...From the pages of Agricultural Research magazine
ForumAn Exciting New Initiative
4 of this issue, you'll find an article detailing how Agricultural
Research Service scientists are using a 2-mile-long stretch of Little
Topashaw Creek as an on-site watershed-restoration laboratory. This
work, representative of water quality research that has been an ARS
staple throughout its first 50 years, is part of a larger project involving
much of Mississippi's Yalobusha Watershed.
The Yalobusha Watershed studiesthemselves a unit of a larger
assessment effort begun by ARS on 12 watersheds in 9 statesare
part of something even grander. They're a component of a large, years-long
effort by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), in cooperation
with other federal agencies, to conserve the nation's watersheds, soil,
and water resources. This effort is called the Conservation Effects
Assessment Project (CEAP), and it's geared toward two important objectives:
The first is optimal selection and placement of conservation practices
to achieve specific water quality goals and other environmental aims.
The other is to provide information important to assessing the economic
benefit from implementing conservation practices.
Run collaboratively by ARS and the Natural Resources Conservation Service
(NRCS), the project will assess benefits of conservation practices on
both a national scale and a watershed scale. The watershed research
will provide more detailed assessments of environmental benefits than
is possible at a national scale. It will also form a framework for evaluating
and improving the national assessment.
NRCS is leading the national assessment effort. ARS and NRCS are co-leading
the watershed assessment studies, with assistance and input from USDA's
Farm Service Agency; Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension
Service; Economic Research Service; and the Office of Risk Assessment
and Cost-Benefit Analysis, and other federal agencies.
The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (the 2002 Farm Bill)
substantially increased funding for conservation programs that protect
millions of acres from soil erosion, enhance water and air quality,
conserve agricultural water use, promote the preservation and restoration
of wetlands, and enhance wildlife habitat. It authorized federal expenditures
for conservation practices on farms and ranches at a level about 80
percent above that set by the 1996 Farm Bill.
But whether the conservation practices supported through this bill
benefit the environment is, for the most part, unknown. That's because
their impact has not been previously measured and reported at the national
and watershed level.
This is where CEAP will help. Determining environmental effects and
benefits of these conservation practices will allow the farming community,
program managers, and policymakers to implement and modify existing
programs and better select and prioritize conservation practices for
watersheds and larger river basins. This will help government agencies
meet goals set by Congress and satisfy the expectations of the public.
CEAP's watershed-assessment component, which includes the 12 ARS watersheds,
will complement and validate this national appraisal. It will accomplish
this by focusing on conservation buffers, irrigation, and management
of nutrients, pests, tillage, and drainage. It will also focus on wildlife
establishment and wetland protection and restoration.
Through CEAP, USDA will develop databases on the more prominent conservation
practices as well as on budgetary concerns, risks, and uncertainties
of achieving water quality-improvement goals and other environmental
benefits. ARS also wants to develop regionalized models, databases,
and modeling scenarios for future assessments and expand watershed-scale
research on conservation practices for different soils, climates, topographies,
and land uses.
Initially, ARS's focus in CEAP will be on developing scientifically
valid data about conservation practices' potential to benefit water
and soil quality. ARS and NRCS then plan to address the effects of land
uses such as irrigated crop production, concentrated animal-feeding
operations, grazing, and agroforestry. Long-term goals will extend beyond
5 years and will include a preliminary examination of how these conservation
efforts affect air quality and wildlife habitat.
ARS's involvement in CEAP represents just part of a larger push within the agency to ensure productive watersheds that will suffer fewer problems from soil erosion and poor water quality and to ensure that future generations will enjoy the benefits of sound watershed management practices.
Allen R. Dedrick
"Forum" was published in the May 2004 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.