Inside a biosafety research laboratory at Fort Detrick, Maryland, ARS
scientists have closely monitored the reactions of saplings of several
common oak species, including white oak, Northern red oak, chestnut
oak, cherrybark oak, and coast live oak.
Earlier, the scientistsbased at the ARS Foreign Disease-Weed
Science Research Unithad made small cuts on the saplings' stems.
Then they'd packed the wounds with plugs of gel-like agar containing
Phytophthora ramorumthe microbe responsible for sudden
oak death. This disease has blighted California oak woodlands and poses
a threat to other woody plants as well, including camellias and rhododendrons.
Two months after inoculating the young trees, telltale signs of infectiondark,
round lesionsappeared beneath the bark. Of the species tested,
white oaks and chestnut oaks suffered the biggest lesions, perhaps indicating
greater susceptibility. The observation, while preliminary, could help
prioritize which oak species authorities should examine first in forest
ARS studies delineating the susceptibility of these species and others
are helping not only woodland managers but also managers of wholesale
and retail nurseries and other specialists who want a clearer picture
of the potential impact of sudden oak death.
Of course, these results came from studies of saplings living within
the confines of what's referred to as a "Level 3 plant pathogen
containment facility," where climate and humidity are carefully
controlled. That means the findings may not necessarily reflect the
plants' response outdoors. Nevertheless, knowing species' relative susceptibility
provides a useful starting point.
P. ramorum can spread by microscopic spheres known as spores,
carried by wind, water, or even by soil that can become wedged into
the treads of truck, auto, or mountain-bike tires or into the grooved
soles of hikers' boots. An article beginning on page 4 of this issue
tells more about the pathogen and highlights some of the sudden oak
death research under way at a trio of ARS laboratories in California,
Oregon, and, as mentioned earlier, Maryland.
There are even more investigations going on at those labs. For instance,
Pacific Northwest scientists in Corvallis, Oregon, at the ARS Horticultural
Crops Research Unit are exploring the pathogen's survival and its interactions
with other microbes living in "compost teas"the watery,
compost-derived extract from farm or home-garden compost heaps that's
sprayed on plants.
The Maryland researchers and their ARS colleagues at Salinas, California,
are delving deeply into the relatedness, called phylogeny, of Phytophthora
species. In particular, they've provided new details about the relation
of P. ramorum to P. pseudosyringae and P. nemorosa,
two relatives commonly found with P. ramorum on diseased plants.
The California researchers are with the Crop Improvement and Protection
The details that their work has revealed help trace P. ramorum's
evolution and may suggest how it might next evolve.
Another Phytophthora puzzle we hope to solve: Where in the world
did P. ramorum come from? Our Corvallis scientists are looking
for the geographic origin because knowing this could give us a better
idea of where the pathogen might go in the future. We would also be
able to compare it to samples found in the United States to determine,
perhaps, how fast the microbe is evolving.
Thanks to work by scientists elsewhere, we now have a better idea of
the structure of P. ramorum's genes. In new work scheduled to
begin this year at Davisin northern Californiawe'll search
for the P. ramorum genes responsible for sudden oak death. And
we'll discover as much as we can about them. We want to find the answers
to such questions as: What genes make the microbe so successful in attacking
some plant species? Our intent is to use this new information to develop
environmentally friendly tactics that undermine these powerful genes.
In all, ARS scientists from about half a dozen different disciplines
are dismantling P. ramorum to see how it works. The research
spans microbiology, plant pathology, molecular biology, bioinformatics
(which uses computers to analyze plant-genome data), plant physiology,
and epidemiologyamong other scientific disciplines.
You've probably heard the old saying, "Tall oaks from little acorns
grow." Today, many of our most treasured oak species are unlikely
to grow tall or stay that way for long if they're infected with P.
ramorum. Our research is helping change that grim scenario. These
wonderful trees and other delightful woody plants can help clean the
air; hold soil in place; provide food and shelter for birds and other
creatures; and make our fast-paced, high-tech world more livable.
A. Rick Bennett
ARS National Program Leader
"Forum" was published in the February
2005 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.