wide Web at www.nps.ars.usda.gov.
Paul D. Pratt, John C. Scoles, and Cressida S. Silvers are with the USDA-ARS Invasive Plant Research Laboratory, 3205 College Ave., Fort Lauderdale, FL 33114; phone (954) 475-0541, fax (954) 476-9169.
"TAMEing Melaleuca With IPM" was published in the November 2004 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.